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Bierhorst, John ed.; Curtis, Edward S., photog. The Girl Who Married a Ghost. New York, NY: Macmillan Child Group; 1984. 113 pages. (elementary/secondary).

This collection contains nine of the 350 tales collected by photographer Edward S. Curtis (1868--1952). These tales represent sacred origin stories, ghost stories, trickster tales, and non-sacred campfire tales. The book is organized by geographic area---Plains, Northwest Coast, and California---each with a short introduction. The book is illustrated with Curtis' photographs. Curtis has been criticized for "staging" his subjects, creating culturally inaccurate portraits. Bierhorst has edited these tales into simple, easy prose.

Burland, Cottie; Revised by Marion Wood. North American Indian Mythology. Revised 1965 ed. New York, NY: Peter Bedrick Books; 1985. 144 pages. (The Library of the World's Myths and Legends). (secondary).

This is a profusely illustrated survey of American Indian mythology. The introduction discusses the origins of North American Indians with brief descriptions of traditional culture of the various geographic areas. Other sections relate traditional stories from the Inuit, Cree, Navajo, Pueblos, and peoples of the Northwest Coast, the Plains, and the Southeast. The final section briefly discusses the impact of European contact on traditional cultures. Not a useful source for information on the continuing influence of oral history and traditional literature on the lives of contemporary Indian people. Includes a list of "Chief Gods and Spirits of North America," a reading list and an index. The book is illustrated with black-and-white and color photographs and illustrations; among these are drawings of false-face masks and sand paintings--- items that are sacred to their respective cultures---and it is often considered disrespectful to publish images of this type of material culture.

Clark, Ella C. Indian Legends from the Northern Rockies. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1966. 350 pages. (Civilization of the American Indian; v. 82). (secondary).

Original sources are cited in this collection of 121 traditional stories, personal narratives, and historical traditions from thirteen tribes of the Northern Rockies. The stories are arranged by language group, each section preceded by a brief historical note on the tribes represented. This valuable, clearly written resource includes source notes, a bibliography, and an index.

Connolly, James E., comp; Adams, Andrea, illus. Why the Possum's Tail is Bare and Other North American Indian Nature Tales. Owings Mills, MD: Stemmer House; 1985. 64 pages. (upper elementary) *.

Sources are cited for these thirteen animal legends collected from eight tribes. The introduction provides a brief overview of the lifeways of the eight tribes represented, and each story is preceded by a paragraph discussing some of the characteristics of the animals and supernatural beings in the tales. The language of the stories is simple and accessible for young readers. Appealing, realistic drawings.

Gilmore, Melvin; Schellback, Louis, illus. Prairie Smoke. Re-edition of 1920 Columbia University Press ed. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press; 1987. 225 pages. (secondary).

The ethnobotanist author intended this book (first published in 1929) to be an introduction to the ecology and culture of the Plains. The major part of the book consists of traditional tales about plants, animals, and people. These are interwoven with discussions of such topics as how Indians made paints and the meaning of personal names in Plains Indian society. The American Indian "caretaker" approach to nature is contrasted with a destructive, manipulative attitude of non-Indians. Includes a bibliography and an index.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Buffalo Woman. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company; 1984. 28 pages. (elementary).

This Plains legend explains how buffalo and people are related, and the importance of the buffalo as a source of life. A young hunter marries a female buffalo in the form of a woman. When his people reject her, she returns to the Buffalo Nation with their son. The hunter follows but must pass tests to become a member of the Buffalo People. The author explains that telling these stories "had power to strengthen the bond with herds, and to encourage the herds to continue to give themselves so that the people could live." Beautifully illustrated.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Crow Chief. New York, NY: Orchard Books; 1992. 27 pages. (elementary) *.

Falling Star, the Savior, shows Plains Indian hunters how to outwit Crow, whose loud calls frightened the buffalo away, leaving the people hungry. This charming and beautifully illustrated Plains legend explains how crow's feathers turned from white to black as a reminder from the Creator to share and live together like relatives. Sources for the story are cited and an author's note describes buffalo hunting prior to the introduction of the horse.

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Carlson, Susan Johnston, illus. First Houses: Native American Homes and Sacred Structures. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1993. 147 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This is a collection of legends associated with American Indian houses and sacred structures from the temperate zone of North America. Stories about the Plains tipi, Iroquois longhouse, Navajo hogan, and a variety of other house types show how the patterns for these ancient dwellings set the pattern for homes of today. Most of the stories were collected directly from Indian storytellers and were originally published in scholarly books and journals "reduced to lifeless prose." The authors have presented the stories here "in a form that we hope conveys more of the liveliness of the original telling."

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Sturat, Edgar, illus. They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1987. 118 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book is a well-documented presentation of American Indian star stories. The first two chapters compare various legends about the Pleiades and the Big Dipper. The rest of the book is arranged by tribe or region--Southwest, Pawnee, Plains, California, Northwest Coast, Southeast. An introductory paragraph to each story provides a brief outline of the tribe's history. Where available, explanations are suggested as to how events described in the stories might relate to the seasonal movement of the stars. A bibliography provides sources (generally scholarly papers) for each story presented. The preface notes that legends reinforced behavioral standards for the people. It also explains that the stories are meant to be read aloud, since a certain quality is lost when an oral text is set down in print. Black-and-white drawings. Includes an index and a glossary with a pronunciation guide.


Ashabranner, Brent. A Strange and Distant Shore: Indians of the Great Plains in Exile. Cobblehill Books/Dutton, 1996. 54 pp. (secondary) *.

This moving and captivating story describes the violent conflicts between the Indians and the white people; the U.S. Army's forced removal of the Plains Indians onto reservations far from their homelands; and the exile of 72 chiefs and warriors, considered dangerous, to Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. At Fort Marion the prisoners expressed their despair from being separated from their home and family through drawings of their traditional life, which came to represent a new and sought after form of Indian art. When their confinement was over, some Indians returned to the reservation while others attended school, first at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia and then to the newly established Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. Illustrated with black and white photographs, some historic, and color photographs of Indian art. Contains a bibliography and index.

Bains, Rae; Baxter, Robert, illus. Indians of the Plains. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book focuses on traditional Plains Indian ceremonies and material culture---housing, clothing, decoration---while it lacks information on family life, social organization, and the sacred significance of the ceremonies. The effects of the horse, the railroad, and the extermination of the buffalo are described, but the devastation brought on by European-introduced diseases is not mentioned. Contemporary life is not covered. Text and illustrations are simplistic and stereotypical.

Boiteau, Denise; Stansfield, David. Early Peoples: A History of Canada. Markham, Ontario, Canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd.; 1988. 64 pages. (upper elementary) *.

Based on the first three programs of the Canadian television series, "Origins," which explores the history of the peoples of Canada up to 1885, this book is divided into three chapters: "A New World"; "The First Nations"; and "Lost Civilizations." Each chapter includes several units that begin with questions to consider and ends with creative research activities and discussion questions. This book clearly explains the difference between evolution and creation, and asserts that these theories do not oppose one another.

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Homes. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary).

This book describes the house types of various regions (Plains, Woodlands, Southeast, Southwest) and the factors that influenced the types of housing: climate, building materials, length of time dwelling was used, tribal customs, and lifeways. There is no discussion on contemporary housing nor the roles of the above factors for Indians today. The book contains generalizations such as: "A belief shared by all tribes was...."

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Festivals. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book gives brief descriptions of the festivals held by American Indians in the Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois, Algonquian), Southeast (Muskogee), Plains, Southwest (Pueblo), California, and Northwest Coast regions. The book uses the word "braves" and includes generalizations and stereotypes about Native peoples, such as "The Indians who lived in California did not hunt or farm. They lived entirely on acorns that were gathered from trees. But while their lives were easy and peaceful, their festivals were almost totally concerned with death."

Brown, Vinson; Shearer, Tony (Sioux), illus. Voices of Earth and Sky, the Vision Life of the Native Americans and their Culture Heroes. Harrisburg, PA: Naturegraph; 1976. 177 pages.(secondary) ?.

This book describes the author's frankly personal perspective on American Indian beliefs such as the relationship between subsistence and religion and learning to understand and reach the spirit. He states: "If we dig deep enough to find the eternal power of the spirit that is within us, we can find the strength to learn from our mistakes and finally overcome them." Chapters 5--10 deal with American Indian culture heroes. Subsequent chapters concern a Sioux youth's vision quest; the visions of Black Elk, Wishram, and Crazy Horse; and the author's personal vision quest experience. The final chapter is an imaginary conversation between Quetzalcoatl and King Arthur. Introduced along the way are such topics as Aikido-dynamic relaxation, and a discussion of the "outsider" scientific approach of anthropologists versus that of the author, who attempts to understand through personal experience. It is doubtful this personal account by a non-Indian provides reliable cultural information.

Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. New York, NY: Holt & Co.; 1991; c1970. 512 pages. (secondary) *.

The Western tribes' displacement from their lands, confinement to reservations, and the consequent destruction of traditional culture are carefully and compassionately recounted in this compelling and highly readable history (1860--1890). Unlike most other histories covering this topic, the book presents the events as experienced by the victims. The main sources for the history are official records of U.S.-Indian treaty councils and meetings. The reasonableness and humanity expressed by the American Indian spokesmen during these encounters, as recounted here, do much to counter the stereotype of "ignorant" or "savage" Indians, and the courageous spirit they reveal evokes admiration and respect. Chapters are arranged chronologically, each devoted to a particular tribe or campaign. The final chapter describes the growth and significance of the Ghost Dance movement and the Battle of Wounded Knee. A map shows the location and dates of the main actions. Sources are cited in the extensive notes. Archival photographs, bibliography and index are included.

Brown, Dee. Erlich, Amy, adapter. Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. New York, NY. Henry Holt & Co.; 1993; c. 1970, 1974. 202 pages * (upper elementary/secondary).

This adaptation for young readers of Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee tells the moving story of the defeat and dispossession of the Western tribes, 1860--1890, ending with the Battle of Wounded Knee. Dee Brown's account of these events, told from the viewpoint of the victims, has been successfully translated into a simpler, abbreviated version that retains the powerful impact of the original. Notes indicate sources. Illustrated with archival photographs and maps. Includes a list of the names of various months (e.g. Moon of the Greening Grass) for selected tribes, a bibliography, and an index.

Campbell, Maria; Tate, Douglas and Twofeathers, Shannon, illus. People of the Buffalo: How the Plains Indians Lived. Vancouver, B.C.: J.J. Douglas Ltd.; 1976. 47 pages. (elementary) *.

A simple yet very informative reference on Plains Indian life before and during contact with white settlers. Topics covered include language, beliefs and ceremonies, shelter, family, food, clothing, and warfare. These sections are accompanied by detailed black-and-white illustrations depicting Plains activities and objects. A short epilogue mentions contemporary Indian issues.

Davis, Christopher; Wilson, Maurice, illus.; Thompson, George, illus. Plains Indians. U.S. version of 1977 (United Kingdom) ed. New York, NY: Gloucester Press; 1978; c1977. 32 pages. (The Civilization Library). (upper elementary/secondary).

This succinctly presented account of Plains Indian life, focusing on anthropological rather than historical aspects, covers subsistence, family life, housing, raiding, and the Sun Dance. A section on contemporary life is included. Good full-color illustrations.

Engel, Lorenz. Among the Plains Indians. Reprint of 1970 ed. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company; 1978. 107 pages. (Nature and Man). (secondary).

This is an account of a fictional expedition based on information gathered during the travels of Prince Maximilian and George Catlin along the Missouri River during the 1830s. Each brief section is illustrated with a painting by George Catlin or Karl Bodmer. Included are episodes among several American Indian tribes---the Sioux, Mandan, Crow, and Blackfoot. Incidents described include various dances and ceremonies, hunting, game playing, warfare, and other traditional activities. Includes an index and a section on tribes and language families.

Fichter, George S.; Farquharson, Alexander, illus. How the Plains Indians Lived. New York, NY: David McKay Company, Inc.; 1980. 121 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) ?.

This book describes the pre-Contact lifeways of Plains Indians. Short paragraphs give information on the principal tribes followed by chapters with titles such as "Tepee Towns," The Best-Dressed Indian," and "Gone, like the Buffalo." Contains some inaccurate information. For example, the author incorrectly describes the meaning of the Ghost Dance: "...all Indians must learn to live at peace with the whites and to forget forever their old ways." Illustrated with black-and-white drawings. Includes a bibliography.

Freedman, Russell. Buffalo Hunt. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1988. 52 pages. (upper elementary/ secondary).

This well-researched and well-written book examines the importance of the buffalo in the daily life and lore of the various Plains tribes and the complexities of trade with European settlers. The book is illustrated with reproductions of turn-of-the-century paintings and drawings by such artists as George Catlin and Karl Bodmer. The book's ending perpetuates the myth that Plains Indians have disappeared.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Beyond The Ridge. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1989. 27 pages. (lower elementary).

This sensitive treatment of death and the afterlife is based on a Plains Indian view of the Spirit World, a fertile and beautiful land of buffalo, birds, and butterflies. The author/illustrator cites sources for the ideas presented and the material culture depicted. Contains full-color illustrations.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Brave Eagle's Account of The Fetterman Fight. Reprint of 1972 Pantheon ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1992. 60 pages. (elementary) *.

This is an account of the U. S. Army's failed attempt to protect the Bozeman trail for white gold miners against the powerful Sioux and Cheyenne, who were determined to prohibit use of the trail because it passed through some of their best hunting grounds. Led by Red Cloud, war chief of the Oglala Sioux, the Indians killed 82 soldiers in what was, up until that time, the Army's worst defeat by the Indians. The author presents the story of this confrontation from the Indian perspective by drawing on the published Indian accounts and extracting Red Cloud's words from his recorded speeches. A background section and conclusion are helpful in providing context for the story. Full-color illustrations.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Red Hawk's Account of Custer's Last Battle: The Battle of the Little Bighorn 25 June 1876. Reprint of 1969 ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1992. 59 pages. (elementary).

This is an account of the 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn in which General Custer and his men were overcome by the Sioux and Cheyenne. The author notes that "Red Hawk is not a real person, his `account' is based on the published statements of both Sioux and Cheyenne participants in the Battle of Little Bighorn." Beautiful color illustrations.

Grisham, Noel; Warren, Betsy, illus. Buffalo and Indians on the Great Plains. Austin, TX: Eakin Press; 1985. 36 pages. (elementary).

This is a simply written description of the importance of the buffalo to Plains Indians. The book explains how buffalo were hunted before and after the introduction of the horse; their uses for food, housing, clothes, and ornaments; the significance of the white buffalo; and the meaning of the buffalo dance. The last page incorrectly implies that both the buffalo and the Indians' oral traditions are extinct. Illustrated with black, white, and red drawings. Includes "some words to know" and a short bibliography.

Hall, A. Joan; Hall, Kenneth M.; Worthington, J. Stanley. Indians of the Plains. Vancouver, BC: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited; 1972. 64 pages. (upper elementary).

Short chapters on traditional Plains Indian life (for example, the horse, clothing, warfare, dances and ceremonies) are interspersed in a fictionalized account of a contemporary Canadian family's trip to the Calgary Stampede, an annual rodeo. The young Canadian boy Paul becomes friends with a Blackfoot boy named Johnny and their relationship is used as a vehicle for conveying information about Plains history and culture. Each chapter contains suggested activities or questions for discussion, some of which seem inappropriate or without clear purpose. For example, the suggested activity following Johnny's retelling of a Blackfoot story heard from his grandfather is "Rewrite this story giving it an exciting but different ending." Following a drawing of a Plains Indian on horseback, apparently ready to ride into battle, the suggested activity is "Imagine that you had actually seen an Indian similar to the one in the sketch. Write a letter to a friend describing what you saw." Illustrated with two-tone drawings and archival photographs.

Hofsinde, Robert (Gray-Wolf); Gray-Wolf, illus. Indian Costumes. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company; 1968. 94 pages. (upper elementary).

This simple reference on the traditional dress of various American Indian tribes makes distinctions between clothing used for everyday purposes, warfare, and ceremonial occasions. While the author uses the word "costume," more appropriate would be the terms "clothing," "dress," and "regalia." Stereotypical Indian dress is a popular "costume" for Halloween and western movies. Includes detailed black-and-white illustrations.

Hofsinde, Robert; Hofsinde, Robert, illus. Indian Warriors and their Weapons. New York, NY: William Morrow & Co.; 1965. 96 pages. (upper elementary).

The weapons, fighting methods, clothing, and charms worn for battle of seven representative tribes---the Ojibwa, Iroquois, Sioux, Blackfeet, Apache, Navajo, and Crow---are the focus of this book. There is very little discussion of the causes for warfare, or the historical context in which wars were fought. Illustrated with black-and-white ink drawings of traditional dress and weapons.

Hook, Jason; Hook, Richard, illus. The American Plains Indians. Reprint of 1985 ed. London, England: Osprey Publishing Limited; 1991. 47 pages. (Windrow, Martin, Men-at-Arms Series). (secondary).

Though part of a series devoted to warfare, this volume also covers the ecology of the Plains, buffalo hunting techniques, and the many products obtained from the buffalo. Housing, social organization (particularly warrior societies), religion, ceremony, medicine, and the vision quest are also covered. The introduction notes that information is presented in a generalized form but indicates that differences exist among the Plains tribes. The topic of Indian-white warfare is not included, though the effect of the horse and firearms on warfare among Indian tribes is discussed, and pre- and post-horse war customs are compared. This fact-filled book resembles a textbook and would serve as a good reference, although some of the language is outdated and inappropriate; e.g. "brave," "the red man," and "costume." A center section of color plates depicts typical dress of various groups. Contains archival photographs.

Jones, Jayne Clark. The American Indian in America. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company; 1973; Vol. I. 104 pages. (The In America Series). (secondary).

This is a comprehensive overview of the history and lifeways of the American Indian from pre-Contact to the late 1800s. A detailed introduction explains the term "prehistory" and what is known of paleo-Indians from research and archaeological findings on the North American continent. Subsequent sections describe subsistence areas, including the Arctic, the Northwest Coast, and the Great Plains. The final section describes conflicts between Indians and white settlers during the colonial period. Illustrated with black-and-white photographs, drawings, and maps. Includes an index and additional information on tribes and language families.

MacDonald, Fiona; Smith, Sharon, and Townsend, Sally, illus. Plains Indians. Hauppanage, NY.: Barrons; 1992 (Quarto Publications, London, Great Britain). 57 pages. (upper elementary).

This is a brief overview of traditional Plains life and the changes caused by the arrival of whites and the introduction of the horse, trade goods, guns, disease, and alcohol. Subsequent events---the American Indian wars, removal to reservations, and life for American Indians today---are mentioned only briefly. Two- to three-page sections on topics such as "Nations and Chiefs" and "Family Life," along with insets on specific items and lift-up flaps showing "before and after" effects, convey a lot of information. The book was written for British children, so some topics that may be familiar with American children, seem over-explained, as when a buffalo is described as "a strong, hairy animal like a large cow." Non-Indian readers may be surprised at illustrations of holdings in American archives (photographs, newspaper articles, letters and government reports) classified as "Enemy Evidence." Contains color illustrations, archival photographs, and maps. A Plains Time Chart for 1700-1950 lists major events worldwide. Includes a glossary and an index.

Marrin, Albert. War Clouds in the West: Indians and Cavalrymen 1860--1890. New York: Atheneum; 1984. 220 pages. (upper elementary).

As the title indicates, this book focuses on military actions in the U.S.-Indian wars in the American West (1860--90). The first chapter discusses traditional Plains lifeways, with much of the focus on men's activities. Subsequent chapters describe U.S. attacks on the Cheyenne, Sioux, Nez Perce, and Apache peoples, written mainly from the non-Native point-of-view. Indian resistance, eventual defeat, and removal to reservations is sometimes movingly described. Though the book is overtly sympathetic to the plight of the Indians, "asides" throughout seem to assume that the reader relates more to white interests: "Best of all [the whites'] hunting rifles had telescopic sights that allowed them to knock a brave out of the saddle a half mile away." The word "brave" is used several times in the book. In one episode, Kiowa spirituality is belittled: "The Kiowas could easily have wiped out the small caravan...had their medicine man not heard an owl, his spirit helper. An owl had hooted, meaning, he said, that they must attack only the second group of whites to come along the road that day. Thus General Sherman kept his red hair thanks to a restless owl." These examples indicate a tendency to perpetuate an "us-and-them" mentality rather than seeking to bridge gaps in intercultural understanding. Illustrated with archival photographs, maps, bibliography and index.

Matthews, Leonard J.; Campion Geoff et al. Indians. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications Inc.; 1989. 30 pages. (The Wild West in American History). (upper elementary).

This book traces the battles waged by various North American tribes and leaders---Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Chief Joseph, Quanah Parker, and Geronimo---ending with the Battle of Wounded Knee. The text is generally sympathetic to American Indians but some characterizations are harsh and stereotypical, for example: "Apaches were pitiless, crafty and distrustful who fought the white men fearlessly." Illustrated with archival photographs and color illustrations, many of which concentrate on scenes of violence and show the Indians as aggressors rather than victims. Includes a chronology of events, 1680--1894.

May, Robin. Plains Indians of North America. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications; 1987. 48 pages. (Original Peoples). (elementary) ?.

This history of the Plains Indians uses stereotypical language (e.g., Plains Indians are described as having "curved noses") and repeats romantic terms such as "thrilling," "magical," and "mysterious." Sources for the paintings that illustrate the book are indicated, but the well-known artists who created these works are not identified.

May, Robin; Bergin Mark, illus. A Plains Indian Warrior. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Enterprises Inc.; 1988. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This brief overview of historic Plains lifeways covers such topics as buffalo hunting, tribal organization, religion, and warfare. Final sections cover the Battle of Wounded Knee and the life of Plains Indians today. While this is a clearly-written, straightforward presentation, it oversimplifies and generalizes, for example, "Generally, the Plains Indians had happy marriages" or "After the war the Plains Indian was forbidden to be a real Indian." Definitions in the glossary are questionable, or, in some cases, tending toward the absurd, for instance: "Heathen---A type of religion"; or "Settlement---a small group of people"; or "Quills---large feathers from a bird" (no mention of porcupine quills). The only picture of a contemporary Plains Indian shows him wearing a traditional headdress.

Newcomb, W. W. Jr; Story, Hal M., illus. The Indians of Texas: From Prehistoric to Modern Times. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press; 1961. 404 pages. (secondary).

This comprehensive survey of the Native peoples who inhabited what is now Texas, from the beginning of the historic period to the present, is based on accounts left by soldiers, missionaries, and explorers. Though written by an anthropologist, the book makes stereotypical references to the "savages of the Western Gulf...." The author states that "the terms `savage' and `barbaric' are used to indicate levels of technological productivity [referring to a 19th-century classification of cultures from "primitive" to "civilized"] and are not meant in a disparaging sense." This is no excuse, however, for perpetuating the use of these offensive terms. An outline of Texas prehistory is included, followed by chapters describing the Coahuiltecans, Karankawas, Lipan Apaches, Tonkawas, Comanches, Kiowas, Kiowa Apache, Jumanos, Wichitas, Caddo Confederacies, and Atakapans. The book ends with a description of the devastating effects on the Native peoples of Texas from contact and conflict with Anglo culture. Includes a bibliography and an index.

Payne, Elizabeth; Davis, Jack, illus. Meet the North American Indians. New York, NY: Random House; 1965. 85 pages. (Step Up Books). (lower elementary) ?.

This reprint of a 1965 publication describes in simple prose for young readers the peopling of America and the pre-Contact lifeways of representative tribes of the Northwest Coast, Southwest, Southeast, Plains and Northeast. Post-Contact and modern life are not covered. The book abounds in generalizations, stereotypes, and condescension. Examples include: "The Creek would fight anyone for no reason at all. The Creek just loved to fight"; "The Creek played [lacrosse] fiercely. Arms and legs were broken. Heads were just split open. This was just part of the fun to the Creek"; "Makah rain hats were pointed at the top. Maybe this was because the heads of the Makah were pointed at the top, too!" Black, white, and orange illustrations are similarly stereotypical and tend to focus on the unusual and bizarre.

Petty, Kate; Wilson, Maurice, illus. Plains Indians. Revised ed. New York, NY: Gloucester Press; 1988. 28 pages. (Small World). (lower elementary).

This brief overview of traditional Plains Indian life covers housing, buffalo, decorative art, religion, games, and wars with non-Indians. The book ends with a description of the Battle of Wounded Knee; it contains no information on the contemporary conditions of the tribes discussed. Color illustrations depict grim-looking people.

Shemie, Bonnie; Shemie, Bonnie illus. Houses of Hide and Earth: Native Dwellings of the Plains Indians. Plattsburgh, NY: Tundra Books; 1991. 24 pages. (elementary) *.

With excellent illustrations, photographs, and text, this book describes the construction and use of the Plains tipi and earthlodge, with an introduction on Plains ecology, describing natural materials available for housing. The various stages of construction are illustrated with diagrams, floor plans, and cross-sections. The meaning of some of the symbols on painted tipis is explained. Specialized structures, such as the Sun Dance tipi and the sweatlodge, are also described. Includes detailed illustrations of traditional material culture items. A frontispiece map shows the geographic distribution of the tipi and earthlodge.

Warren, Betsy; Warren, Betsy, illus. Indians Who Lived in Texas. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Company; 1970. 48 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This brief overview of the Indian cultures of Texas provides information on their appearance, dwellings, food, crafts, and subsistence patterns. The last topic of each section is titled "end of culture," which is misleading, since many of these cultures still exist, if not in Texas, in other states. The author summarizes the contributions of Texas Indians as follows: "When the white man came to Texas, he learned many things from the Indians that helped him to live on the frontier and develop the state. Geographic names remain as evidence of our rich Indian heritage...." Some of the author's descriptions are stereotypical and demonstrate Eurocentric attitudes. For instance: "The Jumanos had a strange way of greeting visitors"; "They [the Karankawa] had huge heads covered with coarse, bushy hair"; "Dances were wild and noisy...." Includes an illustrated glossary, index, and monotone illustrations.

Warren, Betsy; Warren, Betsy, illus. Let's Remember Indians of Texas. Dallas, TX: Hendrick-Long Publishing Co.; 1981. 32 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This simple book describes the traditional lifestyles of the Indians who inhabited what is now Texas, including the Caddo, Wichita, Jumanos, Karankawa, Atakapan, Tonkawa, Coahuiltecan, Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche. Written for young readers, the book oversimplifies with statements such as "All of the Texas Indians were good hunters with bows, arrows, and spears...." There are also factual errors such as "There are only a few Indians living in Texas today." Includes activities and quizzes, some useful, and others of questionable value. A true-false test asks if "The first Indians came to Texas in a bus...." and "Indian children ate chocolate popsicles...."

Watson, Jane Werner; Howell, Troy, illus. The First Americans: Tribes of North America. New York, NY: Pantheon Books; 1980. 42 pages. (I Am Reading Book). (lower elementary).

This brief overview describes the lifeways of the people who lived on the Plains and in the Eastern Woodlands, Arctic, Northwest Coast, and the Southwest. In an effort to cover so many different culture areas, the author oversimplifies, and delineations between culture areas are often unclear. Descriptions of male activities predominate. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Wills, Charles. The Battle of the Little Bighorn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, Inc.; 1990. 63 pages. (upper elementary).

This book describes the Battle of the Little Bighorn---relating what preceded it, how it occurred, and its consequences. An afterword briefly recounts 20th-century developments in Indian--white relations. Includes an index and suggested reading list. Illustrated with color photos, maps, and diagrams.

Yue, Charlotte and David. The Tipi: A Center of Native American Life. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf; 1984. 79 pages. (elementary/secondary) *.

Beautifully detailed black-and-white line drawings illustrate this clearly written book describing tipi history and construction, and the tipi's significance in American Indian life. This useful reference for young readers includes much information on Plains Indian life.


Baker, Olaf; Gammell, Stephen, illus. Where the Buffaloes Begin. New York, NY: Viking Child Books; 1989. 48 pages. (lower elementary).

Little Wolf witnesses the origin of buffalo as they rise from the waters of a sacred lake and, incidentally, save his village from enemy attack. Little Wolf's tribe is not indicated, though the story relates that the enemy is Assiniboin. The author makes no claim that this retelling of a story, published in St. Nicholas magazine (February 1915), is based on an authentic Indian legend. The prose is poetic (e.g. "Northward the great gallop swept"); some lengthy sentences might daunt younger readers. The author's use of the name "Nawa" for the Great Spirit is purely fictional. Includes beautiful black-and-white illustrations.

Benchley, Nathaniel; Funai, Mamoru, illus. Running Owl the Hunter. New York, NY: Harper & Row; 1979. 64 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This story for young readers is about Running Owl, an "Indian" boy (no tribe indicated) on the western Plains, who wants to accompany his father and the village men on a buffalo hunt. While intended to be comical, the preposterous story lacks any meaningful message and mocks the importance of capturing an eagle feather as a symbol of manhood. Illustrated with cartoons that depict Indians in stereotypical ways.

Culleton, Beatrice; Kakaygeesick, Robert Jr., illus. The Spirit of the White Bison. Reprint of original 1985 Canadian (Pemmican) ed. Summertown, TN: Book Publishing Company; 1989. 64 pages. (upper elementary).

The destruction of the Great Plains bison herds is poignantly told through the day-to-day life of the narrator, a white bison, who gradually sees her family and friends annihilated. The story describes how firearms, the railroad, and the political expediency of eliminating the subsistence base of the Plains Indians resulted in destruction of the herds. The parallel story of the demise of traditional Plains Indian lifeways is represented by the experiences of Lone Wolf, a Sioux boy, who befriends and honors White Buffalo. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

dePaola, Tomie; dePaola, Tomie illus. The Legend of the Indian Paintbrush. New York, NY: Putnam Publishing Group; 1991. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

In this adaptation of the legend of the Indian Paintbrush flower, the author credits Ruth D. Isely's "Texas Wildflowers, Stories and Legends" for his inspiration. The story follows Little Gopher, a Native boy (no tribe indicated),who receives a vision that he will become great among his people as a painter of "the deeds of warriors and the visions of the shaman." With brushes made from the hair of animals; paint from crushed berries, flowers, and rocks; and canvas made from animal skins, Little Gopher creates his paintings. However, he is dissatisfied with his artwork---rather than reflecting the colors of the setting sun, his paint colors appear dull and dark. One night he hears a voice that tells him to go where he watches the evening sun, and on the ground he will find what he needs. There he is surrounded by brushes filled with paint, each one a color of the sunset. The brushes take root and are known today as Indian Paintbrush flowers. The illustrations do not reflect Plains material culture.

Dorris, Michael (Modoc). A Yellow Raft in Blue Water. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company; 1987. 343 pages. (secondary/adult).

This beautifully written novel revolves around three women, from three different generations of the same American Indian family: Rayona, her mother Christine, and Rayona's Aunt Ida. Beginning in the present and moving back chronologically, each woman tells her own story. The settings range from Seattle to an unnamed reservation in Montana. The characters are complex and richly drawn, and their personal views of the same events overlap and often conflict. The text gives insights on reservation life, as well as what life can be for Natives living off-reservation. Contains some sexual passages.

Erdrich, Louise (Chippewa). Love Medicine. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston; 1984. 272 pages. (secondary/adult).

This superbly-written contemporary novel traces the lives of the Kashpaws, an extended Chippewa family, living on and off the reservation in rural North Dakota. Beginning in 1981 and ranging back as far as 1934, the book is structured so that each family member tells his or her own story---and all the stories are interrelated. The powerful narrative of family love, personal pride, and conflict is set amid the hard realities of reservation life. Contains some sexual passages.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Death of the Iron Horse. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1987. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

Loosely based on an August 1867 protest to the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad through Cheyenne land, this novel tells the story of a group of young Cheyenne who derail a freight train, killing its three-man crew. Text and lively full-color illustrations depict the scattering cargo---dollar bills thrown to the wind and fabric bolts streaming in the air as they unwind from galloping horses. The author's attempt to have readers share the perspective of the young Cheyenne protagonist is marred by the celebration of a violent killing, which might make this book unsuitable for the reading level for which it is intended.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Dream Wolf. Reprint of The Friendly Wolf, Macmillan 1974 ed. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1990. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

Two Plains Indian children become lost and are cared for and led home by friendly wolves. This story is intended to convey to young readers that in American Indian legends, wolves are often portrayed as helpful to humans rather than dangerous. The final page presents poems about wolves and American Indian names that contain the word "wolf." The book opens with a quote from Lakota chief Standing Bear: "We did not think of the great plains as wild. Only to the white man was nature a `wilderness' infested with `wild' animals." Includes appealing, lively, full-color illustrations on each page.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. The Gift of the Sacred Dog. Scarsdale, NY: Bradbury Press; 1980. 27 pages. (elementary).

In this story of an American Indian tribe's introduction to the horse, a Plains Indian boy (no tribe indicated) asks the Great Spirit to help his hungry people and is answered by the appearance of a "sacred dog" to help in the buffalo hunt. Beautifully illustrated with full-color drawings.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1978. 27 pages. (lower elementary)

This is a story of a Plains Indian girl who joins a band of wild horses and eventually, the story implies, becomes a horse herself. Includes full-color illustrations on each page of this engaging story.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Love Flute. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1992. 28 pages. (lower/upper elementary).

This charming book describes the history and use of the traditional courting flute played by Indian suitors (no tribe indicated) to attract young women. An example of the power of the flute is illustrated by the story of a shy young man, who nevertheless attracts the girl of his fancy by playing alluring melodies on his love flute. Includes beautiful full-color, full-page illustrations.

Higbie, William F. A Circle of Power. Liberty, UT: Eagle's View Publishing; 1990. 90 pages. (upper elementary).

Set on the Plains in 1796, this novel is a first-person narrative by young Bull Calf (no tribe indicated) describing important events in his life: the death of his mother during childbirth; his vision quest; and his first horse raid. Bull Calf directly addresses the reader, explaining cultural practices such as, "You see, it is impolite for a man to speak or look directly at his mother-in-law. Among our People, the Original People, a man is not considered worthy to be friendly with the mother of his wife." Illustrated with black-and-white ink drawings.

Hoff, Syd; Hoff, Syd, illus. Little Chief. New York, NY: Harper and Row; 1961. 64 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

Little Chief, an Indian boy (no tribe indicated), wants to go hunting with the men but must remain behind and "pretend" hunt. He encounters a group of pioneers whose children teach him their games, and when they ask him, "What can Indians do?," Little Chief explains that Indians can call birds, walk without making noise, and perform a rain dance. After Little Chief saves the pioneer children from a herd of stampeding buffalo, the whites decide to remain in the valley with the Indians, to which Little Chief replies "I am glad....We will be good friends." Neither American Indians nor Indian--white relationships are portrayed accurately in this story. Common stereotypes pervade the book's text, illustrations, and plot.

Lopez, Barry; Pohrt, Tom, illus. Crow and Weasel. San Francisco, CA: North Point Press; 1990. 63 pages. (elementary).

This is a fictional account of the coming-of-age of two young men on a journey to seek adventure. According to the author, the tale is set in "mythic time," when humans and animals spoke the same language. While not based on any indigenous American Indian tradition, the book is written with respect for Native values. Items of material culture based on Northern Plains objects are depicted in the beautiful, full-color illustrations.

Parsons, Elsie Clews (ed.); La Farge, C. Grant, illus. North American Indian Life, Customs and Traditions of 23 Tribes. Reprint of B.W. Huebsch Inc. 1922 ed. New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc.; 1992. 419 pages. (secondary).

Reprinted from the original 1922 edition, this book includes twenty-seven fictional narratives, written by anthropologists, about various North and Central American Indian cultures. The editor attempts to provide a more realistic view of American Indians than was currently available from popular literature. The resulting collection is uneven. Most of the stories present the culture from the inside, and two drawn directly from American Indian sources are particularly successful. Others may leave the reader more confused than informed. Some of the attitudes and concepts are outmoded. The introduction, by A.L. Kroeber, refers to the cultures described in this collection as representing "a ladder of culture of advancement," and speaks of an anthropologist and "his Indians." Notes on the various tribes give 1922 statistics, and accompanying bibliographies have not been updated.

Welsch, Roger. Touching the Fire: Buffalo Dancers, the Sky Bundle and Other Tales. New York, NY: Villard Books; 1992. 270 pages. (secondary).

This collection of seven contemporary fictional stories was written around the theme of the traditional sacred artifacts held by a Plains tribe. The narratives are not based on the factual history of a tribe or its artifacts; rather, they are an attempt to understand the ways and sacred processes of these people as represented by sacred objects. The author explains that "The narratives are not the traditional or historical legends of any particular people or of one particular holy object: they are accounts of all Native American peoples and sacred artifacts, not A people or ONE sacred artifact." The introduction contains useful information on the Native American Church.


Taylor, C. J.; Taylor, C. J., illus. The Ghost and Lone Warrior: An Arapaho Legend. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Tundra Books; 1991. 20 pages. (lower elementary).

This retelling of an Arapaho legend describes Lone Warrior, who injures himself while hunting and must survive alone in the wilderness. He is unknowingly tested by the ghost of an ancestor, who eventually saves him from death by an enemy tribe so that Lone Warrior can become a leader of his people. The legend provides insight into characteristics that the Arapaho value in their leaders. Illustrated with full-page color paintings by the author. A brief description of the Arapaho follows the text. The source for the legend is cited.


Berthrong, Donald J. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Ordeal. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1976. 402 pages. (secondary) *.

This is an excellent, thoroughly researched and documented account of the struggle of the Cheyenne and Arapaho to "maintain themselves as a people" during the reservation period of the late 19th and early 20th century. The book emphasizes that "despite the stresses caused by federal Indian policy, Cheyennes and Arapahoes maintained the essentials of their tribal societies." Illustrated with archival photographs and maps, the book contains extensive notes, a bibliography, and an index.

Fowler, Loretta. The Arapaho. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 127 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed.) (Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a well-written description of the history and culture of the Arapaho, who were forced to divide into two independent groups---the northern and the southern---as settler towns spread across their territory. The Arapaho found it more advantageous to try to keep peace with the whites than to fight them, and in exchange for supplies and gifts, they allowed non-Indians safe travel through their land. The author discusses the Arapaho's adroit strategies to maintain their culture and legal rights and to explore economic opportunities in the face of U. S. government policies that imposed assimilation, land allotments, and government education. Includes a picture essay on symbols and designs used in Arapaho material culture. The book is well-illustrated with historic and contemporary photographs and maps. Includes "The Arapaho-At-A-Glance," a reference section, glossary, and index.

Haluska, Vicky. The Arapaho Indians. New York, NY. Chelsea House Publishers, 1993, 80 pages (Sonneborn, Liz. Sen. Ed. Junior Library of American Indians.) (lower elementary/upper elementary).

This history of the Northern and Southern Arapaho from the early 1800s to the present describes traditional society, family and spiritual life. This way of life was brought to an end as white settlers invaded tribal territory in search of gold and pasture land. Though they tried to be friendly to whites, the Arapaho eventually suffered the same fate as other Western tribes---dispossession and confinement to reservations. The tribe later splits into the Northern and Southern Arapaho. The book traces the story of these two groups through the 20th century. Despite income from the lease of grazing and mining rights, many Arapaho today live below the poverty level, and unemployment is high. Though geographically separated for the last 100 years, the Northern and Southern Arapaho still share a common culture. Illustrated with archival photographs and a map. A center section of color photographs showing traditional Arapaho objects (weapons, tools, clothing, pouches, bags, and parfleches) highlights decorative work with beads, feathers, and quills, and explains the significance of symbols found on some of the pieces. Includes a chronology from 1803--1963, a glossary and an index.

McLain, Gary (part Choctaw); Taylor, Michael. The Indian Way: Learning to Communicate with Mother Earth. Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Publications; 1990. 103 pages. (elementary).

The reader is invited to listen to the stories of Grandpa Iron, a Northern Arapaho medicine man, to learn about the environment from the American Indian perspective. Grandpa tells a story for each month of the year about such topics as food, elders, the home, animals, and art. The stories are followed by suggested environmental activities, e.g. for October (the Moon of Falling Leaves), sage-gathering is the suggested activity.


Taylor, Morris. The Top of the Hill. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph; 1987. 62 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This contemporary novel tells the story of eight-year-old Red Feather's struggle to accept the impending death of his beloved great grandfather, Dark Sky, an Arapaho medicine man. Red Feather's fear and confusion about death and his own mortality are replaced by an understanding and acceptance of the Arapaho view, after Dark Sky guides the child through a vision quest in the mountains.



Bierhorst, John, ed.; Grinnell, George Bird, collector; Parker, Robert A., illus. The Whistling Skeleton: American Indian Tales of the Supernatural. New York, NY: Macmillan Child Group; 1984. 128 pages. (upper elementary).

This book contains nine stories on supernatural themes collected by George Bird Grinnell among the Cheyenne, Blackfeet, and Pawnee tribes from the 1870s to the 1890s. Many of the stories have boys and girls as protagonists and are told in simple prose for young readers. A foreword by the editor provides cultural background information and explains how the stories were collected. Includes suggested readings, a glossary, and story sources.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. The Lost Children: The Boys Who Were Neglected. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1993. 29 pages. (lower/upper elementary).

The Pleiades (the Bunched Stars) are traditionally believed by the Blackfoot to have been six neglected children who longed to live in the Sky World. This book retells the sacred story explaining the origin of these stars, sometimes called the Lost Children. The author's note explains that this particular retelling "follows the tone of the oldest versions" of the story, and references are included. The author also explains the inspiration and references for the tipi illustrations found in the book. The text is accompanied by intricate, full-color, full-page illustrations.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Star Boy. New York, NY: Aladdin Books (Macmillan); 1983. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

This retelling of a Blackfoot legend describes how Star Boy obtained the secret knowledge of the Sun Dance for his people. The author provides his source for the legend and explains the significance of the Blackfoot painted tipi symbols used in the illustrations. A brief introductory note provides information on traditional Blackfoot lifeways. The final page contains quotations from Black Elk and Edgar Red Cloud in praise of the sun. Includes attractive, full-color illustrations.

Grinnell, George Bird. Blackfeet Indian Stories. Old Saybrook, CT: Applewood Books/The Globe Pequot Press; 1993. 214 pages. (secondary).

This facsimile edition of Grinnell's classic collection of Blackfeet stories, first published in 1913, includes legends of the Buffalo Stone, Cold Maker's Medicine, the Wolf Man, and others. A final section describes the traditional lifeways of the Blackfeet.

Hungry Wolf, Beverly (Blackfoot). The Ways of My Grandmothers. New York, NY: Quill; 1982. 256 pages. (secondary).

This volume of stories was collected from female friends and relatives of the author, a Blackfoot raised on the Blood Indian Reserve in Canada. Included in this interesting collection on women of the Blackfoot Nation are traditional stories as well as information on tribal history, personal histories, and traditional activities such as beading, sewing, tanning, quilling, and cooking. Illustrated with photographs from the author's family album, as well as archival photographs.

San Souci, Robert; San Souci, Daniel, illus. The Legend of Scarface: A Blackfeet Indian Tale. Garden City, NY: Doubleday; 1987. 40 pages. (lower elementary)

In this retelling of a Blackfeet legend, a young man travels to the land of the sun to ask for the sun's daughter in marriage. The story stresses the values of fortitude in the face of adversity and the rewards for kindness and honesty. Includes attractive, full-color illustrations.


Hungry Wolf, Beverly (Blackfoot). The Ways of My Grandmothers. New York, NY: Quill; 1982. 256 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Blackfeet Traditional Stories.

Reyhner, Jon et. al. Heart Butte: A Blackfeet Indian Community. Billings, MT: Montana Council for Indian Education; 1984. 24 pages. (lower elementary).

This collection of photographs depicts the life of a child living in Heart Butte on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in northern Montana. The photographs depict community buildings, events, and residents, and are captioned by the child in "first-grade English," as well as in Blackfeet. Includes a glossary of Blackfeet words.


Collura, Mary-Ellen Lang. Winners. New York, NY: Dial Books Young; 1986. 136 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This adventure story tells of Jordie, a young Canadian Blackfoot Indian, who after spending eight years in a series of foster homes, is returned to his grandfather. The story describes Jordie's initial alienation from his people, gradual adjustment to life on the reserve, and the discovery of his identity through the training of a wild horse.

Hudson, Jan. Sweetgrass. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1991. 160 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This fictional account describes events in Blackfoot history as related through the eyes of fifteen-year-old Sweetgrass, the Blackfoot heroine. When a smallpox epidemic breaks out during the winter of 1837--1838, Sweetgrass nurses her family through the epidemic and achieves maturity in the process. A bibliography is included.

Schultz, James Willard, as told by Red Eagle (Blackfeet); Reyhner, Jon Allan, ed.; Running Crane, Shawn, illus. Famine Winter. Billings, Montana: Montana Council for Indian Education and Heart Butte Bilingual Program; 1984. 23 pages. (lower elementary).

In this illustrated story, Old Sun, a Blackfeet medicine man, journeys to the far north with his family to obtain the skin of a white bear for a sacrifice to the sun. Unrelenting in their quest, the family faces extreme hardships as they strive to survive in the subarctic during the winter months.

Thomasma, Kenneth; Poindexter, Cathlene, illus. Om-Kas-Toe of the Blackfeet. Reprint of 1986 ed. Jackson, WY: Grandview Publishing Company; 1991. (upper elementary).

This story describes the fictional adventures of a set of twins (male and female) in the early 1700s, when the Blackfeet first acquired the horse. The author notes that since traditional lifeways of this time are not documented, some descriptions are based on educated guesswork. Includes realistic black-and-white illustrations.

Welch, James (Blackfeet/Gros Ventre). The Indian Lawyer. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1990. 349 pages. (secondary/adult).

Sylvester Yellow Calf, raised by his poor grandparents on the Blackfeet reservation in Montana, has become a prominent attorney and member of the parole board in Missoula. A convict's scheme to achieve parole by blackmailing Yellow Calf leads him to a personal and professional crisis. His decision to return home and to devote his time to Indian law reflects a reconnection to his Blackfeet culture, and the resolution of his conflict as an Indian in a white man's world. Contains some profanity and sexually explicit scenes.

Welch, James (Blackfeet/Gros Ventre); Boussard, Dana. Fools Crow. New York: Viking Penguin, Inc.; 1986. 391 pages. (secondary/adult).

This adventure novel, set in 1870 in the Two Medicine country of the Montana Territory, centers around the Lone Eaters, a band of Pikuni (Blackfeet) who are living the way their ancestors have for centuries on the Plains of the Northwest. The text acquaints the reader with many aspects of their daily lives---hunting buffalo, preparing hides, celebrating seasonal events, relations with other tribes, healing, and spiritual beliefs. The author describes how all aspects of their lives are affected by the settlement of Napikwan (white) ranchers in the area. The story also explains, from the Blackfeet point of view, how misunderstandings, broken treaties, raids by the U.S. Cavalry, smallpox, alcohol, and the repeating rifle changed their lives forever. Contains some sexual references.

Yolen, Jane; Moser, Barry, illus. Sky Dogs. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich; 1990. 24 pages. (lower elementary).

A motherless Piegan boy witnesses the arrival of the horse, and the changes this brings to Blackfeet culture. The author has used Blackfeet legends about the coming of the horse and their creator, Old Man, as a basis for her story. The story is told by the boy, now old, to a group of children. An author's note describes the far-reaching effects of white society, but omits the devastation of European-introduced diseases. A glossary of Blackfeet terms is helpful. Includes beautiful full-color illustrations.


Duncan, Kunigunde, as told from the life of Corabelle Fellows (Cheyenne). Blue Star. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd.; 1938. 211 pages. (secondary).

This biography of Corabelle Fellows describes how this young woman leaves her home in Washington, D.C. at the turn of the century to teach children at a Sioux boarding school in the Dakota territory. The book tells of Corabelle's life and experiences as a teacher at the school and, later, teaching in a Cheyenne community. Period language describing Indians as "loathsome," for instance, appears occasionally, but does not seem to reflect the author's or subject's views. Illustrated with black-and-white historical photographs. Includes a glossary of Sioux and Cheyenne words and phrases.

Viola, Herman. Ben Nighthorse Campbell: An American Warrior. New York, NY: Orion Books; 1993. 321 pages. (secondary).

This biography recounts the life of Ben Nighthorse Campbell, one of the American Indians ever to serve in the U.S. Senate. The book traces Campbell's life through 1992, before he campaigned for the Senate. Campbell, who is Cheyenne, wanted his biography written to provide young Indian and inner-city kids with a positive role model. He came from a poor and troubled family, achieved success as an Olympic athlete and an artist before serving in Congress and later winning a Senate seat. The biography portrays him as a talented, ambitious, colorful man and a leader for American Indian rights.


Bierhorst, John, ed.; Grinnell, George Bird, collector; Parker, Robert A., illus. The Whistling Skeleton: American Indian Tales of the Supernatural. New York, NY: Macmillan Child Group; 1984 Dec. 128 pages. (upper elementary).

See annotation under Blackfeet Traditional Stories.

Coehlene, Terri; Reasoner, Charles, illus. Quillworker: A Cheyenne Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press; 1990. 47 pages. (lower elementary).

This legend describing the origin of the constellation of the Big Dipper is followed by a ten-page section of information about Cheyenne history and contemporary life. The original source of the legend is not given. A list of important dates and a glossary are included.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. The Great Race. Reprint of 1985 ed. New York, NY: Aladdin Books; 1991. 28 pages. (elementary) *.

This is a retelling of a Sioux and Cheyenne legend about long ago when buffalo ate people. The Creator saw how the people suffered, and with the help of Crow, brought all living things together for a race between the four-legged and the two-legged animals to determine who would win power over all the animals. Miraculously, Magpie, the slowest of all birds, won the race for the two-legged animals. Sources are cited for this legend, which includes appealing full -color illustrations.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Her Seven Brothers. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1988. 27 pages. (lower elementary).

This Cheyenne legend explains how a girl and her seven brothers became The Big Dipper constellation. The book contains a mood-setting introductory note about how and when stories are told. The author lists references for the sources of the legend and for the designs of the material objects depicted. Includes full-color illustrations.


Ashabranner, Brent; Conklin, Paul, photog. Morning Star, Black Sun: The Northern Cheyenne Indians and the American Energy Crisis. New York, NY: Dodd Mead; 1982. 149 pages. (secondary) *.

This is the story of the Northern Cheyenne's recent fight to secure and preserve their land and culture against efforts to develop a coal-mining industry by powerful corporations. This case study is a good example of the complex relationship between American Indians and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which has not always understood Indians or acted on their behalf. The final chapter describes how some Euroamerican values threaten traditional aspects of Cheyenne life today (powwows, handgames, giveaways). The text stresses the Cheyenne view of humanity as Earth's caretaker.

Berthrong, Donald J. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Ordeal. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1976. 402 pages. (secondary) *.

See annotation under Arapaho Non-Fiction.

Fradin, Dennis B. The Cheyenne. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1988. 48 pages. (A New True Book). (elementary).

This short history of the Cheyenne includes sections on early history, the introduction of the horse, traditional life, confiscation of land by whites, and the Cheyenne today. Illustrated with archival and contemporary photographs and prints. Includes a map, "Words you should know," and an index.

Hoig, Stanley. The Cheyenne. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 112 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. (Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

This well-written and clearly presented history and ethnohistory of the Cheyenne contains a brief section on the Cheyenne today. Illustrated with archival photographs. The book includes a bibliography, glossary, index, and "Cheyenne-At-A-Glance."

Sonneborn, Liz. The Cheyenne Indians. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1992. 80 pages. (The Junior Library of American Indians). (upper elementary/secondary).

This clearly written reference on the Cheyenne includes information on Cheyenne history, migrations, legends, cultural traditions, encounters with white settlers and soldiers, and the move to reservation life. The final chapter explores more recent Cheyenne history and gives a general overview of the lives, professions, and business involvement of both the Northern and Southern Cheyenne today. Includes color photographs of many traditional Cheyenne arts and crafts, a chronology, and a glossary. Illustrated with black-and-white maps and photographs.

Tall Bull, Henry; Weist, Tom. Northern Cheyenne Fire Fighters. Billings, MT: Council for Indian Education;. no date. 39 pages. (upper elementary).

This fact-based story is one in a series about the Northern Cheyenne, published by the Council For Indian Education. Set in the present, the narrative concerns Cheyenne fire fighters who are called in by the U.S. Forest Service to help fight a fire in the Bob Marshall Wilderness area west of Great Falls, Montana. As told through the eyes of two cousins, Lee Black Hawk and Burt White Frog, the story contains all the tension and dangers inherent during a fast-spreading forest fire. Fire-fighting techniques and terms (small glossary included) and U.S.D.A. photographs of actual fires add strength to the text. Threaded throughout the story is the feeling of professionalism shared by the Cheyenne men, and the respect of the Forest Service for these fire fighters' efforts and expertise.


Lee, Wayne C. Arikaree War Cry: A Novel of the Cheyenne War of 1868. New York, NY: Doubleday; 1992. 186 pages. (secondary) ?.

In this novel, based on the Cheyenne War of 1868, a volunteer band of fifty whites assemble to confront a thousand Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, and Kiowa warriors led by the famous Cheyenne, Roman Nose. The protagonist, Dain Talmage, joins the volunteers to avenge the deaths of his family killed in a Cheyenne raid. The battle and subsequent siege are the focus of much of the story, which abounds in familiar stereotypes. There is no attempt to explain the reasons behind the Cheyenne War of 1868 from the Indian perspective (encroachment by whites onto Indian hunting grounds, etc). The derogatory and xenophobic characterization of a half-Cheyenne, half-white character sums up the quality of the writing: "Jed Wolfcry was half Indian--sullen, taciturn and as out of place here in Alpha as a wart on a beauty queen....In spite of his swarthy skin, he declared that he was white and vehemently resented being called an Indian." Another character remarks that while Jed is "only half Cheyenne...he is redskin to his very soul." The Indians are repeatedly referred to as savages and redskins. "Few things an Indian does make sense. That's why they're so slippery," one character remarks. There is not enough historically accurate information to justify this as historical fiction. fic/s/Cheyenne/Plains/?.


Freedman, Russell. Indian Chiefs. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1987. 139 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

The story of how the West was lost is told through the biographies of six chiefs who were faced with encroaching westward expansion by Euroamericans: Red Cloud (Oglala Sioux), Satanta (Kiowa), Quanah Parker (Comanche), Washakie (Shoshone), Joseph (Nez Perce), and Sitting Bull (Hunkpapa Sioux). Whether the chiefs cooperated or resisted, the end result was the same in all cases---dispossession and removal to reservations. Key elements that emerge in all six biographies are the deliberate annihilation of the buffalo and consistent breaking of treaties by the United States. This useful reference book is well-illustrated with archival photographs.

Gonzalez, Catherine Troxell; Gholson, Virginia Scott, illus. Cynthia Ann Parker: Indian Captive. Burnet, TX: Eakin Press; 1980. 69 pages. (Stories for Young Americans). (upper elementary).

This biography describes how Cynthia Ann Parker was captured by the Comanche at nine years of age, renamed Preloch, and raised by the tribe. She later married Chief Nacona and gave birth to two sons and a daughter. (Her firstborn, Quanah Parker, became a well-known Comanche chief.) Preloch and her daughter Prairie Flower were later recaptured by the whites. Preloch spent the remainder of her unhappy days searching for information about her lost family.

Gonzalez, Catherine Troxell; Mitchell, Mark, illus. Quanah Parker: Great Chief of the Comanches. Austin, TX: Eakin Press; 1987. 44 pages. (lower elementary).

A simply written first-person account of the early part of the life of Comanche chief Quanah Parker who died in 1911. Quanah Parker describes his boyhood, the loss of his parents, his marriage to Weakeah, and the tribe's 1875 reluctant move to the reservation. Only in the introduction does the book mention Quanah Parker's important roles as an advocate for the reservation Indians, president of the local school district, and a judge of an Indian court. Includes unappealing black-and-white illustrations, a glossary, and a bibliography. e/bio/Comanche/Plains.

Hilts, Len. Quanah Parker. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers; 1987. 171 pages. (Great Episodes Book). (upper elementary/secondary).

This fictional biography of Quanah Parker (d. 1911), the last Comanche chief, describes how he fought to preserve the Comanche's traditional way of life. When the Comanches were eventually forced onto a reservation, Quanah Parker continued to provide strong leadership to help his people adjust and maintain strength in their predicament. The author has relied on reporter Zoe Tilghman's 1938 biography as an authoritative source. Includes glossary and bibliography.


Rollings, Willard H. The Comanche. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 103 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

A well-researched, detailed, and clearly presented history of the Comanche tribe to the present. A photo essay illustrates Comanche weapons, saddles, shields, and buckskin painting. Includes a glossary, bibliography, index, and "Comanche-At-A-Glance."


Keith, Harold. Sound of Strings. Norman, OK: Levite of Apache; 1992. 180 pages. (secondary).

This sequel to the 1965 novel Komanticia, follows the life of Pedro Pavon, who was captured by the Comanche when he was fifteen-years-old and gradually absorbed into the tribe, becoming a renowned warrior and horse thief. The story opens the day after Pedro marries Willow Girl. Pedro's secret plan is to take his wife, and later their daughter, back to Spain: "...something deep within him, some powerful pull from his Spanish background and religion, made him rebel against the thought of either his wife or daughter living long in a Comanche environment. He couldn't bear to think of both of them doomed to a life of lifting, butchering, scraping, and all the other forms of drudgery that aged Comanche women before their time. He wanted to get them out while they were still young." Much of the writing is trite, however, there are some detailed descriptions of Comanche life in the mid-1800s.

Krensky, Stephen; Watling, James, illus. Children of the Earth and Sky: Five Stories about Native American Children. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1991. 32 pages. (elementary).

This collection includes five short stories focusing on the pre-Contact lives of American Indian children from a variety of tribes. "The children in this book are imaginary but their world was very real....The stories display some of the range and variety of the Native American experience." The tribes represented are the Hopi, Comanche, Mohican, Navajo, and the Mandan. Illustrated with large, colorful drawings, the book includes a map and a glossary with illustrations of dwellings characteristic of each tribe.


Doss, Michael P. (Crow); Miyake, Yoshi, illus. Plenty Coups. Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Publishers. 32 pages. (Herman J. Viola, Raintree-Rivilo American Indian Stories). (elementary).

This biography recounts the life of Plenty Coups, chief of the Crow during the Indian Wars, when the Crow scouted for the U.S. Army in actions against the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho. The Crow were the only Plains tribe that never participated in war against the whites. A quote from Plenty Coups reveals his guiding philosophy: "My whole thought is of my people. I want them to be healthy, to become again the race they have been. I want them to learn all they can from the white man because he is here to stay...They must go to his schools. They must listen carefully to what he tells them if they would have an equal chance with him in making a living." A chronology of the life of Plenty Coups is given at the end of the book. Includes water-color illustrations. A short and interesting introduction stresses the diversity of American Indian peoples.

Sobol, Rose. Woman Chief. New York, NY: Dell; 1979. 112 pages. (secondary).

A fictionalized biography, this story describes Woman Chief of the Crow, her struggles for recognition as a hunter and warrior, and her eventual rise to become chief. The main focus of the story is how leadership was acquired through feats in raiding and warfare. The foreword notes that "Tribal customs not relevant to...the story have been omitted...." The source for the story is cited.

Yellowtail, Thomas (Crow); As told to Michael Oren Fitzgerald. Yellowtail: Crow Medicine Man and Sun Dance Chief. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1991. 241 pages. (secondary).

This book focuses on Crow religion through the words of Thomas Yellowtail, a contemporary medicine man and Sun Dance chief. The responsibilities of Sun Dance chief were taught to Yellowtail by Shoshone medicine man John Trehero. The first part of the book is an introduction to traditional Crow ways and the major influences in Yellowtail's life that helped shape his values. The second part focuses on the Sun Dance, including the purification of the sweat lodge, the vision quest, the reinforcement of daily prayer with the smoking of the pipe, and the ceremony itself. In part three, Yellowtail discusses the loss of traditional values and the impact of modern society on Crow religion. Contains archival and contemporary photographs.


Doherty, George A. and Doherty, Katherine M. Smolinski, Richard, illus. The Crow. (Native American People series.) Rourke Publications, Inc. 1994. 32 pages. (upper elementary)

The emphasis of this illustrated book is on the traditional life of the Crow people. It covers such topics as political and social organization, clothing, horses and dogs, food, games, clothing, hunting, family life, tobacco, European contact, religion, and daily life. Less than a page is devoted to the "Crow Today," which focuses on the challenges they face. Includes a chronology and index.

Hagman, Ruth. The Crow. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1990. 47 pages. (A New True Book). (elementary).

This easy-to-read book with colorful photographs and illustrations describes the history and culture of the Crow Nation. A section called "Life Today" emphasizes the Crow's efforts to maintain their cultural heritage. Large type for young readers. Includes a glossary and index.

Hoxie, Frederick. The Crow. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 119 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a well-written, balanced, historical and anthropological overview of the Crow, their origin legends, migrations and contemporary situation. Includes a kinship chart, terminology, glossary, bibliography, index, and "Crow-At-A-Glance."

Medicine Crow, Joseph (Crow).; Viola, Herman J., ed. From the Heart of the Crow Country: The Crow Indians' Own Stories. New York, NY: Orion Books; 1992. 138 pages. (The Library of the American Indian). (secondary).

Medicine Crow, an historian and anthropologist of the Crow in Montana, relates, in the fashion of a storyteller, the past and present lifeways of the Crow Indians. He includes stories passed from generation to generation that express Crow values and the importance of skill in warfare, as well as humor in Crow society.


Crow, Joe Medicine (Crow). Martin, Linda R. (Navajo). Brave Wolf and the Thunderbird. (National Museum of the American Indian: Tales of the People Series.) Abbeville Press. 1998. 30 pages. (upper elementary)

The story describes how Brave Wolf protects Thunderbird's two chicks from the water monster. Attractive full-page color illustrations accompany the story. Following the story are one-page descriptions of the Thunderbird and the Crow people, along with a glossary and historic black and white photographs.


Downing, Warwick. Kid Curry's Last Ride. New York, NY: Orchard Books; 1989. 166 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

In this adventure story set in Colorado in 1935, twelve-year-old Alex Penrose is tricked into hiding in the hills with a former outlaw. Here they fall victim to the villain , Arosho, a Crow "who has gone bad." Though one of the characters explains the reason for Indian resentment of whites, the story relies on the stereotypical image of Indians as "ignorant" and "murdering savages" for its excitement.

McGraw, Eloise Jarvis. Moccasin Trail. New York, NY: Puffin Books; 1986, 1952 (Coward-McCann), 256 pages. (upper elementary).

Jim Keath, a young runaway, is saved from a grizzly bear attack by the Crow, who adopt and raise him. He later leaves the tribe to become a trapper, and finally rejoins his birth family, now resettled in Willamette Valley, Oregon. Having reunited with his family, Jim must confront the conflict between his Indian and white worlds. His adventures serve as a backdrop as he searches for his true identity.

Ryniker, Alice Durland; Ryniker, Alice Durland, illus. Eagle Feather for a Crow. Oklahoma City, OK: Persimmon Hill, National Cowboy Hall of Fame; 1980. 71 pages. (upper elementary).

This fictional story about young Charley Little Otter takes place in Montana in 1898. While on summer break from reservation school, Charley is fascinated by his uncle's spirited pinto pony, and imagines that he is a Crow warrior of the past riding the pinto on raiding parties and buffalo hunts. After falling off the pony and spending a night in the mountains, he experiences a vision of warriors dancing, and finds an eagle feather he believes is from the lance of one of the dancers. Charley's uncle presents him with the pinto for having a brave heart and for receiving the sign of the eagle's great power. Charley's "accidental" vision trivializes the vision quest sought by American Indians. Author spells Lakota, "Lacotah." Includes color illustrations and a glossary.


Goodbird, Edward (Hidatasa).; As told to Gilbert L. Wilson; Wilson, Frederick N., illus. Goodbird the Indian: His Story. * Revised 1914 ed. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press; 1985. 74 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

Edward Goodbird, Hidatsa, recounted this story of his life to anthropologist Gilbert L. Wilson in 1913. Goodbird describes his life and times, the customs of his tribe, and his conversion to Christianity. Originally issued by the Council of Women for Home Missions, "to teach Christian youngsters about other people and cultures," this book emphasizes the role of missionaries and the mission school on Goodbird's Independence Reservation. Although Goodbird admits that he "did not believe all that the missionaries taught," he later becomes "closer to God." Because he speaks both Hidatsa and English, he serves regularly as an interpreter in the mission church, and eventually becomes a Christian missionary to his people. Illustrated with black-and-white photographs, maps, and drawings.


Freedman, Russell; Bodmer, Karl illus. An Indian Winter. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1992. 88 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

In 1833, German Prince Maximilian and Swiss painter Karl Bodmer went up the Missouri River into "Indian Country" and spent the winter with the Mandan in what is today North Dakota. Maximilian's journal is the most detailed account of Mandan and Hidatsa pre-Contact life and this, combined with Bodmer's meticulously accurate portraits, landscapes, and scenes from everyday life, forms the basis of this book. A fascinating, beautifully illustrated book. Includes a bibliography and index.

Schneider, Mary Jane. The Hidatsa. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 142 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

This account of the Hidatsa begins with a description of their traditional village life along the Missouri River. This High Plains lifestyle was later disrupted by factors such as smallpox epidemics and changes brought by missionaries and a new educational system. The history of the Hidatsa, who were joined by the Mandan and the Arikara in the late 1800s, is described through the 20th century. The book includes an emotional account of the disruption every aspect of Hidatsa life caused by the construction of the Gamson Dam and subsequent flooding of the Hidatsa's ancient homelands. The book features colorful paintings of the Hidatsa and Mandan by 19th-century artists. Also illustrated with archival photographs. Includes a glossary, bibliography, and "Hidatsa-at-a-Glance."


Brant, Charles S., ed. The Autobiography of a Kiowa Apache Indian. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.; 1969. 144 pages. (secondary).

Jim Whitewolf, a Kiowa Apache born during the second half of the 19th century, told his life story to anthropologist Charles Brant in 1949--1950. Whitewolf recalls his experiences from earliest childhood through the time of the interviews. He recalls attending a white school; his involvement in the Methodist, Baptist, and Native American churches; his failed marriage; and other aspects of his personal history. Although an "ordinary member of his tribe," Whitewolf's life history is presented to "convey some feeling for the reality of a man's experiences under conditions of stressful culture contact and social disorganization." The editor includes helpful cultural and historical background information on the Kiowa Apache as context for interpreting the life history. Contains some explicit descriptions of sexual experiences. The editor's straightforward writing style may not engage younger readers.

Freedman, Russell. Indian Chiefs. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1987. 139 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

See annotation under Comanche Biographies.

Momaday, N. Scott (Kiowa). The Names: A Memoir. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press; 1976. 170 pages. (secondary) *.

This beautifully-written autobiographical narrative by Kiowa novelist and poet N. Scott Momaday describes Momaday's childhood experiences in Oklahoma, on the Navajo reservation, and at Jemez Pueblo. Boyhood memories are interwoven with tribal tales and sketches of imaginary scenes from his past. s/bio/Kiowa/Plains/star.


Reuss, Frederick J.; Silverhorn (Kiowa), illus. Saynday Was Coming Along. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service; 1993. 31 pages. (elementary/secondary).

A collection of short Kiowa stories about the trickster character Saynday, this colorful book is illustrated with pictures drawn 100 years ago by Kiowa artist Silverhorn. "The stories included here are a sampling of those most popular with children. While their obvious purpose is to entertain, they also teach values traditionally important to Kiowa people." The stories are followed by a useful essay that provides additional information about the role of Saynday in Kiowa oral narrative, and the significance of Silverhorn's record of traditional Kiowa life.


Marriott, Alice. The Ten Grandmothers. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1983, 1945, 306 pages. (secondary).

The title of the book refers to ten medicine bundles, known as the Ten Grandmothers, that form the basis for a series of legends. This portrait of Kiowa life from 1847 to 1944 is based on interviews conducted in the 1930s and 1940s. The author emphasizes in the introduction that no generalities about Kiowa life should be drawn from the thirty-three "sketches" in the book, since the stress of these changing times resulted in different individual responses. Each "sketch" is dated and focuses on a different aspect of Kiowa life. To provide a feeling for the times, sketches are divided into four periods: Part I, When There Were Plenty of Buffalo (1847--69); Part 2, When the Buffalo Were Going (1869--83); Part 3, When the Buffalo Were Gone (1884--1910); and Part 4, Modern Times (1912--44). The author states that she has not attributed feelings to the characters unless specifically expressed by the interviewees. Though the accounts are given in the third person, they have the quality of first -person narrative, except for those rare instances when the prose becomes overly poetic, e.g. in descriptions of the landscape. Included are comparative chronologies of events from four different Kiowa Year Counts (painted historical records), the Kiowa calendar, and bibliography.

Momaday, N. Scott (Kiowa); Momaday, Al, illus. (Kiowa). The Way to Rainy Mountain. Reprint of 1969 ed. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press; 1976. 89 pages. (secondary).

In this beautifully written collection, the author retells the Kiowa legends that he learned from his grandmother, while adding recollections of his own childhood. Kiowa history is brought to life through the author's poignant descriptions of momentous events such as the disappearance of the buffalo and subsequent end of the traditional life on the southern Plains; the Kiowa's surrender and imprisonment in Fort Sill; and the outlawing of the Sun Dance. Includes bold black-and-white illustrations by the author's father.

Wunder, John R. The Kiowa. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 111 pages. (Frank W. Porter, III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

In this overview of the Kiowa who live today in Oklahoma, several different theories of the Kiowa's origins on the northern Plains are presented, followed by a description of the traditional Kiowa life that flourished on the Great Plains for one and a half centuries. The factors leading to the Kiowa's migration to the southern Plains during the 18th century are described, as is the turbulent period of Kiowa history marked by conflicts with white settlers and the U.S. Army. The devastating impact of smallpox and cholera, combined with the diminishing of the buffalo herds, threatened Kiowa survival in the mid- and late 19th century. That attempts by the U.S. government to destroy Kiowa culture through the assimilation policies of the early 20th century have been overcome is a testament to the remarkable strength and endurance of the Kiowa. Their transition into a modern culture is also discussed. Illustrated with many archival photographs and drawings. Includes a color photographic essay on Painters of the Plains, a glossary, index, and "Kiowa-At-A-Glance."


Freedman, Russell; Bodmer, Karl, illus. An Indian Winter. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1992. 88 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

See annotation under Hidatsa Non-Fiction.

Lepthien, Emilie U. The Mandans. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1989. 47 pages. (A New True Book). (elementary).

This is an historical sketch of the Mandan, a Plains tribe which, in the 1860s, joined the Arikara and the Hidatsa to form the Three Affiliated Tribes. Includes colorful illustrations and photographs and large type for young readers. Contains a glossary and index.


Krensky, Stephen; Watling, James illus. Children of the Earth and Sky: Five Stories about Native American Children. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1991. 32 pages. (elementary).

See annotation under Comanche Fiction.


Neering, Rosemary. Louis Riel. Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside; 1977. 63 pages. (secondary).

This short biography of Metis leader Louis Riel is illustrated with black-and-white photographs and drawings.

Palud-Pelletier, Noelie. Louis, Son of the Prairies. reprint of 1984 ed. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Pemmican Publications Inc.; 1990. (upper elementary) ?.

This fictional children's book about the childhood of Metis leader Louis Riel recreates the traditional buffalo-hunting lifestyle led by the Metis living on the Canadian Prairie in the mid-19th century. The book also includes information on the everyday lives of the early Metis.


Zeilig, Ken; Zeilig, Victoria. Ste. Madeleine, Community Without A Town: Metis Elders in Interview. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Pemmican Publications; 1987. 203 pages. (secondary).

This book recounts the story of Ste. Madeleine, a traditional Metis community located in the southwestern part of Manitoba. In 1938, the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act forced the community of 250 off their homesteaded land to create pasture lands. Five interviews with former inhabitants of Ste. Madeleine provide a social history of this community of impoverished Metis farm laborers. The interviews are presented in their original question-and-answer format. A final chapter includes an interview with an attorney for the Manitoba Metis Federation, a Native rights organization currently attempting to reclaim lost land, adding a legal and historical perspective to the events recounted by the elders.


Brown, Marion Marsh. Susette La Flesche: Advocate for Native American Rights. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1992. 117 pages. (upper elementary).

This biography describes Susette La Flesche, an Omaha woman who became an Indian rights activist and lecturer, and a published author and artist. La Flesche is presented as continually confronting the confusion of her identities as an Indian woman who spent most of her life in the white world fighting for Indian rights. For example, upon seeing the Liberty Bell for the first time, "They gazed in awe at the Liberty Bell. Susette reveled in the liberty the colonies had fought for and won. She realized she was thinking as a white American...The confusion of identities struck her again." The author sometimes refers to Indian women as "Indian maidens." Includes an index and some archival photographs of Susette and her family.

Ferris, Jeri. Native American Doctor: The Story of Susan LaFlesche Picotte. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books, Inc.; 1991. 88 pages. (elementary).

This is a clearly written and engaging biography of Susan La Flesche, the first American Indian woman to become a medical doctor. La Flesche shared with her family the belief that American Indians could only survive by adopting white ways. She was educated at schools designed specifically to assimilate American Indians into the dominant culture and subsequently earned her medical degree. La Flesche then returned to the Omaha reservation to serve her people. The book describes the difficulties she faced as the government doctor single-handedly covering a large territory, and her untiring services as translator and spokesperson. She was appointed Presbyterian missionary to the Omaha, campaigned successfully against the sale of alcohol on the reservation, and fought against the stifling bureaucratic rules imposed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C.


Powell, Mary ed.; Reade, Deborah, illus. Wolf Tales: Native American Children's Stories. Sante Fe, NM: Ancient City Press; 1992. 38 pages. (elementary).

These short stories from the Cherokee, Omaha, Seneca, Pawnee, Tlingit, Sioux, and Tsimshian describe the special attributes and power of the wolf and its interaction with other animals, including humans. Following each story is information, adapted for young children, on the historical and contemporary location of the tribe. Sources are provided for each of the stories. Illustrated with black-and-white and monotone drawings. legend/e/Southeast/Plains/Northeast/Northwest coast/Cherokee/Omaha/Seneca/Pawnee/Tlingit/Sioux/ Tsimshian.


Erdrich, Heidi Ellen; Whipple, Rick, illus. Maria Tallchief. Austin, TX: Raintree-Steck-Vaughn; 1993. 32 pages. (Herman J. Viola, Gen. Ed. Native American Stories). (elementary).

This is a biography of Maria Tallchief, the first American Indian prima ballerina. Tallchief, an Osage who performed with the New York City Ballet and other world-class companies, is considered to be one of the greatest dancers of all time. The writing tends to minimize the sensitivity of some American Indian--U.S. government issues and experiences in Maria Tallchief's life. For example, after moving to Los Angeles from the Osage reservation in Oklahoma, eight-year-old Maria is teased by white students making fake "Indian war whoops." The author states that "Maria did not let the teasing bother her. She was happy because she had a new dance teacher." Illustrated with large, colorful watercolors that will appeal to the young readers for whom this is written.


Liebert, Robert M.; McWilliams, Kevin, illus. Osage Life and Legends. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers; 1987. 139 pages. (secondary).

The author has drawn this portrait of the Osage from the early recordings of Osage wi-gi-es made by Francis La Flesche and the Bureau of American Ethnology at the turn of the century. The role of these wi-gi-es, a form of prose and poetry used to hand down traditions in Osage culture is described. The book also covers everyday life through the change of seasons, Osage world views, and a brief history of the Osage following the arrival of whites. Includes a bibliography but not an index.

Wilson, Terry P. The Osage. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1988. 110 pages. (Frank W. Porter, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

A history of the Osage tribe from contact to the present day, covering their early alliance with the French, land cessions, reservation life and Osage resistance to such government assimilation efforts as farming and education. The discovery of oil fields on their land helped the Osage avoid many of the economic problems of the 20th century. Traditional lifeways are briefly covered. Illustrated with reproductions of etchings and archival photographs. A center section of color photographs depicts Osage traditional garments. Included are a glossary, bibliography, "Osage-At-a-Glance" section, and an index.


Walters, Anna (Pawnee-Otoe).; Bowles, Carol, illus. The Two-Legged Creature: An Otoe Story. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Publishing; 1993. 27 pages. (elementary).

This retelling of an Otoe story describes a period of history when Man and all other animals lived in harmony as brothers. When Man became destructive and abusive to his fellow creatures, only Dog and Horse remained by his side, and there they remain to this day. Illustrated with unique and enchanting full-page, full-color illustrations. No source is cited for this legend.


Bierhorst, John, ed.; Grinnell, George Bird, collector; Parker, Robert A., illus. The Whistling Skeleton: American Indian Tales of the Supernatural. New York, NY: Macmillan Child Group; 1984 Dec. 128 pages. (upper elementary).

See annotation under Blackfeet Traditional Stories.

Cohen, Carol Lee; Begay, Shonto (Navajo), illus. The Mud Pony: A Traditional Skidi Pawnee Tale. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1988. 28 pages. (lower elementary) *.

A retelling of a traditional legend in which a mud pony becomes real and helps its owner to become a leader of his people. The story exhibits the Pawnee belief that the path to honor is open through adherence to virtues such as constancy and a humble spirit. The source of the legend is cited. Fine full-color illustrations enhance this appealing legend.

Powell, Mary ed.; Reade, Deborah, illus. Wolf Tales: Native American Children's Stories. Sante Fe, NM: Ancient City Press; 1992. 38 pages. (elementary).

See annotation under Omaha Traditional Stories.


Fradin, Dennis B. The Pawnee. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1988. 47 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This is a well-written book with an emphasis on the pre-Contact life of the Pawnee. The last two sections briefly describe the loss of ancestral lands and the Pawnee today, focusing on both assimilation and cultural continuity. Includes a glossary and photographs.

Howell, War Cry (Pawnee). Comic Tale Easy Reader: Gramma Curlychief's Pawnee Indian Stories. 3rd ed. Los Altos Hills, CA: May Devenport, Publishers; 1991. 85 pages. (upper elementary).

"For the sake of Pawnee Indian children who can't enjoy the heritage I grew up with," a Pawnee writer retells stories his grandmother told him as a boy. Some of these are traditional tales, some are about traditional lifeways, and others are stories about the author's family. Despite the title of the book, these poorly-written tales are not comical. The section on religious rites includes a description of a human sacrifice. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

SIOUX (Includes Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota)


Bernotas, Bob. Sitting Bull: Chief of the Sioux. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1992. 105 pages. (W. David Baird, Sen. Consult. Ed. North American Indians of Achievement). (upper elementary) *.

This book is part of a series of biographies of American Indians from the United States and Canada who fought for the survival of their people. The author of this well-written, detailed biography notes that Sitting Bull's story parallels the history of the Plains Indians. In addition to covering the historical events of Sitting Bull's life, this book stresses the human aspects of the man. Many quotes from Sitting Bull give the reader a feeling for his compassion and humility. Illustrated with archival photographs, reproductions of paintings, and maps. Bibliography, index, and chronology are included.

Black, Sheila; Lee, Ed, illus. Sitting Bull and the Battle of The Little Bighorn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press; 1989. 131 pages. (Alvin M. Josephy, Gen. Ed. Alvin M. Josephy Biography). (upper elementary/secondary).

This clearly presented biography of Sitting Bull covers Sitting Bull's childhood, young adulthood, his people's struggles against the westward movement of settlers along the Bozeman Trail, and the battles of Little Bighorn and Wounded Knee. The Sioux are shown as a feeling and caring people with a way of life for which it is worth fighting and dying. Includes a list of suggested readings. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings and archival photographs.

Clark, Robert A., Ed. The Killing of Chief Crazy Horse. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1988. 152 pages. (secondary).

This book presents three first-hand accounts surrounding the killing of Oglala Sioux Chief Crazy Horse in 1877. The events are viewed from three widely different angles: the first, from Chief He Dog, a friend and supporter of Crazy Horse; the second, from William Garnett, a famous guide and interpreter; and the third, from Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, the medical officer who attended Crazy Horse after his fatal injury. The editor has added an introduction with background information on events on the northern Plains leading up to Crazy Horse's death. A bibliography and an index are included.

Crow Dog, Mary (Sioux); Erdoes, Richard. Lakota Woman. New York, NY: Grove-Weidenfeld, 1990. 272 pages. (secondary) *.

In this autobiographical account, the heroine begins to find her identity as a traditional Sioux woman amid the oppressiveness of reservation life and the invigorating effects of the American Indian Movement in the 1960s and 1970s. The book includes interesting reflections on her opinion of the inappropriateness of feminism within the American Indian movement. One reviewer comments: "A gritty, convincing document of one woman's struggle to overcome poverty and oppression in order to live in dignity as an American Indian." The sequel to this book, Ohitaka Woman (1993) by Mary Brave Bird and Richard Erdoes, follows her life after her marriage to Leonard Crow Dog.

Driving Hawk Sneve, Virginia (Sioux); Hunt, Jane N., ed; Zephier, Loren, illus. They Led a Nation. Sioux Falls, SD: Brevet Press, Inc.; 1975. 46 pages. (elementary/secondary).

The book consists of brief biographies of twenty Sioux leaders including such well-known men as Gall, Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and Spotted Tail. The book includes a chronology of events beginning with the Pontiac War of 1763, and ending with the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890. Black-and-white drawings depict each leader, except for Crazy Horse, of whom there is no known photograph. Includes a bibliography and an index.

Duncan, Kunigunde (as told from the life of Corabelle Fellows). Blue Star. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd.; 1938. 211 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Cheyenne Biographies.

Eisenberg, Lisa; Rickman, David, illus. The Story of Sitting Bull: Great Sioux Chief. New York, NY: Dell Publishing; 1991. 108 pages. (A Dell Yearling Biography). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a well-written and well-researched biography of the Hunkpapa Sioux leader Sitting Bull and his struggles to keep his people free of the reservation life. The book includes important dates in Sitting Bull's life. Illustrated with black-and-white images.

Freedman, Russell. Indian Chiefs. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1987. 139 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

See annotation under Comanche Biographies.

Greene, Carol. Black Elk: A Man with a Vision. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1990. 46 pages. (A Rookie Biography). (lower elementary).

This is a simply-written biography of Black Elk, an Oglala Sioux medicine man. As a young boy, Black Elk has a vision that "all things must live together in peace." He carries this and other vision-inspired ideas with him throughout his life as he, among other things, travels in Europe with Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show, joins the Ghost Dance movement, and relates his life story to writer John Neihardt. Includes color and black-and-white illustrations and photographs.

Hook, Jason. Crazy Horse: Sacred Warrior of the Sioux. Dorset, England: Firebird Books; 1989. 48 pages. (Heroes and Warriors). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a well-written biography of Crazy Horse (1841--1877), an Oglala Sioux chief who gained prominence for his bravery and leadership in battle in defending Sioux land against the encroaching whites and in resisting removal to a reservation. The first chapters provide general information about the Sioux, such as their dependence on the buffalo, their historic calendar known as the "winter counts," and the role of warfare.

Hook, Jason; Hook, Richard, illus. Sitting Bull and the Plains Indians. New York, NY: Bookwright; 1987. 61 pages. (Life and Times). (upper elementary).

The title of this book is misleading, since the bulk of its contents consist of a general introduction to the Plains Indians. Two- to four-page chapters cover such topics as religion, warfare, and treaties with the U.S.; only eight pages are devoted to the life of Sitting Bull. Though the book's organization lacks cohesion, it is useful for understanding some facts about Plains Indians. A glossary, a chronology of events, and a suggested reading list are included in this colorfully illustrated book.

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Patriot Chiefs: A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1961. 364 pages. (secondary).

This book recounts the life stories of nine outstanding leaders in the Indian resistance movement, from different times, places, and nations. The author explains, "While this is not a history of American Indians...the subjects were selected to provide variety in Indian backgrounds and culture, geographic areas and historic periods, and particular large-scale problems that led to crises and conflicts. Arranged chronologically, they help to convey in ordered sense a narrative outline of much Indian history." Although it was published thirty years ago, this book remains one of the best written and most readable books of its kind. Included are biographies of Hiawatha, King Philip, Pope, Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Black Hawk, Crazy Horse, and Chief Joseph. s/bio/Northeast/Southwest/Plateau/Southeast/Plains/Sioux.

Lame Deer, John (Fire); Erdoes, Richard. Lame Deer: Seeker of Visions. New York, NY: Pocket Books (Simon & Schuster); 1972. 277 pages. (secondary/adult).

This personal and engaging autobiography of Lame Deer follows his life from childhood to adulthood, when he became a medicine man at Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. Lame Deer recounts his youthful escapades, his vision quest experiences, and describes Sioux religious ceremonies such as the Sun Dance and Ghost Dance, and the Native American Church. Includes an epilogue by Richard Erdoes and a glossary of Sioux words.

Moeller, Bill; Moeller, Jan. Crazy Horse, His Life, His Lands: A Photographic Biography. Wilsonville, OR: Beautiful America Publishing Co.; 1987. 135 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

Because no authenticated photographs of Crazy Horse exist, the authors/photographers spent several years documenting where events in his life took place to produce this photographic biography. Each photograph is accompanied by well-written text describing the events that occurred there. Includes a map, a directory of photographs, and a good bibliography.

Neihardt, John G.; Standing Bear, illus. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1979; c1932, 1959, 1972. 299 pages. (secondary).

This work by poet John Neihardt, based on interviews given by Lakota holy man Nicolas Black Elk (1863-- 1950), traces Black Elk's life into mid-adulthood, focusing mainly on his mystical visions. A moving portrait of Black Elk emerges. He believed he should use his visions and special powers to help the Lakota return to a good life, similar to the one they enjoyed before the arrival of the whites. Yet he could find no way to make this dream a reality, and Neihardt emphasizes Black Elk's mournful recognition of this failure. However, since Neihardt intended his book as a work of art rather than an anthropological oral history, he felt free to add thoughts of his own and to omit the more optimistic side of Black Elk's views---the Lakota belief that the past can recur and so the restoration of the good life for the Lakota is still possible. (The full, unedited version of the interviews in which Black Elk Speaks was based is available in The Sixth Grandfather by Raymond de Mallie, University of Nebraska Press, 1984.) Introduction by Vine Deloria. Appendices include a letter from John Neihardt to Black Elk and Black Elk's explanation of the origin of the peace pipe. Illustrated with full-color and black-and-white paintings. This book includes an index.

Sansom-Flood, Renee; Bernie, Shirley A.; Bruguier, Leonard R., eds. Remember Your Relatives: Yankton Sioux Images 1851--1904. Vol. 1. Marty, SD: Marty Indian School; 1985. 55 pages. (elementary/secondary).

This is a collection of short biographies of 19th-century Yankton Sioux tribal leaders as they are remembered in their everyday lives through stories handed down from generation to generation. Illustrated with black-and-white archival photographs, this collection, published by the Marty Indian School, includes an extensive bibliography, glossary, chronology, and a copy of the 1858 Treaty between the Yankton Sioux and the U.S. government.

Smith, Kathie Billingslea; Seward, James, illus. Sitting Bull: Tatanka Yotanka. New York, NY: Julian Messner; 1987. 23 pages. (The Great American Series). (elementary).

This well-written, compact biography of Sitting Bull also contains a wealth of historical information. The illustrations of Sitting Bull, however, are romanticized rather than realistic, except for one archival photograph. Among the topics discussed are counting coup, the vision quest, the Sun Dance, and dependence on buffalo.

Standing Bear, Chief Luther (Sioux). My Indian Boyhood. 1988 reprint of 1931 (Houghton Mifflin) ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1988. 190 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

Sioux Chief Standing Bear (1868?--1939) wrote this book about his childhood to promote intercultural understanding. He describes berry-gathering, making bows and arrows, learning to ride horses, butchering, hunting, fishing, eagle capture, war shields, feathers, the uses of various plants, tanning leather, games, medicine men, music, and the qualities of a chief.

Stevenson, Augusta; Jenney, Robert, illus. Sitting Bull: Dakota Boy. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.; 1956. 192 pages. (Childhood of Famous Americans). (elementary).

A biography of Sitting Bull, the famous tribal leader of the Hunkpapa Teton division of the Sioux who refused to be placed on a reservation and who led his people in war and protest against the whites in the late 1800s. No references or documentation support the extensive dialogue and the anecdotal events found in this book. Fictional conversations between President Grant and his army officers use the word "savages" to refer to Sitting Bull and his men.

Viola, Herman J.; Shaw, Charles, illus. Sitting Bull. Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Publishers; 1990. 32 pages. (Raintree/Rivilo American Indian Stories). (upper elementary).

This is a simply-written biography of Sitting Bull, the famous Hunkpapa Sioux tribal leader who opposed reservation life for himself and his people. The book describes the events of Sitting Bull's life, and includes information on such traditional activities as hunting and warfare, as well as on the Ghost Dance movement and on Indian-white relations during the late 1800s. Includes a time line of Sitting Bull's history. Illustrated with beautiful full-page, full-color paintings.

Zitkala-Sa (Sioux). American Indian Stories. Reprint of 1921 ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1985. 195 pages. (secondary).

This book, consisting of autobiographical essays and short stories, is "one of the first attempts by a Native American woman to write her own story without the aid of an editor, an interpreter, or an ethnographer." The author, Zitkala-Sa (Red Bird), was born Gertrude Simmons on the Yankton Sioux Reservation in 1876. The autobiographical essays cover the author's experiences at Indian schools as a student, and later as a teacher, and as an educated Indian living in two worlds but at home in neither. The author's personal experience is neatly captured in the final essay. "I remember how many ...civilized people visited the Indian School...the white visitors walked out of the schoolhouse well satisfied: they were educating the children of the red man!... But few there are who have paused to question whether real life or long-lasting death lies beneath this semblance of civilization!" These essays and others (some dealing with traditional life, others exploring the ambivalent position of the American Indian) were originally published in 1900-1902, and the language is somewhat flowery.


Bernhard, Emery; Bernhard, Durga, illus. Spotted Eagle and Black Crow: A Lakota Legend. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1993. 29 pages. (elementary).

An adaptation of the story of Spotted Eagle and Black Crow, as told by Red Cloud, the famous Lakota chief, over 100 years ago. This modified version, which makes Spotted Eagle and Black Crow brothers, tells of their love for the same woman, Red Bird, and their ensuing rivalry for her hand. Black Crow betrays his brother, while Spotted Eagle appeals to Wakan Tanka and his brother eagles for help in a time of crisis, learning some lessons of the spirit in the process. Includes beautiful full-color illustrations.

Big Crow, Moses Nelson (Lakota); Sansom-Flood, Renee ed.; Long Soldier, Daniel, illus (Oglala). A Legend from Crazy Horse Clan. Reprint of 1987 ed. Chamberlain, SD: Tipi Press; 1991. 33 pages. (elementary/secondary) *.

This retelling of a Lakota legend first told to the author by his grandfather, Henry Big Crow, is about Tashi-Gnupa, a young Lakota girl, accidentally left behind when her tribe quickly escapes from stampeding buffalo. She and her pet raccoon, Mesu, live alone on the Plains until they are adopted by a herd of buffalo. Years later, Tashia's buffalo "husband" is killed by a passing Lakota warrior. The warrior, who has heard stories of the "lost girl of the Chunka Clan," returns her to her tribe and family, where she is welcomed joyfully. Tashia marries an Oshkay-ki warrior, with whom she has a son, Tashunke Witko (Crazy Horse), who later becomes "the pride of all Lakota." Author's and editor's notes explain the origins of the story and the tradition of American Indian oral narration. Includes a glossary of Lakota words and phrases and black-and-white illustrations.

Fikes, Jay Courtney; Nix, Nelleke, illus. Step Inside the Sacred Circle: Aboriginal American Animal Allegories. Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hall Press; 1989. 54 pages. (secondary).

This collection of seven American Indian animal stories demonstrates values that humans can learn from the animals, such as bravery, compassion, and cooperation. Sources are cited, and each story is accompanied by extensive explanatory notes. The introduction states that the collection is intended to strengthen our ties to the natural world and increase our spiritual insight. Includes black-and-white illustrations. s/legend/Sioux/Kwakuitl/Pomo/Dakota/Northwest Coast/California/Plains.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. The Great Race. Reprint of 1985 ed. New York, NY: Aladdin Books; 1991. 28 pages. (elementary) *.

See annotation under Cheyenne Traditional Stories.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Iktomi and the Berries. New York, NY: Orchard Books; 1989. 29 pages. (lower elementary).

In his series of stories about Iktomi, a traditional Plains trickster character, the author tries to evoke the quality of oral narrative. The books are meant to be read aloud, and include asides the reader might make to his audience and comments and reactions by Iktomi. In this playful, fun-loving tale, Iktomi's desire for some tempting berries leads him into amusing scrapes. Includes lively, full-color illustrations with explanatory notes on Iktomi's traditional clothing.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Iktomi and the Ducks: A Plains Indian Story. New York, NY: Orchard Books; 1990. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

A retelling of a lighthearted Plains Indian story in which Iktomi tricks the ducks, and, in turn, is tricked by Coyote. Lively full-color illustrations.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Iktomi and the Boulder. New York, NY: Franklin Watts; 1991. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

In this lively tale, Iktomi has an argument with a boulder, with amusing results. A note at the end conveys the points of the story---to explain why bats have flattened faces and why stones are scattered all over the Plains.

Goble, Paul; Goble, Paul, illus. Iktomi and the Buffalo Skull. New York, NY: Orchard Books; 1991. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

Iktomi's head is stuck inside a buffalo skull, and he receives an unexpected haircut. This lighthearted story of the Sioux trickster character is depicted in lively full-color illustrations.

Matson, Emerson N. Legends of the Great Chiefs. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Inc.; 1974. 125 pages. (upper elementary)

This is a collection of twenty-two legends most as remembered by tribal elders from the Makah, Nisqually, Nez Perce, Oglala Sioux, Snohomish, and Swinomish. Additional sources include pioneers' diaries, museums, old manuscripts, and previously published material. An historical introduction to each section describes significant individuals and events of the tribe. Maps show present-day Plains and Washington State reservations and traditional tribal lands. A short preface describes some characteristics of American Indian legends.

Powell, Mary ed.; Reade, Deborah, illus. Wolf Tales: Native American Children's Stories. Sante Fe, NM: Ancient City Press; 1992. 38 pages. (elementary).

See annotation under Omaha Traditional Stories.

Yellow Robe (Rosebud Lakota ).; Pinkney, Jerry, illus. Tonweya and the Eagles and Other Lakota Tales. New York, NY: Dial Books for Young Readers; 1979. 118 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This collection of traditional Lakota legends, as told by the author's father, includes a foreword, glossary, and Lakota punctuation guide. Beautiful black-and-white illustrations.


Bleeker, Sonia; Sasaki, Kisa, illus. The Sioux Indians: Hunters and Warriors of the Plains. New York, NY: William Morrow & Company; 1962. 155 pages. (upper elementary).

This book's main focus is on the lifeways of the Sioux from 1780 through the 1870s. Religion, buffalo hunting, raids, games, the Sun Dance, and the end of the traditional way of life are described. Much attention is given to description of material culture items. Includes a map, an index, and black-and-white drawings.

Brooks, Barbara. The Sioux. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications, Inc.; 1989. 31 pages. (Native American People). (elementary).

This short history of the Sioux Indians includes one chapter on the Sioux today. Illustrated with colorful drawings and archival and contemporary photographs. Includes a list of important dates in Sioux history and an index.

Brown, Vinson. Crazy Horse: Hoka Hey (It is a Good Time to Die). Reprint of Macmillan 1971 ed. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers Inc.; 1989. 169 pages. (secondary).

The introduction to this book states that "this is not a biography that deals in details and what men call facts...this is a book of spiritual adventure....Though I follow the main outline of what others have written about Crazy Horse, I leave their earthbound tracks for the sky at times...." While running all the risks inherent in attributing fictional thoughts and feelings to an historical figure, the book does succeed in breathing life into the character and bringing an American Indian perspective to the reader. Foreword by Red Dawn (Sioux). A map shows location of major events in Crazy Horse's life. Includes a glossary.

Charging Eagle; Zeilinger, Ron; Zeilinger, Ron, photog. Black Hills: Sacred Hills. 2nd ed. Chamberlain, SD: Tipi Press; 1992. 56 pages. (elementary/secondary).

This is a photo essay on the Black Hills of South Dakota, the spiritual center of the Lakota Sioux Indians. Full-page black-and-white photographs with adjoining text illustrate the one hundred year controversy over white possession of the Black Hills.

Clark, Ann Nolan; Beatty, Willard W., ed; Standing Soldier, Andrew (Sioux), illus. There Are Still Buffalo. Reprint of 1942 (Department of Interior) ed. Santa Fe, NM: Ancient City Press; 1992. 40 pages. (lower elementary).

A bilingual Sioux/English text follows the stages of a male buffalo's life, stressing harmony with nature and death as part of nature. Beautiful black-and-white illustrations complement the poetic text. This work was originally prepared at the request of Sioux parents and teachers to encourage bilingualism among their students. An afterword provides information on the Lakota alphabet and on the development of written Lakota.

Deloria, Ella (Lakota Sioux). Speaking of Indians. reprint of 1944 Friendship Press ed. Vermillion, SD: Dakota Press; 1979. 100 pages. (secondary).

Ella Deloria, a Sioux ethnologist, wrote this work in 1944 to examine both traditional and contemporary Indian life. General considerations about American Indians are followed by a description of the traditional life of her own Sioux people. The problems faced by the Indians after being placed on reservations and the role of American Indians in World War II are also discussed. The author concludes that European culture forced such rapid economic, social, environmental, and religious changes that American Indian society could not cope. Though some of the work now seems dated, the book is still of interest, as it reflects Ella Deloria's unique perspective. Born on the Yankton Sioux reservation in 1899, she was trained as an ethnographer at Columbia University, and then returned to the reservation to raise her younger sisters after the death of her father. Includes a useful introduction.

Dolan, Terrance. The Santee Sioux Indians. (The Junior Library of American Indians.) Chelsea Juniors. 1997. 85 pp. (upper elementary, secondary)

This well-written book describes the life and culture of the Santee Sioux while living in present-day Minnesota. It also discusses the devastating impact of White contact that brought disease, loss of land and culture, and eventually removal to the Dakotas following the Santee Sioux uprising in 1862, written about in riveting detail. A well-known Santee Sioux was physician, educator, and writer Charles Eastman. An eight-page photo essay describes the art of the Plains Indians. Glossary, chronology, and index.

Doll, Don S. J.; Alinder, Jim eds; Anderson, John A.; Buechel, Eugene S. J.; Doll, Don S. J., photogs. Crying for a Vision: A Rosebud Sioux Trilogy, 1886--1976. Reprint of 1976 ed. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan; 1991. 170 pages. (secondary) *.

This book contains beautiful collection of black-and-white photographs presenting a visual history spanning almost a century of Brule Sioux reservation life. The works of three photographers---John A. Anderson, Eugene Buechel, and Don Doll---record the adjustment to and changes in reservation life from 1889 to 1976. This "dramatic evolution" is illustrated through the subtly differing styles of the photographers who spent years among the people on the Rosebud reservation in South Dakota. Some photographs are accompanied by excerpts from Buechel's correspondence and Doll's own commentary. Includes a preface, foreword (in Lakota and English by Ben Black Bear Jr.), introduction, and information on each photographer.

Driving Hawk Sneve, Virginia (Sioux).; Himler, Ronald, illus. The Sioux. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1993. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

This beautifully illustrated book opens with a retelling of the Sioux creation story for young readers. This is followed by brief chapters describing traditional Sioux life on the Great Plains and Sioux life today. e/Sioux/Plains.

Hall, Philip. To Have This Land. Vermillion, SD: The University of South Dakota Press; 1991. 170 pages. (secondary).

This informative and well-written work considers the Wounded Knee confrontation between the U.S. Army and Lakota Nation in the historical context of the Dakota frontier at that time, looking at the role of the white settlers in the events that led up to the massacre. The author hopes to make readers "more aware of the original conditions, differences in values, and misunderstandings on the frontier that led to the massacre...and have continued largely unabated...."

Halliburton, Warren J. The Tragedy of Little Bighorn. New York, NY: Franklin Watts; 1989. 64 pages. (upper elementary).

This is a simple, comprehensive guide to "Custer's Last Stand" and the events leading up to the battle at Little Bighorn between U. S. Cavalry soldiers and Sioux Indians and their allies. The accounts of historic events are well-balanced, describing Custer as an "American Hero," who was arrogant and foolhardy. He was also a deserter, who was court-martialed for "excessive cruelty to his men, and illegally ordering deserters shot." The book includes pictures of some of the artifacts found during recent excavations by the National Park Service at Custer Battlefield National Monument in Montana. These excavations have revealed new information about Custer and the battle. Includes bibliography, index, and black-and-white and color illustrations and photographs.

Hoover, Herbert T. The Yankton Sioux. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1988. 111 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a history of the Yankton Sioux as representatives of the Sioux confederation. Early contact with Europeans, resistance to white encroachment, reservation life, and federal policies designed to discourage participation in traditional activities are discussed. Preservation of Yankton language and religion are used as examples of the survival of Yankton culture. Includes a section on the Yanktons today, a bibliography, the "Yankton-Sioux-At-A-Glance," a glossary, and an index.

Hyde, George. Red Cloud's Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians. 5th reprint ed. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma; 1984; c1937. 331 pages. (The Civilization of the American Indian). (secondary).

This is a history of the Oglala Sioux drawn from both Sioux and non-Indian sources. Where versions differ, the author sometimes analyzes and assesses the relative merits of each version. The book mainly recounts the events from 1860 on that led to the expropriation of Sioux lands and confinement of the Sioux to reservations. The author is frankly opinionated and neither whites nor Indians escape his scathing comments, especially the Eastern religious "visionaries" who wanted to turn the Sioux into farmers. The book contains some stereotypical characterizations of Indians. The term "wild" is frequently used to differentiate hostile or non-treaty Sioux from agency "tame" Sioux. Other comments include: "...compared with the Sioux...and the Blackfoot...the Crows were good people who got along well with the whites"; "...for an Indian, Red Cloud was an able man..." Appendices include notes added in 1957, estimates of Oglala population 1804--1902, and a note on Oglala social organization with identification of seven Oglala bands. Two maps show Oglala migration and the location of the White River agencies, 1871--77. Includes an index and a brief bibliography.

Landau, Elaine. The Sioux. New York: Franklin Watts; 1991, 1989, 64 pages. (lower elementary).

This book describes the history, customs, religion, and daily life of the Sioux Indians of the Great Plains. The focus is on men's roles and activities with little discussion of the roles of women. Includes further reading. e/Sioux/Plains.

Manzione, Joseph. I Am Looking to the North for My Life: Sitting Bull, 1876-1881. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press; 1991. 153 pages. (secondary) *.

This is an excellent, scholarly history of the negotiations between Canada and the United States on the question of the Sioux retreat to Canada. Carefully cited primary sources (newspaper accounts, diaries, and journals) form the basis of this detailed and gripping account of Sitting Bull's attempts to preserve his people's culture. Includes a bibliography.

Matthews, Leonard J.; Campion Geoff et al. Indians. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications Inc.; 1989. 30 pages. (The Wild West in American History). (upper elementary).

See annotation under Cheyenne Non-Fiction.

McGaw, Jessie Brewer. Chief Red Horse Tells About Custer. The Battle of the Little Bighorn: An Eyewitness Account Told in Indian Sign Language. New York, NY: Elsevier/Nelson Books; 1981. 57 pages. (elementary/secondary) *.

This account is based on Chief Red Horse's version, told in sign language five years after the event, of the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876), and the diagrammatic interpretations of Red Horse's story by a U.S. Army surgeon. Pen and ink diagrams of the sign language and Chief Red Horse's drawings of the battle illustrate this unique book.

Osinski, Alice. The Sioux. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1984. 45 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This is a brief overview of traditional Sioux lifeways and history, with a section on contemporary life. Among the topics covered are: the different Sioux groups, the importance of horses and buffalo, religion, decorative arts, and battle of Little Big Horn and the massacre at Wounded Knee. The section on contemporary life stresses continuation of traditions today and the difficulties faced by contemporary Sioux. The book lacks optimism about contemporary life. Illustrated with maps, modern and archival photographs, and reproductions of prints and paintings, the book includes a glossary and an index.

Paulsen, T. Emogene. Sioux Collections. Vermillion, S.D.: University of South Dakota; 1982. 243 pages. (secondary).

As part of their centennial celebration in 1982, the University of South Dakota published this collection of articles from its Institute of Indian Studies' quarterly newsletter. The articles, dating from the mid-1950s to the 1980s, are presented in nine broad categories rather than in chronological order. While various articles describe Indian belief, lore, myth, history, and present-day concerns, the book overall may be difficult to use as a resource for those not already familiar with aspects of American Indian cultures. The book's appeal lies in its cumulative effect, reflecting the perspectives and concerns of the 1960s and 1970s, a period of hope for growth and renewal for American Indians. As the preface notes, given the book's different sources, the articles sometime contradict each other, and opinions are open to question. A map showing "Sioux Country" is included.

Petty, Kate; Wilson, Maurice, illus. Plains Indians. Revised ed. New York, NY: Gloucester Press; 1988. 28 pages. (Small World). (lower elementary).

A brief overview of traditional Plains life covering housing, buffalo, decorative art, religion, games, and wars with whites, including the Battle of Wounded Knee. It has nothing on the contemporary conditions of the tribes they discuss. Color illustrations depict grim looking people.

Pomerantz, Charlotte; Stock, Catherine, illus. Timothy Tall Feather. New York, NY: Greenwillow Books; 1986. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

A Brooklyn boy fantasizes about being a member of the Dakota tribe. The boy's romantic images reinforce stereotypes of American Indians. Little cultural information can be gleaned from this book.

Reyer, Carolyn; Medicine, Beatrice; White Plume, Deborah Lynn; Casey Jr., Tom and Gleason, Thomas, photogs. Cante ohitika Win (Brave-hearted Women): Images of Lakota Women from the Pine Ridge Reservation South Dakota. Vermillion, SD: University of South Dakota Press; 1991. 88 pages. (secondary) *.

Lakota Sioux women of all ages, living on and around Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, talk about their lives and what it means to live in two worlds---Indian and white. The material for this inspiring book was collected in 1982 and 1983 and "reflect[s] the changes that are taking place in the role of women in Lakota society today." Illustrated with black-and-white photographs.

Sandoz, Mari. These Were the Sioux. New York, NY: Hasting House Publishers; 1961. 118 pages. (upper elementary).

As a young girl, the author and her Swiss-German immigrant family lived near a Sioux reservation, where she spent time with her Indian neighbors. The book describes traditional Sioux life from birth through childhood, puberty, courting, and marriage. Though the writing style is somewhat dated, most of the descriptions are non-judgmental and respectful. Illustrated with reproductions of pictographic records made by Sioux "historians" Amos Bad Heart Bull and Kills Two.

Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk (Sioux); Himler, Ronald. The Sioux. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1993. 32 pages. (A First Americans Book). (upper elementary).

Beginning with a brief and simple version of the Sioux creation story, this book explains the migration of the Sioux from Minnesota to the Plains in the 1700s, and the development of their traditional lifeways and culture. Included is information on the importance and use of the buffalo, as well as cooking, trading, village life, storytelling, battle, spirituality, and rituals. A final section lists the various divisions of the Dakota. The text is accompanied by delicate watercolor illustrations. Includes an index.

Spindler, Will H. Tragedy Strikes at Wounded Knee and Other Essays on Indian Life in South Dakota and Nebraska. Vermillion, SD: Dakota Press, University of South Dakota; 1972. 138 pages. (secondary) ?.

This is a collection of essays written between 1955 and 1965 by Will Spindler, who grew up and attended school in Nebraska, close to the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota. He worked for the United States Indian Service for twenty years at the Medicine Bow Indian day school on Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Eurocentrism dominates the writing, which is also riddled with stereotypical representations. Referring to the Wounded Knee massacre of 1890, the author states: "...while this was a shameful, tragic event that will never be forgotten by both the Indians and the whites, it did end all organized Indian armed rebellion against the United States and brought peace at last to the great plains area---the last stronghold of the mighty Sioux." Spindler describes Indians as "nearly naked savages," "hostiles," and having "superstitious minds." Indians participating in the Ghost Dance are described as "...filled with the frenzied spirit of the new religion...[participating in] weird rites, looking like real ghosts as they danced...dressed in the spooky white ghost shirts." Illustrated with black-and-white archival photographs.

Standing Bear, Chief Luther; Stoops, Herbert Morton, illus. Stories of the Sioux. 1988 reprint of 1934 (Houghton Mifflin) ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1988. 79 pages. (elementary).

This book contains twenty Sioux stories, some traditional, some personal, as recalled by Chief Luther Standing Bear (1868?--1939). The preface notes "many main events and historical happenings of the tribe are told as stories and in this way the history of the people is recorded. These were not told, however, with the idea of forcing the children to learn, but for pleasure, and they were enjoyed by young and old alike...These stories were not always told by the campfire during the long winter evenings, but at any time and at any place whenever and where-ever the teller and the audience were in the mood."

Stein, R. Conrad; Cathrow, David J., illus. The Story of Wounded Knee. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1983. 31 pages. (Cornerstones of Freedom). (lower elementary).

This is an account for young readers of the events leading up to Wounded Knee, the last battle of the Indian Wars, in which the U.S. Army brutally slaughtered hundreds of Sioux, including many women and children. Illustrated with black, white, and brown drawings.

Wheeler, M. J.; Houston, James, illus. First Came the Indians. New York: Atheneum; 1983. 26 pages. (lower elementary).

This book contains simplistic and short descriptions of the Creek, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Sioux, Makah, and Hopi. In the two-page section on "Indians Now," the author emphasizes that Indians live much like other Americans in rural and urban areas, are employed in a variety of occupations, and hold on to many of their traditions. Includes black-and-red illustrations.

Wolfson, Evelyn. The Teton Sioux: People of the Plains. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press; 1992. 64 pages. (elementary).

This historical treatment of the Teton Sioux focuses on descriptions of traditional life and important events, without emphasizing the complexity and adaptability of the Native culture. The "Facts About the Teton Sioux" section is written in the present tense incorrectly fostering the notion that the Sioux still live in tipis, ride horses, and eat bison. The effects of settlers, soldiers, and the railroad on Native culture is given cursory treatment and lacks the American Indian perspective on historical events. "The Sioux Today" section states, "The Sioux and other Native Americans had been defeated once and for all..." following the Battle of Wounded Knee. The absence of an American Indian perspective and the frequency of insensitive language affect the overall quality of this book. Includes important dates, a glossary, a bibliography, and an index.

Wood, Ted with Wanbli Numpa Afraid of Hawk (Lakota Sioux). A Boy Becomes A Man at Wounded Knee. New York, NY: Walker and Company; 1992. 42 pages. (elementary) *.

In this moving, first-person account, nine-year-old Lakota Wanbli Numpa (Afraid of Hawk) accompanies a group of more than 200 people on a reenactment of the journey made by Chief Big Foot and the Lakota from the Cheyenne River to the site of the Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890. The five-day, 150-mile centennial ride through the bitter South Dakota winter is described and illustrated with many fine color photographs.


Dakota, Wes. Under Two Heavens. Tempe, AZ: Blue Bird Publishing; 1991. 239 pages. (secondary).

This is a highly fictionalized account of the life of Joseph Taylor (1860--1933), a Sioux and Episcopalian missionary of his own people. After being orphaned early in life, young Joseph is raised by a minister who arranges for Joseph's education and religious training. While serving as a missionary on the Sioux reservations, he witnesses the murder of Sitting Bull. At that moment "...Joseph realized that he too was only a pawn in the white man's game to exterminate the Indians...not by murder but by destroying them in another way." Feeling like "...a man suspended between two religions, a man under two heavens," Taylor leaves the ministry and becomes an activist, bringing a lawsuit on behalf of the Santee Sioux Nation against the state of Minnesota to reclaim lands taken.

Dudley, Joseph Iron Eye (Yankton Sioux). Choteau Creek: A Sioux Reminiscence. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1992. 179 pages. (secondary) *.

This compelling reminiscence of a young Sioux boy living on the Yankton Sioux reservation in South Dakota during the 1940s and 1950s focuses on the author's grandparents, William and Bessie Bourissau, with whom he lived throughout most of his childhood. In their home, the author recounts that he "learned the social, cultural, and spiritual values that have stayed with me everywhere I have been." This touching story presents a real-life family with all its strengths and weaknesses, and the love that sustains it through the years.

Eastman, Charles A. (Santee Sioux). Old Indian Days. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press; 1991. 279 pages. (secondary).

This collection of short fiction "vividly depicts the life and customs of Sioux bands in Minnesota and the Dakotas from the early18th century through the 1860s." The stories, originally published in 1907, incorporate reinterpretations of traditional Sioux stories and oral literature. Although fictional, these works contain much valid information on traditional customs, family and social relations, and methods of survival. Includes a detailed and informative introduction by A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff, notes, and a glossary.

Frome, Shelly. Sun Dance for Andy Horn. Billings, Montana: Council for Indian Education; 1990. 124 pages. (secondary).

This action-adventure story revolves around Andy, a troubled Sioux teenager torn between his traditional roots (his grandfather is a medicine man) and the white world of his mother and stepfather. When Andy witnesses what appears to be a murder, he is caught up in a web of mystery, intrigue, and cultural politics, interwoven with his desire to rediscover his Sioux heritage. Includes some strong language and sexual references.

Hotze, Sollace. A Circle Unbroken. New York, NY: Clarion Books; 1988. 202 pages. (secondary).

This novel tells the story of seventeen-year-old Rachel Porter, who was captured and sold to an Oglala Sioux family at the age of ten. Discovered by traders, she is forced to leave her contented life on the Plains and return to her former world and family. Rachel feels out of place in the "white man's world," and is uncomfortable with both the attitudes and customs of the people among whom she lives and works. Eventually, she is allowed to return to her Sioux family.

Howe, James adaptor; Blake, Michael screenplay; Glass, Ben photog. Dances with Wolves. New York, NY: Newmarket Press; 1991. 60 pages. (upper elementary).

This account of a young, white U.S. Army lieutenant's introduction to a different culture presents a sympathetic portrait of the Sioux at the time when white encroachment on their lands and mass slaughter of the buffalo threatened their traditional way of life. The systematic dispossession of Native lands and sources of livelihood is not the focus of the story, however, but serves merely as a background to the adventures of the white hero. The book is adapted directly from the film. Illustrated with stills from the film.

Neihardt, John G. When the Tree Flowered: The Story of Eagle Voice, a Sioux Indian. reprint of 1951 ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 248 pages. (secondary).

John Neihardt's (author of Black Elk Speaks) last novel tells the story of the last generation of Sioux Indians to participate in the old buffalo-hunting lifestyle, during the period of their conflicts with the U.S. Army. The story is based on the author's 1944 interviews with three Sioux: Eagle Elk, Black Elk, and Andrew Knife, merged together into one fictional character called Eagle Voice. Told in the first person, the book is rich in descriptive detail as it records the beauty and power of the traditional Sioux world and the dramatic transition of the Plains Indians with the passing of the western frontier.

Sandoz, Mari. The Story Catcher. Philadelphia, PA: University of Nebraska Press; 1963. 175 pages. (secondary).

This coming-of-age story set in the Great Plains in the mid-1800s follows the adventures of impulsive, young Oglala Sioux, Lone Lance, who eventually earns the name "Story Catcher" when he becomes a recorder of his people's history through paintings on hides. Though Lone Lance only gradually becomes aware of his "calling" to be a tribal recorder, he recalls essential details of events, and these are passed on to the reader in vivid descriptions of horse raiding and ceremonials. The book also includes a good deal of cultural information on customs and beliefs.

Worcester, Donald; Johnson, Harper, illus. Lone Hunter's Gray Pony. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1956. 94 pages. (upper elementary).

Lone Hunter, an Oglala Sioux boy, is given the gift of a swift gray pony by his father, who acquired the horse raiding a neighboring tribe's herd. Lone Hunter longs to kill his first buffalo and trains with his pony every day. When the pony is stolen in an enemy raid, the boy embarks on an adventure to recover his prized possession. Stereotypical wording is often used in describing conversations the boy has with his father, Red Eagle: When Lone Hunter displays the developing skills of his pony, his father "grunted approval"; the father's face is described as "stern and impassive." Illustrated with monotone drawings.


Wisler, G. Clifton. The Wolf's Tooth. New York, NY: Lodestar Books; 1987. 119 pages. (secondary).

When thirteen-year-old Elias Walsh and his family move onto the Belknap Indian Reservation on the Texas frontier, where his father will be teaching, Elias is thrown together with a Tonkawa boy named Thomas who is acting as his father's interpreter. Though the plot becomes a bit improbable, the book does deal with cultural differences between the Caddo and Tonkawa on the reservation and the whites who are settling the area. The book captures the misery inflicted on the tribes by bureaucratic delays in getting food and supplies to the reservation. Thomas is presented as somewhat passive and accepting of his fate to live on a reservation.

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