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Brown, Virginia Pounds; Owens, Laurella; Glick, Nathan H., illus. Southern Indian Myths and Legends. Birmingham, AL: Beechwood Books; 1985. 159 pages. (upper elementary).

This collection of 59 stories from Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole is divided into five topics: How the World Began; Gifts of the Great Spirit; Monsters, Heroes, and Spirits; Sun, Moon, and Stars; and Animals and Tricksters. Most of the stories were collected by anthropologists John Swanton and James Mooney in the late 1800s and are presented here with explanatory notes on the tribes and sources of the stories. Notes about the detailed black-and-white illustrations explain events and characters identified in the stories. Includes a good bibliography and an index.

Burland, Cottie; revised by Marion Wood. North American Indian Mythology. Revised 1965 ed. New York, NY: Peter Bedrick Books; 1985. 144 pages. (The Library of the World's Myths and Legends). (secondary).

This is a profusely illustrated survey of American Indian mythology. The introduction discusses the origins of North American Indians with brief descriptions of traditional culture of the various geographic areas. Other sections relate traditional stories from the Inuit, Cree, Navajo, Pueblos, and peoples of the Northwest Coast, the Plains, and the Southeast. The final section briefly discusses the impact of European contact on traditional cultures. Not a useful source for information on the continuing influence of oral history and traditional literature on the lives of contemporary Indian people. Includes a list of "Chief Gods and Spirits of North America," a reading list, and an index. The book is illustrated with black-and-white and color photographs and illustrations; among these are drawings of false-face masks and sand paintings--- items that are sacred to their respective cultures---and it is often considered disrepectful to publish images of this type of material culture.

Connolly, James E., comp; Adams, Andrea, illus. Why the Possum's Tail is Bare and Other North American Indian Nature Tales. Owings Mills, MD: Stemmer House; 1985. 64 pages. (upper elementary) *.

Sources are cited for these thirteen animal legends collected from eight tribes. The introduction provides a brief overview of the lifeways of the eight tribes represented, and each story is preceded by a paragraph discussing some of the characteristics of the animals and supernatural beings in the tales. The language of the stories is simple and accessible for young readers. Appealing, realistic drawings.

Hooks, William H.; Nolan, Dennis, illus. The Legend of the White Doe. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company; 1988. 44 pages. (elementary).

A retelling of the legend of White Doe, which "English and Indian descendants still tell today." The legend focuses on the lost colony of Roanoke Island and Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World. In this romantic historical tale, Virginia is raised by Natives on Croatoan Island, where she falls in love with young Okisko. When the couple find they cannot wed because Virginia (now known by her Indian name, Ulalee), has already been promised to the village medicine man, they run away together. The youngsters are chased by the offended suitor, who magically changes Ulalee into a White Doe. Beautifully illustrated with watercolor paintings.

Lankford, George E. Native American Legends, Southeastern Legends: Tales from the Natchez, Caddo, Biloxi, Chickasaw and Other Nations. Little Rock, AR: August House Publishers; 1987. 265 pages. (W. K. McNeil, Gen Ed., The American Folklore). (secondary).

This representative sampling of North American traditional tales from the Southeast is intended for college level study. The author analyzes 131 texts from a folkloric point of view, identifying motifs in the tales and noting their distribution in the Southeast and elsewhere. For comparison, he provides versions of the same tale from various Southeast tribes, from other regions where applicable, and, in a few cases, from Africa. Tribal origin is noted for each text. The introduction gives a brief overview of the collection of legends in the Southeast. A few black-and-white sketches depict some of the supernatural creatures featured in the tales. Includes a map showing location of Eastern tribes, a bibliography and notes.

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Sturat, Edgar, illus. They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1987. 118 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book is a well documented presentation of American Indian star stories. The first two chapters compare various legends about the Pleiades and the Big Dipper. The rest of the book is arranged by tribe or region---Southwest, Pawnee, Plains, California, Northwest Coast, Southeast. An introductory paragraph to each story provides a brief outline of the tribe's history. Where available, explanations are suggested as to how the events described in the stories might relate to the seasonal movement of the stars. A bibliography provides sources (generally scholarly papers) for each story presented. The preface notes that legends reinforced behavioral standards for the people. It also explains that the stories are meant to be read aloud, since a certain quality is lost when an oral text is set down in print. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings. Includes an index and a glossary, with a pronunciation guide.


Bains, Rae; Hannon, Mark, illus. Indians of the Eastern Woodlands. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book describes the pre-Contact lifeways, particularly housing and subsistence, of the Algonquin, Iroquois, Creek Confederacy, Sauk, Fox, Winnebago, and Shawnee. The amount of information covered in this brief book results in a confusing presentation. Stereotypical attitudes and misconceptions pervade the illustrations and the text; for example, "the Iroquois were the fiercest" or the closing statement, "Today all that remains of the Eastern Woodland Indians are a few scattered reservations, a collection of Indian artifacts in museums and tales told by their descendants." An illustration in the final section depicting two war-painted Indians crouching behind a fence looking toward a settler's cabin as if ready to attack has no relation to the text.

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Homes. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary).

This book describes the house types of various regions (Plains, Woodlands, Southeast, Southwest) and the factors that influenced the types of housing: climate, building materials, length of time dwelling was used, tribal customs, and way of life. There is no discussion on contemporary housing nor the roles of the above factors for Indians today. The book contains generalizations such as: "A belief shared by all tribes was...."

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Festivals. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book gives brief descriptions of the festivals held by American Indians in the Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois, Algonquian), Southeast (Muskogee), Plains, Southwest (Pueblo), California, and Northwest Coast regions. The book uses the word "braves" and includes generalizations and stereotypes about Native peoples, such as "The Indians who lived in California did not hunt or farm. They lived entirely on acorns that were gathered from trees. But while their lives were easy and peaceful, their festivals were almost totally concerned with death."

Brown, Virginia Pounds; Owens, Laurella; Glick, Nathan H., illus. The World of the Southern Indians. Birmingham, AL: Beechwood Books; 1983. 176 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This book discusses the history and traditional culture of the Southeastern tribes, including the Cherokee, the Chickasaw, the Choctaw, the Creek, the Seminole, and some smaller tribes. A dictionary of place names of Indian origin and a timeline are included. A state-by-state guide lists museums, state parks, national monuments, and archaeological sites. An introductory section on archaeology offers "hints about collecting [projectile] points" but fails to explain the potential destruction of archeological sites in doing so. Inappropriately, a Choctaw chapter subheading is titled "Strange Customs," and includes descriptions of hair styles and burial practices. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings and archival and contemporary photographs. Includes references and recommended reading as well as an index.

Costabel, Eva Deutsch; Costabel, Eva Deutsch, illus. The Early People of Florida. New York, NY. Atheneum. 1993. 34 pages. (upper elementary).

Only the first ten pages of this book are devoted to American Indian inhabitants of what is now the state of Florida. The text outlines the lifeways of people living between 6000 and 500 BC and of certain tribes at the arrival of the first Europeans in the 1500s. The remainder of the book gives brief accounts of the early Spanish explorers and missions and settlements established by both the Spanish and French. Florida was a British colony from 1763--1776, a Spanish colony until 1819, then became a U.S territory in 1822, with statehood in 1845. Full-color illustrations on each page. Includes a map and a bibliography.

Hofsinde, Robert (Gray-Wolf); Gray-Wolf, illus. Indian Costumes. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company; 1968. 94 pages. (upper elementary).

This simple reference on the traditional dress of various American Indian tribes makes distinctions between clothing used for everyday purposes, warfare, and ceremonial occasions. While the author uses the word "costume," more appropriate would be the terms "clothing," "dress," and "regalia." Stereotypical Indian dress is a popular "costume" for Halloween and western movies. Includes detailed black-and-white illustrations.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York, NY: Atheneum; 1986. 198 pages. (secondary) *.

This is informative and fascinating history of the largely ignored story of people of combined Afro-American and Indian descent. The cooperation and intermingling of American Indian groups and Afro-American slave escapees, especially in the Southeastern U.S. and Central America, is described by tracing the stories of several key figures. The characterization of "Black Indians," unless one is describing those African- Americans who were given citizenship within specific tribes such as the Cherokee or Seminoles, may be considered a misnomer; Indians who have white blood are not described as "White Indians." Illustrated with excellent archival photographs and prints.

Kniffen, Fred B.; Compton, Mildred, illus. The Indians of Louisiana. Reprint of 1945 ed. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Co.; 1985. 110 pages. (elementary).

Written primarily for students and teachers in Louisiana, this book traces the history of the development of Native cultures in what is now Louisiana. Though well-meaning, the author's attitude, which is sympathetic to the Indians, is at the same time patronizing. For example, in discussing the Indians of Louisiana "today" (the book was written in 1945), the author states: "Little has been done to help the poor Indians of Louisiana. A few white friends have worked hard to improve their conditions...It is the least we can do to see that the Indians are properly cared for....Their health should be looked after. We should encourage them to make the old-time baskets, bows, blowguns, drums, and other Indian articles...." The last chapter includes legends of the Louisiana Indians adapted from Bureau of American Ethnology publications. Includes "Suggestive Questions and Activities" for each chapter. An appendix lists Native place names in Louisiana. Illustrated with black-and-white line drawings.

Mancini, Richard E. Indians of the Southeast. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc.; 1992. 96 pages. (The First Americans) (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This informative and well-written work presents an overview of the diversity of the traditional cultures of the Southeastern tribes. The last chapter discusses the impact of contact and tribal efforts to preserve their cultures. Well-illustrated with black-and-white and color photographs and early engravings. Contains an index but no bibliography. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

Muller, Carrel; Muller, Brenda. Louisiana Indians. New Orleans, LA: Bonjour Books; 1985. 64 pages. (lower elementary).

This children's workbook on Indians of Louisiana and the Southeast from pre-Contact to the 1700s makes some generalizations about American Indians (e.g. "The Indians believed that monsters lived in the Under World"), but it might provide a useful supplement to a curriculum on Native Americans, especially for school children of that geographic area. Black-and-white illustrations.

Payne, Elizabeth; Davis, Jack, illus. Meet the North American Indians. New York, NY: Random House; 1965. 85 pages. (Step Up Books). (lower elementary) ?.

This reprint of a 1965 publication describes in simple prose for young readers the peopling of America and the pre-Contact lifeways of representative tribes of the Northwest Coast, Southwest, Southeast, Plains and Northeast. Post-Contact and modern life are not covered. The book abounds in generalizations, stereotypes, and condescension. Examples include: "The Creek would fight anyone for no reason at all. The Creek just loved to fight"; "The Creek played [lacrosse] fiercely. Arms and legs were broken. Heads were just split open. This was just part of the fun to the Creek"; "Makah rain hats were pointed at the top. Maybe this was because the heads of the Makah were pointed at the top, too!" Black, white, and orange illustrations are similarly stereotypical and tend to focus on the unusual and bizarre.

Porter, Frank W. III. Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today. Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society; 1983. 26 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a clearly written description of Maryland Native history and culture for young readers. The 14,000- year prehistory of the region is outlined. The effects of European contact on the Native peoples of Maryland are discussed, including the establishment of reservations; the subsequent migration of Maryland Natives to Pennsylvania, New York, and Canada; the adaptations of the Native peoples who remained into the economic life of the dominant culture in the 19th century; and the continuation of traditional lifeways into the 20th century. The development and the effects of racial prejudice towards Indian communities, and their impact on Native education and religion, are also considered. The book is illustrated with maps and archival photographs and includes "Indian Population of Maryland in 1980"; Indian place names and their meanings; references; and suggested reading.

Shemie, Bonnie; Shemie, Bonnie, illus. Mounds of Earth and Shell: Native Sites of the Southeast. Plattsburgh, NY: Tundra Books; 1993. 24 pages. (elementary/secondary) *.

This clearly written book explains who the Moundbuilders were and why the mounds were built. The book's focus is on the structures built by the Adena and later the Hopewell in the Ohio River Valley and the temple Moundbuilders of the Mississippi Valley, including Cahokia. Well-illustrated and includes a bibliography.

Tooker, Elizabeth, ed. Native American Spirituality of the Eastern Woodlands: Sacred Dreams, Visions, Speeches, Healing Formulas, Rituals and Ceremonials. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press; 1979. 320 pages. (secondary).

This book presents the religious traditions, translated directly from written or audiotaped sources, of several Eastern tribes. Extensive footnotes help clarify difficult passages. Each section is introduced by explanatory notes. Includes a bibliography and index.

Watson, Jane Werner; Howell, Troy, illus. The First Americans: Tribes of North America. New York, NY: Pantheon Books; 1980. 42 pages. (I Am Reading Book). (lower elementary).

This brief overview describes the lifeways of the people who lived on the Plains and in the Eastern Woodlands, Arctic, Northwest Coast, and the Southwest. In an effort to cover so many different culture areas, the author oversimplifies, and delineations between culture areas are unclear. Descriptions of male activities predominate. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Wheeler, M. J.; Houston, James, illus. First Came the Indians. New York: Atheneum; 1983. 26 pages. (lower elementary).

This book contains simplistic, brief descriptions of the Creek, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Sioux, Makah, and Hopi. In the two-page section on "Indians Now," the author emphasizes that Indians live much like other Americans in rural and urban areas, are employed in a variety of occupations, and hold on to many of their traditions. Includes black-and-red illustrations.


Fox, Vivian. The Winding Trail: The Alabama-Coushata Indians of Texas. Austin, TX: Eakin Press; 1983. 99 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) ?.

This history of the Alabama and Coushatta tribes of Texas and Alabama covers traditional lifeways and tells of the tribe's gradual displacement by encroaching white settlement and the tribes' homelessness prior to the establishment of the Alabama-Coushatta Reservation. Contemporary conditions (housing, Christian religion, tribal government, education, and the dearth of professional opportunities) are also discussed. The history is based on historical documents and interviews with tribal members. Unfortunately, the work is marred by several factors. Awkward, frequently ungrammatical writing pervades the book. An unproven hypothesis is stated as fact: "The [mound-building] Alabama Indians did come by sea to North America...." Certain comments have patronizing overtones: "Some of the same tribes that formed the alliance for defense and spoke a similar language were also blocked together and called the `Civilized Tribes.' The classification was given them by white traders and settlers; therefore, it was well deserved." A map shows the important locales in the tribe's history. A few line drawings illustrate material culture items, and photographs illustrate 20th- century life on the reservation.


Merrell, James H. The Catawbas. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 112 pages. (Frank W. Porter, III., Gen. Ed., Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This well-written account of the Catawba covers pre-Contact life and culture, the influences of trade and disease, and the Catawba's formation into a nation from 1540 through 1750. Catawba resistance to assimilation, the influences of Mormonism, and the racial prejudice faced by the Catawba are also described. Contemporary issues include the renewed interest in their traditions. Illustrated with archival and contemporary photographs and drawings. Includes a bibliography, index, and "Catawba-At-A-Glance."


Cwiklik, Robert; Lewis, T., illus. Sequoyah and the Cherokee Alphabet. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press; 1989. 129 pages. (Alvin Josephy, Gen. Ed. Alvin Josephy's Biography Series on American Indians). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a well-written biography of Sequoyah, focusing on the Cherokee alphabet he devised. Also discussed are the ravages of smallpox, reliance on trade goods, expropriation of Native lands, and the conflict between the "Old Way" (traditional) versus the "New Way."

Klausner, Janet. Sequoyah's Gift: A Portrait of the Cherokee Leader. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers; 1993. 111 pages. (upper elementary) *.

This is a well-written and well-documented biography of the life and achievements of Sequoyah, the 19th- century Cherokee leader who created a system of writing for the Cherokee language. Includes a list of places to visit, and "Selected Sources."

Lowe, Felix; Soper, Patrick, illus. John Ross. Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Publishers; 1990. 32 pages. (Herman J. Viola, ed., Raintree-Rivilo American Indian Stories). (elementary).

This biography of the life of Cherokee chief John Ross (d. 1866) discusses the Indian Removal Act (1830), which resulted in a split among the Cherokee over whether to obey the order to move west of the Mississippi, and Ross's efforts to protect the Eastern lands. The Trail of Tears and Ross' subsequent attempts to retain unity within the Cherokee Nation are included. A short, interesting introduction stresses the diversity among American Indians. Includes a chronology of the life of John Ross and attractive full-color illustrations.

Rand, Jacki Thompson; Still, Wayne Anthony, illus. Wilma Mankiller. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn; 1993. 32 pages. (elementary).

This well-written biography of Wilma Mankiller, the first woman in the history of the Cherokee Nation to serve as Principal Chief, discusses her life and goals. The book is illustrated with many brightly colored watercolors that will appeal to young readers.

Waters, Frank. Brave Are My People: Indian Heroes Not Forgotten. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers; 1993. 189 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This engaging collection of short biographies/histories of American Indian leaders from the period 1600--1900 includes Osceola, Sequoyah, Tecumseh, Black Hawk, and Pontiac. Some of the information and interpretations of events in this volume are debatable. Recent scholarship questions whether Pocahontas saved Captain John Smith's life. The book inaccurately states that the scalp of Mangas Coloradas was sent to the Smithsonian. Includes a foreword by Vine Deloria Jr.


Coehlene, Terri; Reasoner, Charles, illus. Dancing Drum, A Cherokee Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press; 1990. 47 pages. (lower elementary).

Dancing Drum attempts to make Grandmother Sun smile on The People again. Since no source for the legend is given, it is difficult to gauge the legend's degree of adaptation. Includes a ten-page section of factual information about Cherokee history and contemporary life, a list of important dates, and a glossary. Contains full-color illustrations in the legend section and photographs in the factual section.

Powell, Mary ed.; Reade, Deborah, illus. Wolf Tales: Native American Children's Stories. Santa Fe, NM: Ancient City Press; 1992. 38 pages. (elementary).

These short stories from the Cherokee, Omaha, Seneca, Pawnee, Tlingit, Sioux, and Tsimshian describe the special attributes and power of the wolf and its interaction with other animals, including humans. Following each story, adapted for young children, is information on the historical and contemporary location of the tribe. Sources are provided for each of the stories. Illustrated with black-and-white and monotone drawings.

Roth, Susan; Roth, Susan, illus. The Story of Light. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company Inc.; 1990. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

The author states that this charming story was inspired by a Cherokee myth about how the animals brought light to the world. Well-written and illustrated with striking black, white and yellow woodcuts.

Roth, Susan L. Kanahena: A Cherokee Story. New York, NY: Saint Martin's Press; 1988. 30 pages. (lower elementary).

A retelling of a Cherokee story describing how the terrapin tricked the wolves, and why his shell is cracked. Highly stylized natural fiber and leaf collages illustrate the story.

Scheer, George F., ed.; Frankenberg, Robert, illus. Cherokee Animal Tales. Reprint of 1968 Holiday House ed. Tulsa, OK: Council Oak Books; 1992. 79 pages. (elementary).

Thirteen short traditional Cherokee tales are retold here in simple, straightforward language. These stories are said to be slightly adapted from a collection published in 1900. An introductory chapter provides a brief overview of Cherokee history and information on the sources of the stories. Includes black-and-white drawings.


Bealer, Alex W. Only the Names Remain: The Cherokee and the Trail of Tears. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.; 1972. 88 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

This is a sympathetic account of the Cherokee, focusing on the Trail of Tears---the Cherokee removal to Arkansas in 1837. Unfortunately, the romanticized writing inaccurately suggests that the Cherokee have vanished: "Now, in all of Georgia and Alabama, there is nothing left of the nation that had lived there for a thousand years before the white man came. The Cherokees are gone, pulled up by the roots and cast to the westward wind...only the names remain." No mention is made of the contemporary Cherokee bands in Oklahoma and North Carolina. Beautifully illustrated with black-and-white drawings.

Ellis, Jerry (Cherokee). Walking the Trail: One Man's Journey Along the Cherokee Trail of Tears. New York, NY: Delacorte Press; 1991. 256 pages. (secondary).

The author recounts his experiences retracing the route followed by his Cherokee ancestors when they were removed from the east to Oklahoma in the late 1800s. Bits of Cherokee history and legends are intermingled with stories told by people the author met along the way and their reactions to him and his journey. A short bibliography is included.

Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane; Migdale, Lawrence, photog. Cherokee Summer. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1993. 32 pages. (upper elementary) *.

This is the true story of Bridget, a ten-year-old Cherokee girl, who describes the history and culture of her people in this informative and engaging book. Bridget, who lives with her family in Okay, Oklahoma, begins with a history of the Cherokee, including information on contact with whites, trading, farming, and relocation---with emphasis on the Trail of Tears. She later describes the Oklahoma town of Tahlequah, "at the heart of Cherokee County and Cherokee life," as well as the development of the Cherokee Nation to the present. Bridget discusses Cherokee traditions, her family, and their activities, as well as the history of the Cherokee syllabary (included) and the nation's commitment to teach it. The book also includes a traditional Cherokee legend, with illustrations, and a description of a Cherokee stomp dance, in which Bridget participates with her family. Includes maps, drawings, and many colorful photographs; glossary and index.

Lepthien, Emilie U. The Cherokee. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1985. 48 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

A simply written book on the history of the Cherokee from their origin to the present. Topics include Sequoyah and the Cherokee alphabet, the Cherokee Nation, the town of New Echota, the Trail of Tears, the Eastern and Western Bands, famous Cherokees, and the Cherokee today. Includes full-color and black-and-white photographs, maps, and illustrations; index and glossary.

McCall, Barbara A.; Lazzarino, Luciana, illus. The Cherokee. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications, Inc.; 1989. 29 pages. (elementary).

This clearly presented, well-written, brief history of the Cherokee covers pre-Contact life, wars with whites, the development of the Cherokee alphabet, the Indian Removal Act, and the Trail of Tears. A brief section on the contemporary Eastern and Western bands of Cherokee concludes the book. Includes full-color illustrations, chronological tables, and a glossary.

Perdue, Theda. The Cherokee. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 103 page. (Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

This book describes the Cherokee origin myth, traditional lifeways, contact with Europeans, Sequoyah and the Cherokee alphabet, and the post-Contact period. Unlike many other tribes, "the Cherokee hoped if they adopted the customs, beliefs and lifeways of white Americans, they could survive in their homeland." The Trail of Tears and subsequent histories of the Eastern (North Carolina) and Western (Oklahoma) bands of the Cherokee are described. The author explains that to be economically successful today, the Eastern band sells stereotypical items---toy tipis, war bonnets---that they never used traditionally. Includes a bibliography, index, glossary, and "Cherokee-At-A-Glance" section.

Sharpe, J., ed. The Cherokees Past and Present: An Authentic Guide to the Cherokee People. Reprint of 1970 ed. Cherokee, NC: Cherokee Publications; 1991. 32 pages. (elementary).

This booklet for young readers describes the history and traditional culture of the Cherokee and was written "to correct common fallacies and offer the reader a challenging introduction to this study of the Cherokee people." It contains one-page summaries of Cherokee language, foods, dwellings, clothing, government, religion, warfare, legends, and the Cherokee today. Also included is a list of frequently asked questions about the Cherokee. Illustrated with color photographs and drawings.

Stein, R. Conrad; Catrow, David J. III, illus. Story of The Trail of Tears. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1985. 31 pages. (Cornerstones of Freedom). (upper elementary) *.

This is a clearly written account of the forced removal of the Cherokee in 1838 from Georgia to Oklahoma under the Indian Removal Act. The book also mentions Sequoyah who invented the Cherokee alphabet and Cherokee attempts to resolve land disputes with the federal government by taking their grievances to court. Illustrated with black, red, and white illustrations.


Carter, Forrest. The Education of Little Tree. Reprint of 1976 ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press; 1986. 216 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This is an engaging story of a Cherokee boy's childhood in the 1930s. The richness of the informal education and wisdom provided by the boy's grandparents is in striking contrast to that of the white-run school the boy is subsequently forced to attend. This book was originally published as autobiographical reminiscences, but has been reclassified as fiction. Controversy surrounds this moving work. Some believe author Forrest Carter to be the late Asa Earl Carter, a white supremacist. Carter, nevertheless, could have had Cherokee heritage and still have held racist beliefs.

Humphrey, William. No Resting Place. New York, NY: Delacorte Press; 1989. 249 pages. (secondary).

In 1936, Amos Smith recollects for his thirteen-year-old grandson events from his Cherokee childhood and tells the "real" story of the 1836 Battle of San Jacinto in which Texas volunteers defeated Mexico and claimed Texas for the United States. The important but little-known role played by the confederated Indians living in east Texas at the time is the focus of the book, as events leading up to the final confrontation are recounted. A large part of the book describes the Trail of Tears, the painful removal of the Cherokee to Oklahoma, focusing on the experience of Amos Smith's family. The interesting story and interpretation of events are undermined by a style of writing characterized by long and confusing sentences as well as some patronizing descriptions. For example, in describing the advantages the Cherokee received from white civilization, the author writes: "Freed from superstitions that answered none of one's questions about life but only threatened one with curses and blights, they were healthier in mind....With the rapture of children at a fair, a nation of twenty thousand gaped in wide-eyed wonder at a world in which the things that had always mystified them were suddenly simplified and the deep mysteries for the first time revealed."

Rockwood, Joyce. To Spoil the Sun. 1987 reprint of 1976 Henry Holt and Company Inc. ed. Atlanta, GA: University of Georgia Press; 1987. 180 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

The action in this fictional story about the Cherokee in the 1500s centers around the epidemic of smallpox brought by Europeans. The story is told through the eyes of Rain Dove, whose life we follow from age eleven until mid-adulthood. The first part of the story describes Cherokee life before the epidemic and the ceremonies and events of the village. The latter part movingly describes the ravages of smallpox and the survivors' rebuilding of their shattered lives. A chronological table links historical events to events in the story. The afterword states that all persons in the book are fictional, but the characters and behavior are consistent with our general knowledge of Indians of this period as established by archaeologists, historians, and anthropologists. The author notes that these "minor" events that so momentously affected Native people have never been regarded as greatly significant in our history books.

Rockwood, Joyce; Kalin, Victor, illus. Groundhog's Horse. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1978. 114 pages. (upper elementary) *.

In this fictional adventure story, Groundhog, an eleven-year-old Cherokee boy living in the 1750s, decides to retrieve his horse, stolen by the Creek. His adventures along the way form the major part of this coming-of-age story. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Steele, William O.; Galdone, Paul, illus. The Buffalo Knife. New York, NY: Peter Smith; 1992. 177 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

Set in the late 1700s, this story describes, through the eyes of young Andrew Clark, the adventures of a pioneer family as they raft down the Tennessee River to settle in a new home. The American Indians merely serve to add suspense to the adventures of the white family, and are portrayed as stereotypically threatening figures; for example: "When you can't see the red devils is the time to worry about them most."

Steele, William O.; Galdone, Paul, illus. Flaming Arrows. New York, NY: Peter Smith 1992. 178 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

Eleven-year old Chad and local white families are forced to take refuge in a nearby fort against attacks by the Chickamauga. The story is written from the viewpoint of the white families and the wording in the book reflects their hostile attitudes. Indians are referred to as "Injuns," "savages," "braves," and "redskins." Includes black-and-white drawings.


Steele, William O.; Galdone, Paul, illus. Flaming Arrows. New York, NY; Peter Smith 1992. 178 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

See annotation under Cherokee Fiction.


Te Ata (Chickasaw) adapted by Lynn Moroney; Reisberg, Veg, illus. Baby Rattlesnake. San Francisco, CA: Children's Book Press; 1989. 32 pages. (lower elementary) *.

This is an appealing tale about what happens when you get something before you are ready for it. Adapted from a story told by Chickasaw storyteller, Te Ata. Includes playful illustrations in cut paper and gouache paints.


Doherty, Craig A. and Doherty, Katherine M. Smolinski, Richard, illus. The Chickasaw. (Native American People.) Rourke Publications, Inc., 1994. 32 pp. (upper elementary)

This overview of the traditional life of the Chickasaw, who lived in what is now northern Mississippi and Alabama and western Tennessee, reveals their struggle to keep their lands from being taken by neighboring tribes and Europeans. The Chickasaw were named one of the Five Civilized Tribes and their removal to Indian territory, beginning in 1837, was known as the Trail of Tears. Includes color illustrations, chronology, and index.

Gibson, Arrell M. The Chickasaws. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1971. 339 pages. (secondary).

This is a comprehensive history of the Chickasaw, who inhabited parts of what are now Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky. The book covers traditional Chickasaw culture, European contact, Christian missionaries, the tribe's removal to Indian Territory, and their alliance with the Confederacy during the Civil War. The Chickasaw government was terminated as they, and the other Civilized Tribes, became part of the newly formed state of Oklahoma. Unfortunately, no discussion of the contemporary Chickasaw is included. Includes a bibliography and an index.

Hale, Duane K.; Gibson, Arrell M. The Chickasaw. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1991. 111 pages. Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

In the 16th century, prior to removal to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears, the Chickasaw established towns in present-day northern Mississippi and northeastern Alabama and controlled lands extending to central Kentucky and Tennessee. Because of the strong cultural similarity with the Choctaw, they probably once were one people, who later divided into two tribes as their population grew. The book thoroughly explains the impact of European contact that led to increased friction and warfare among neighboring tribes. Tribes competed with each other over hunting territories and staged raids against other tribes to provide the English with furs and slaves in exchange for highly valued English goods. The book describes how the Chickasaw lost much of their land and way of life, but also notes their efforts to rebuild their culture and to improve education, health care, housing, and economic opportunities for their people. A color photographic essay contains examples of Chickasaw material culture. Illustrated with black-and-white archival and contemporary photographs.


Lepthien, Emilie U. The Choctaw. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1987. 47 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This short book, written in consultation with tribal historian Robert Ferguson, refreshingly concentrates on contemporary, rather than traditional, Choctaw life. The book opens with a discussion of Choctaw legend and pre-Contact life, focusing on subsistence. The final part on contemporary economic and social life emphasizes modern institutions such as hospitals and senior citizen homes, perhaps at the expense of giving a feel for the daily life of contemporary Choctaw. Includes a Choctaw word list, names of important chiefs, a glossary, and an index.

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. Chanta Hapia Hoke: We are Choctaw. Philadelphia, MI: Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians; 1981. 52 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This booklet gives a concise history of the Mississippi band of the Choctaw and stresses their self-determination efforts---development of industry and business and attempts to reduce federal dependency. Provides a list of individuals who are maintaining traditions today, and information about the Choctaw Indian Fair, stickball, clothing, language, and basketry. Includes a bibliography.

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. An Era of Change. Philadelphia, MI: Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians; 1971. 23 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This monograph was written as " effort by the Choctaw tribal council to acquaint the general public with an age-old Indian culture and centuries of Choctaw history, while creating an awareness of the vast progress made in recent years." It consists of short descriptions of traditional Choctaw culture, history, and contemporary life. Illustrated with photographs of contemporary Choctaw.


Awiakta, Marilou (Cherokee); Bringle, Beverly (Choctaw), illus. Rising Fawn and the Fire Mystery. St. Luke's Press; 1984. 48 pages. (upper elementary).

Rising Fawn, a seven-year-old Choctaw girl, is kidnaped by an army soldier whose company is burning Choctaw cabins during the Indian removal from Mississippi to a reservation in the West. The soldier gives the child to his relatives to raise. This is the story of Rising Fawn's struggle to keep her Native identity while accepting her new non-Native family and Christianity. Contrasts between Choctaw and non-Indian ways of life are seen through the eyes of this young girl, suddenly alone in a new world. Illustrated with line drawings.


Hurmence, Belinda. The Nightwalker. New York, NY: Clarion Books; 1988. 140 pages. (upper elementary/ secondary).

Twelve-year-old Savannah and her family live on an island off North Carolina's Outer Banks, where tensions are growing between the tourists and environmentalists who want it declared a national seashore, and the locals, including Savannah's family, whose livelihood depends upon fishing. Although most of the plot revolves around a series of mysterious fires, a secondary theme involves the Coree heritage of Savannah's father's family. Savannah's grandmother sees American Indians as "shiftless" and "immoral" and cannot forgive her daughter for marrying "into Indian blood." A preface briefly describes the Coree habitation of the area and provides some interesting historical information about the last surviving Coree and her English husband, who lived in the area in the 1800s.


Fox, Vivian. The Winding Trail: The Alabama-Coushata Indians of Texas. Austin, TX: Eakin Press; 1983. 99 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) ?.

See annotation under Alabama Fiction.


Chapman, George; Kollock, John, illus. Chief William McIntosh: A Man of Two Worlds. Atlanta, GA: Cherokee Publishing Co.; 1988. 145 pages. (secondary).

The story of the Creeks' attempts to retain tribal lands is told through the biography of Chief William McIntosh, who espoused assimilation for the Creek Nation, with sad results for his people. Related in historical-novel style, the book contains notes and texts of U.S.-Creek treaties.

Oliver, Louis Littlecoon (Muskogee/Creek). Chasers of the Sun: Creek Indian Thoughts. Greenfield Center, NY: The Greenfield Review Press; 1990. 105 pages. (secondary).

Through stories and poems, a Muskogee--Creek man born in 1904 shares some of his personal experiences living among his people in Oklahoma. The author also describes the spiritual side of life and gives examples of American Indian humor.


Green, Michael D. The Creeks. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1990. 127 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America. (upper elementary/secondary).

In this well-written history of the Creek (Muskogee), who originally inhabited what is now Georgia and Alabama, the author describes the archaeological evidence for the Mississippian culture (ancestors of the Creek), and its devastation by Spanish warfare and disease. Traditional Creek life is described, followed by a description of trading relationships that developed among the Creek, the English, the French, and the Spanish. Changes to Creek culture resulting from the European market's demand for deerskins and Indian slaves are examined. Policy changes destroyed traditional Creek systems of government following the American Revolution, and further changes followed in the 19th century with loss of lands, treaties negotiated, and the removal era during which some 40 percent of the Creek population died en route to Indian Territory. The effects of the Civil War, the invasion by white farmers, and the railroad also are discussed. Includes a bibliography, glossary, index, and "Creeks-At-A-Glance."

Wheeler, M. J.; Houston, James, illus. First Came the Indians. New York: Atheneum; 1983. 26 pages. (lower elementary).

This book contains simplistic descriptions of the Creek, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Sioux, Makah, and Hopi. In the two-page section on "Indians Now," the author emphasizes that American Indians live much like other Americans in rural and urban areas, are employed in a variety of occupations, and hold on to many of their traditions. Includes black-and-red illustrations.


Dial, Adolph L. The Lumbee. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1993. 110 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book traces the unusual story of the Lumbee, who claim to descend from survivors of the "lost" (1587) Roanoke colony and the Hatteras. They spoke English, were Christian, and lived as settled farmers owning their land, but fell victim to the racial policies of the 19th and 20th centuries. The history details the Lumbees' struggle against racism, their successful establishment of a school, and the cohesiveness of their community, bound by its religion, beliefs, and cooperative activities. The Lumbees' unique heritage encourages an ongoing debate on their identity. The final chapter describes how that debate has been affected by World War II, the 1954 school desegregation, activities of the Ku Klux Klan, the AIM protests of the 1970s, and current Lumbee efforts to achieve equitable political representation at the state level. Illustrated with black-and-white photographs, maps, and reproductions of engravings. A center color section shows contemporary paintings by Lumbee artist Lloyd Oxendine. Includes a bibliography, a glossary, and an index.


Henderson, Nancy; Dewey, Jane; Pickens, David, photog. Circle of Life: the Micosukee Indian Way. New York, NY: J. Messner; 1974. 64 pages. (elementary/secondary) *.

This excellent contemporary account, written with the help of tribal members, stresses the success of this Florida Everglades tribe in preserving its culture. Micosukee traditions and language are taught in school along with mainstream education. Generously illustrated with black-and-white photographs.


Collins, Ann M. The Great Sun Must Die! Tigard, OR: C.C. Publications, Inc.; 1985. 93 pages. (upper elementary).

The author describes this short novel for young readers as "...fiction set in an historical setting" that attempts to "present a fair and accurate portrayal of the geography, customs, and style of the given era." The story concerns Red Feather, a young Natchez boy who overhears a French trader plotting to kill the Natchez leader Great Sun. When Great Sun refuses to believe him, Red Feather takes it upon himself to stop the attempted murder and save his leader and his people from French domination. The dialogue is often improbable, as when Red Feather's friend Bear Claw addresses his elders with "It's a nice day, sirs, isn't it?" There are no female characters and little useful information on Natchez culture or history. This is simply a teen adventure story using American Indian characters. The novel serves as a companion to the publisher's social studies unit on The First Americans.


Clark Electa; Doremus, Robert, illus. Osceola: Young Seminole Indian. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.; 1965. 200 pages. (Childhood of Famous Americans). (elementary).

This is a biography of Osceola, the famous Seminole warrior, who violently opposed the forced exile of Florida Indians to Oklahoma during the 1830s and fought in the Seminole Wars between the Seminole and the United States. Much about the lifeways of the Seminole and their thoughts and motivations are described throughout the course of the story, though no references or documentation support the extensive dialogue and the anecdotal events found in this book. The book includes a time-line of important dates, questions on the story, and lists of things to look up and do that are related to the book. Includes unappealing illustrations.

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Patriot Chiefs: A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1961 364 pages. (secondary).

This book recounts the life stories of nine outstanding leaders in the Indian resistance movement, from different times, places, and nations. The author explains, "While this is not a history of American Indians...the subjects were selected to provide variety in Indian backgrounds and culture, geographic areas and historic periods, and particular large-scale problems that led to crises and conflicts. Arranged chronologically, they help to convey in ordered sense a narrative outline of much Indian history." Although it was published thirty years ago, this book remains one of the best written and most readable books of its kind. Included are biographies of Hiawatha, King Philip, Pope, Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Black Hawk, Crazy Horse, and Chief Joseph.

Levin, Beatrice; Vanderveld, Marjorie; Woolgar, Jack; Swartz, Darline illus. Me Run Fast Good: American Indian Biographies. Gilliland, Hap, ed. Billings, MT: Council for Indian Education; 1983. 32 pages. (upper elementary).

The halting title does not reflect the nature of this book describing the lives of three accomplished Indian individuals: Louis Tewanima (Hopi), Carlos Montezuma (Apache), and John Horse (Seminole). Tewanima achieved fame as a long distance runner at the Carlisle Indian School and as a member of the United States Olympic Team. Montezuma became a medical doctor and practiced among both Indian and non-Indian communities. John Horse served as an interpreter during meetings between the English and Seminole over the Treaty of Payne's Landing, and was a leader and chief of his people. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings.

McGovern, Ann. The Defenders. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1987, 1970. 128 pages. (upper elementary).

Through the biographies of chiefs Osceola (Seminole), Tecumseh (Shawnee) and Cochise (Chiricahua Apache), the story of American Indians' struggle to keep their lands is told in a simple, fast-moving style that should keep young readers interested. No sources or bibliography are provided. Illustrated with reproductions of prints and archival photographs.

Oppenheim, Joanne; Ternay, Bill, illus. Osceola: Seminole Warrior. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1979. 48 pages. (lower elementary).

This is an engaging biography of Osceola and the Creek's struggle against white encroachment. The book describes the division of the Creeks into those who supported the British and those who supported the United States in the War of 1812, and the flight of British supporters to the Florida Seminoles. Life in Florida and continuing white pressure for land are described. Includes black-and-white illustrations, and a map that shows locales mentioned in text.


Brooks, Barbara; Lazzarino, Luciano, illus. The Seminole. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications, Inc.; 1989. 31 pages. Indian Tribes of America. (upper elementary) ?.

The history and traditional lifeways of the Seminole are described in this book written for young readers. Organizational problems confuse the presentation and generalizations are common, such as "Because Indian traditions and Christian ideas do not mix well, the Indian religion is disappearing." "Important Dates in Seminole History" ends with the year 1838. Illustrated with colorful drawings and archival photographs.

Garbarino, Merwyn S. The Seminole. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 111 pages. Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book describes the history and culture of the Seminole, a tribe originally comprised of members of various Southeast tribes who fled to Florida when pressured to give up their land for settlement by non-Indians. Tribal members also consisted of some of the runaway black slaves who escaped to Florida. Under Spanish rule, the Seminole were given land and granted Spanish citizenship until 1821, when Florida became part of the United States. The book describes the Seminole's fight against the removal policy of the U. S. government, their struggles to keep their land, subsequent relocation to Florida reservations, the formation of a tribal government, and contemporary life. Includes a center color section on Seminole patchwork. Profusely illustrated with drawings, engravings, and contemporary photographs. Also includes a glossary, bibliography, and "The Seminole-At-A-Glance."

Lee, Martin. The Seminoles. New York, NY: Franklin Watts; 1991 1989. 64 pages. (lower elementary).

This is a traditional portrait of the Seminole, including a section on their prehistory. The illustrations lack attribution and explanation, and the early depictions of Southeast Indians "Europeanize" the subjects. The text is awkwardly written and confusing in some of its presentation.

Lepthien, Emilie. The Seminole. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1985. 48 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary) ?.

This is a simply-written book on the Seminole, their history, lifeways, education, and government. The text includes information on the three Seminole wars, contemporary life on and off the reservation, and a glossary and index. Consistent use of the passive voice may be offensive, because it avoids assigning responsibility to the U. S. government for actions taken. For example, in reference to an incident between the Seminole and U.S. government during the Second Seminole War, the book explains, "But the Indians were tricked. They were captured." In describing the death of Osceola, the book recounts, "Osceola became ill and died in 1838. Osceola was buried at Fort Moultrie," but no mention is made of the fact that Osceola was a prisoner of the U.S. government at the fort at the time of his death. Illustrated with full-color and black-and-white photographs.


George, Jean Craighead. The Talking Earth. New York: Harper C Child Books; 1987. 160 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

Billie Wind, a thirteen-year-old Seminole girl, questions the validity and usefulness of Seminole legends about talking animals and earth spirits in contrast to the scientific knowledge she has learned in school. As punishment by the Council for being a doubter, Billie is to spend time alone in the Everglades. Here, she learns that listening to the land and to the animals can teach her about survival and about understanding her people's beliefs.

Kudlinski, Kathleen V.; Watling, James, illus. Night Bird: A Story of the Seminole Indians. New York, NY: Viking; 1993. 54 pages. (upper elementary).

In this engaging novel for young readers, Night Bird, a Seminole girl living in the Florida Everglades in 1840, must decide whether to follow her family to Oklahoma, or remain behind with relatives in their traditional homeland. The Seminole hurry to perform the Green Corn Ceremony that marks the beginning of their New Year amidst hasty preparations to leave for Oklahoma before the white soldiers arrive. A short postscript describes the devastation suffered by the Indians in the Seminole Wars that began in 1835 and lasted until 1858, and also mentions the Seminole today. Illustrated with full-page black-and-white drawings.

Medaris, Angela Shelf; Byrd, Samuel, illus. Dancing with the Indians. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1991. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

A young girl, whose grandfather escaped from slavery and was adopted into the Seminole tribe, describes her family's annual outing to the Seminole powwow in Oklahoma sometime in the 1930s. In poetic, rhythmic prose, she describes the atmosphere of the powwow and the various dances performed---the Ribbon Dance, the Rattlesnake Dance, and the War Dance. The final page contains a factual account of her grandfather's escape from slavery and his years as a free man. Includes attractive, full-color illustrations.

Wallin, Luke. Ceremony of the Panther. New York, NY: Bradbury Press; 1987. 124 pages (secondary).

John Raincrow, a Miccosukee Seminole teenager, struggles to decide whether or not to follow in his medicine-man father's footsteps, in this coming-of-age novel set in the Florida Everglades. The story raises the complex issue of Miccosukee rights to use the endangered panther for religious ceremonies and deals realistically yet sensitively with contemporary concerns facing Miccosukee teens and families.


Costabel, Eva Deutsch; Costabel, Eva Deutsch, illus. The Early People of Florida. New York, NY. Atheneum. 1993. 34 pages. (upper elementary)

See annotation under Apalache Non-Fiction.


Brain, Jeffrey P. The Tunica-Biloxi. Chelsea House Publishers: New York, NY; 1990. 102 pages. (Frank W. Porter, III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book documents the history of the Tunica from their origins along the lower Mississippi River, through a sequence of migrations in the 17th and 18th centuries, to their eventual settlement in central Louisiana, where they merged with their neighbors, the Biloxi. Includes information on pre-Contact history, relationship with the French, conflicts with the Natchez, transformation of their way of life during the 19th century, and survival into the 20th century with their cultural traditions and tribal structure intact. Illustrated with archival and contemporary photographs. Includes a bibliography, "Tunica-Biloxi-At-A-Glance," a glossary, and an index.

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