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Waters, Frank. Brave Are My People: Indian Heroes Not Forgotten. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers; 1993. 189 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This book consists of five- to ten-page biographies and histories of Indian leaders who lived within the years 1600-1900. Leaders included in this engaging book are Osceola, Sequoyah, Tecumseh, Black Hawk, and Pontiac. Some of the information and interpretations of events in this volume, such as Pocahontas saving Captain John Smith's life, have been refuted by recent scholarship. The book inaccurately states that the scalp of Mangas Coloradas was sent to the Smithsonian Institution. Includes a foreword by Vine Deloria Jr. (Standing Rock Sioux).


Connolly, James E., comp; Adams, Andrea, illus. Why the Possum's Tail is Bare and Other North American Indian Nature Tales. Owings Mills, MD: Stemmer House; 1985. 64 pages. (upper elementary) *.

Sources are cited for these thirteen animal legends collected from eight tribes. The introduction provides a brief overview of the lifeways of the eight tribes represented, and each story is preceded by a paragraph discussing some of the characteristics of the animals and supernatural beings in the tales. The language of the stories is simple and accessible for young readers. Includes appealing, realistic drawings.

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Carlson, Susan Johnston, illus. First Houses: Native American Homes and Sacred Structures. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1993. 147 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This is a collection of legends associated with American Indian houses and sacred structures from the temperate zone of North America. Stories about the Plains tipi, Iroquois longhouse, Navajo hogan, and a variety of other house types show how the designs for these ancient dwellings set the pattern for homes of today. Most of the stories were collected directly from the Indian storytellers and were originally published in scholarly books and journals "reduced to lifeless prose." The authors have presented the stories here "in a form that we hope conveys more of the liveliness of the original telling."


Bains, Rae; Hannon, Mark, illus. Indians of the Eastern Woodlands. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book describes the pre-Contact lifeways, particularly housing and subsistence, of the Algonquin, Iroquois, Creek Confederacy, Sauk, Fox, Winnebago, and Shawnee. The amount of information covered in this brief book results in a confusing presentation. Stereotypical attitudes and misconceptions pervade the illustrations and the text; for example, "the Iroquois were the fiercest" or the closing statement, "Today all that remains of the Eastern Woodland Indians are a few scattered reservations, a collection of Indian artifacts in museums and tales told by their descendants." An illustration in the final section depicting two war-painted Indians crouching behind a fence looking toward a settler's cabin as if ready to attack has no relation to the text.

Baylor, Byrd; Ingram, Jerry (Choctaw), illus. They Put on Masks. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons; 1974. 47 pages. (lower elementary).

This book beautifully describes the forms and functions of masks among the Eskimo, Northwest Coast cultures, Iroquois, Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Zuni, and Yaqui. The book evokes the powerful feelings associated with masks and provides much descriptive information. It is important to note that many American Indians find depicting masks and using them for classroom activities offensive.

Boiteau, Denise; Stansfield, David. Early Peoples: A History of Canada. Markham, Ontario, Canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd.; 1988. 64 pages. (upper elementary) *.

Based on the first three programs of the Canadian television series, "Origins," which explores the history of the peoples of Canada up to 1885, this book is divided into three chapters: "A New World"; "The First Nations"; and "Lost Civilizations." Each chapter includes several units that begin with questions to consider and ends with creative research activities and discussion questions. This book clearly explains the differences between evolution and creation, and asserts that these theories do not oppose one another.

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Homes. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary).

This book describes the house types of various regions (Plains, Woodlands, Southeast, Southwest) and the factors that influenced the types of housing: climate; building materials; length of time dwelling was used; tribal customs; and lifeways. There is no discussion on contemporary housing nor the roles of the above factors for Indians today. The book contains generalizations such as: "A belief shared by all tribes was...." e/Plains/Northeast/Subarctic/Southeast/Southwest.

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Festivals. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book gives brief descriptions of the festivals held by American Indians in the Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois, Algonquian), Southeast (Muskogee), Plains, Southwest (Pueblo), California, and Northwest Coast regions. The book uses term word "braves" as well as generalizations and stereotypes about Native peoples, such as "The Indians who lived in California did not hunt or farm. They lived entirely on acorns that were gathered from trees. But while their lives were easy and peaceful, their festivals were almost totally concerned with death."

Braun, Esther K. and Braun, David P. The First Peoples of the Northeast. Lincoln, MA: Lincoln Historical Society, 1994, 144 pp. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This overview of the archaeology of New England, New York, and the southern Maritime Provinces of Canada begins with the Ice Age and the coming of the first inhabitants, followed by the changes in lifeways of the people from the Archaic through the Woodland periods, and then from European contact. The final chapter discusses archaeology and its importance in understanding our past and the responsibility of us all in preserving it. Appendices discuss "How Archaeology Works" and "Places to see Archaeological Exhibits and Report Archaeological Finds." The book is amply illustrated with maps, drawings, and photographs. Includes a bibliography.

Calloway, Colin G. Indians of the Northeast. New York, NY: Facts on File; 1991. 96 pages. (The First Americans). (upper elementary) *.

This is a well-balanced description of the past and recent history of the Native cultures of the Northeast. Unlike many books of this kind, it devotes significant space to contemporary life, including U.S. Indian policies, urban Indians, the American Indian Movement, Indian identity, legal status, land claims and hunting and fishing rights, religious freedom, economic development, education, and powpows. Black-and-white and color photographs supplement the text, which is written in a clear and concise style.

Carlson, Richard J. Rooted Like the Ash Trees: New England Indians and the Land. Naugatuck, CT: Eagle Wing Press, Inc.; 1987. 81 pages. (secondary) *.

This collection is designed for use in schools by members of New England tribes and "those who hold fellowship with them" to demonstrate that New England's indigenous people have "flourished, thrived and survived." Ties to the land are traced through archaeology, traditional teachings, and struggles to retain homelands. Includes suggested readings, resources, and a bibliography for young readers.

Cherry, Lynn. A River Ran Wild: An Environmental History. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich Publishers; 1992. 26 pages. (elementary).

While primarily a story about activist Marion Stoddart's successful campaign to clean up the polluted Nashua River in New England, this book contains some information about the Algonquian-speaking Indians who were the area's first inhabitants. Native philosophy towards the environment is contrasted with that of the English, who settled the area centuries later. This is an appealing, beautifully illustrated story.

Egloff, Keith, and Woodward, Deborah. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Richmond: The Virginia Department of Historic Resources, 1992. 66 pp. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

Written in a way that will engage students, this excellent resource outlines the development of American Indian culture in Virginia from earliest times to the present. The introduction describes simply but carefully how archaeology is carried out, introducing concepts of stratigraphy, relative and absolute dating, ethnohistory, and more. Ideas and quotes from contemporary Virginia Indians (specific tribes indicated instead of the general term "Indians") are added to archaeological interpretations of the past. The book includes a discussion of recent and contemporary Indian issues in Virginia today. A timeline, glossary, suggested readings, and public resources on "Virginia Indians Today" all add to the book's value. Includes a map showing locations of reservations and important archaeological sites in Virginia.

Johnson, Michael G.; Hook, Richard, illus. American Woodland Indians. London, England: Osprey Publishing Ltd.; 1990. 48 pages. (Men-At-Arms). (secondary).

This well-written and informative book covers the history and pre-Contact lifeways of the Northeastern tribes. The opening chapter provides a brief historical sketch of each tribe, along with present-day location and population size. Subsequent sections cover colonial and frontier wars, warfare, religion, technology, and art. Illustrated with archival photographs, maps, and accurate color illustrations of clothing.

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Patriot Chiefs: A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1961. 364 pages. (secondary).

This book recounts the life stories of nine outstanding leaders in Indian resistance, from different times, places, and nations. The author explains, "While this is not a history of American Indians...the subjects were selected to provide variety in Indian backgrounds and culture, geographic areas and historic periods, and particular large-scale problems that led to crises and conflicts. Arranged chronologically, they help to convey in ordered sense a narrative outline of much Indian history." Although it was published thirty years ago, this book remains one of the best written and most readable books of its kind. Included are biographies of Hiawatha, King Philip, Pope, Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Black Hawk, Crazy Horse, and Chief Joseph.

Morris, Richard; Fisher, Leonard Everett, illus. The Indian Wars. Revision of 1959 ed. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications; 1985. 84 pages. (American History Topic Books). (upper elementary).

This book is a chronological summary of the major confrontations between American Indians and the Europeans in colonial times, and of American Indian alliances with competing European groups. Though the author appears sympathetic to the Indian perspective, the text does not escape generalizations and stereotypes, for example, "When they [the Indians] took a warrior prisoner it was chiefly to torture him"; "The Indians who settled in what is now the U.S. were much less advanced than those in Mexico and Peru"; and "...the Indians had disappeared from New England forever." Illustrated with black-and-white maps and drawings. The illustrations depicting Indian aggression against non-Native tend to be more sensational than those depicting non-Native aggression toward the American Indians.

Payne, Elizabeth; Davis, Jack, illus. Meet the North American Indians. New York, NY: Random House; 1965. 85 pages. (Step Up Books). (lower elementary) ?.

This reprint of a 1965 publication describes in simple prose for young readers the peopling of America and the pre-Contact lifeways of representative tribes of the Northwest Coast, Southwest, Southeast, Plains, and Northeast. Post-Contact and modern life are not covered. The book abounds in generalizations, stereotypes, and condescension. Examples include: "The Creek would fight anyone for no reason at all. The Creek just loved to fight"; "The Creek played [lacrosse] fiercely. Arms and legs were broken. Heads were just split open. This was just part of the fun to the Creek"; "Makah rain hats were pointed at the top. Maybe this was because the heads of the Makah were pointed at the top, too!" Black, white, and orange illustrations are similarly stereotypical and tend to focus on the unusual and bizarre.

Porter, Frank W. III. Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today. Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society; 1983. 26 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a clearly written description of Maryland Native history and culture for young readers. The 14,000- year prehistory of the region is outlined. The effects of European contact on the Indians of Maryland are discussed, including the establishment of reservations; the subsequent migration of Maryland Indians to Pennsylvania, New York, and Canada; the adaptations of the Native peoples who remained into the economic life of the dominant culture in the 19th century; and the continuation of traditional lifeways into the 20th century. The development and the effects of racial prejudice towards Indian communities, and their impact on Native education and religion are also considered. The book is illustrated with maps and archival photographs and includes "Indian Population of Maryland in 1980"; Indian place names and their meanings; references; and suggested reading.

Potter, Stephen. Commoners, Tribute, and Chiefs: The Development of Algonquian Culture in the Potomac Valley. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1993. 267 pp. (secondary).

This meticulously researched and well-written archaeological and ethnohistorical interpretation of the development of American Indian cultures in the Potomac River Valley is a useful reference for educators looking for specific information on archaeology in the Chesapeake Bay region. Maps show Native groups in the Chesapeake Bay area and along the lower Potomac River in the early 17th century. This book is too technical for most secondary students, but a good reference.

Shemie, Bonnie; Shemie, Bonnie, illus. Houses of Bark: Tipi, Wigwam and Longhouse: Native Dwellings of the Woodland Indians. Plattsburgh, NY: Tundra Books; 1990. 24 pages. (upper elementary) *.

This is a brief introduction to the materials and construction of bark dwellings---tipis, wigwams and longhouses---of the Northern Woodlands. Well-researched and engagingly written, this book approaches the topic of American Indians from the theme of the many and varied uses of bark. Fine illustrations complement and enhance the text. The frontispiece map illustrates the types and geographic distribution of bark dwellings. The author acknowledges the help of archaeologists and American Indian authorities.

Siegel, Beatrice; Bock, William Sauts, illus. Fur Trappers and Traders: The Indians, the Pilgrims and the Beaver. Reprint of 1981 ed. New York, NY: Walker and Company; 1987. 64 pages. (upper elementary).

This history of beaver trapping and trade in North America during the 17th and 18th centuries is clearly presented in a question-and-answer format. Among the topics included are the effects of European-introduced diseases on Native populations, the economic importance of the fur trade to the Pilgrims and early settlers, the role of American Indians in trapping and preparing pelts, and how the Native peoples' growing dependence on European goods affected their culture. Black-and-white illustrations contrast Indian and non-Native material culture items and show the working of beaver skins as well as and the finished product---European hats. Includes endnotes, suggested readings, and an index.

Tooker, Elizabeth, ed. Native American Spirituality of the Eastern Woodlands: Sacred Dreams, Visions, Speeches, Healing Formulas, Rituals and Ceremonials. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press; 1979. 320 pages. (secondary).

This book presents the religious traditions, translated directly from written and audio-taped sources, of several Eastern tribes. Extensive footnotes help clarify difficult passages. Each section is introduced by explanatory notes. Includes a bibliography and an index.

Vennum, Thomas Jr. American Indian Lacrosse. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994. 360 pages. (secondary)*

This interesting and well-written book describes the Eastern Woodlands origin of lacrosse; the cultural and spiritual significance of the game to American Indian people; equipment and rules; and how the game is played in the Northeast, Southeast, and Great Lakes region. The author recounts specific games, chronicled over time, beginning in the 1630s to present day, and how lacrosse's popularity spread to non-Indians. The author's exhaustive research reveals interesting facts such as, "Certain lacrosse balls held objects hidden inside their stuffing to provide secret power"; and among the Cherokee, the ball's cover had to come from a squirrel killed without being shot. Two appendices cover lacrosse legends and American Indian lacrosse stick making. Includes contemporary and historic black-and-white photographs, a bibliography, and an index.

Watson, Jane Werner; Howell, Troy, illus. The First Americans: Tribes of North America. New York, NY: Pantheon Books; 1980. 42 pages. (I Am Reading Book). (lower elementary).

This brief overview describing the lifeways of the people who lived on the Plains and in the Eastern Woodlands, Arctic, Northwest Coast, and Southwest. In an effort to cover so many different culture areas, the author oversimplifies, and delineations between culture areas are often unclear. Descriptions of male activities predominate. Includes black-and-white illustrations.


Benchley, Nathaniel; Lobel, Arnold, illus. Red Fox and His Canoe. New York, NY: Harper C Child Books; 1985. 64 pages. (lower elementary)?.

This story, built around Red Fox's desire for a bigger canoe, presents no cultural context or information about American Indian lifeways. No specific tribe is indicated. Both illustrations and text contain stereotypes and generalizations. Dad, for instance, is always shown wearing a Plains warbonnet and carrying a pipe, while the text contains such phrases as "like all Indian boys."

Benchley, Nathaniel; Sandin, Joan, illus. Small Wolf. New York, NY: Harper & Row; 1972. 64 pages. (I Can Read History). (lower elementary) ?.

In this story, set in Manhattan Island in the 17th century, a young American Indian boy (tribe not indicated) sees non-Natives for the first time and attempts, unsuccessfully, to make friends with them. While the book's basic intent is a good one---to introduce children to the idea of the gradual displacement of Native Americans by Euroamerican settlers---it is marred by an unrealistic story. For instance, Indians and non-Indians are shown able to communicate verbally with each other upon initial contact, and the Indians are familiar with the handling of guns without prior knowledge of their existence, according to the story. Illustrations are inaccurate and stereotypical, such as showing the boy's father wearing a Plains warbonnet.

Bruchac, Joseph (Abenaki). Dawnland. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1993. 317 pp. (secondary)

This fictional story is based, in part, on oral traditions of the Abenaki, the Iroquois, and other Native peoples of the Northeastern U.S. The novel's protagonist, Young Hunter, is chosen by a "far-seeing one" to undertake a dangerous journey to confront "that which is coming towards us," an undefined force that is endangering Young Hunter's people, the Only People. Set long before the arrival of Europeans in North America, the villains are grey-skinned giants, a race of people encountered in many native stories as cannibalistic giants who hunted and ate humans. Young Hunter's journey is both spiritual and physical. He encounters violence and depravity and responds with compassion and bravery. He ultimately triumphs as he slays a black creature and the giants. In the novel's introduction, the author explains some of Native traditions and views evident in the story; for example, Native child-rearing practices, the importance of dogs, and the strong tradition of redemption among northeastern Native peoples. There is a rape scene and some graphic descriptions of violence that make this unsuitable for younger readers.

Holling, Clancy Holling; Holling, Clancy Holling, illus. Paddle-to-the-Sea. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1941. 58 pages. (elementary).

A young American Indian boy (no tribe indicated) carves a small canoe with a seated figure to paddle it and sends the two off on a journey from Lake Superior to the Atlantic Ocean. Told in twenty-seven one-page chapters, each illustrated with a full-page, color illustration, this is the story of Paddle-to-the-Sea's many adventures over the four years it takes him to reach the sea. No information on American Indians in contained in the story.

Locker, Thomas; Locker, Thomas, illus. The Land of the Grey Wolf. New York, NY: Dial Book; 1991. 28 pages. (lower and upper elementary).

Through the eyes of Running Deer (tribe not indicated), this book tells of American Indians' respect for and loss of their land. Running Deer witnesses the arrival of the first Europeans in his area (unidentified) and later is confined to a reservation---an obvious anachronism. The intended message of the book is ecological, however, and its focus is the author-illustrator's beautiful illustrations, reminiscent of the Hudson River Valley school of painting. The illustrations depict the land in its various stages: pre-Contact wilderness, "tamed" into farmland, subsequent abandonment, and return to primeval state, though when this occurs is unclear.

Parish, Peggy; Watts, James, illus. Good Hunting, Blue Sky. Revised version of 1962 ed. New York, NY: Harper and Row; 1989. 62 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

An overly cute account of an American Indian boy's first hunt alone, this book, first published under the title Good Hunting, Little Indian, has been revised, but not enough to correct its many flaws. No tribe is indicated or geographic region identified. The illustrations are stereotypical. The hero, Blue Sky, addresses his parents as "Momma" and "Poppa." This is an improbable Euroamerican story put into a Native setting.

Parsons, Elsie Clews (ed).; La Farge, C. Grant, illus. North American Indian Life: Customs and Traditions of 23 Tribes. Reprint of B.W. Huebsch Inc. 1922 ed. New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc.; 1992. 419 pages. (secondary).

Reprinted from the original 1922 edition, this book includes twenty-seven fictional narratives, written by anthropologists, about various North and Central American Indian cultures. The editor attempts to provide a more realistic view of American Indians than was currently available from popular literature; the resulting collection is uneven. Most of the stories endeavor to present the culture from the inside; two that are drawn directly from American Indian sources are particularly successful. Others may leave the reader more confused than informed. Some of the attitudes and concepts are outmoded. The introduction, by A.L. Kroeber, refers to the cultures described in this collection as representing "a ladder of culture development of advancement," and speaks of an anthropologist and "his Indians." Notes on the various tribes give 1922 statistics, and accompanying bibliographies have not been updated.

Speare, Elizabeth. Sign of the Beaver. Boston, MA: Dell; 1984. 144 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

In this coming-of-age story set in 18th-century Maine, Matthew Hallowell, left alone to guard the family cabin, is befriended by local Indians (tribe not indicated), who teach him to survive in the forest. The Natives speak stereotypical "Hollywood Indian," and the story contains offensive terms such as "heathen," "squaw," and "savage." The story perpetuates the stereotype of the "vanishing Indian." While this book is popular and widely used in classrooms, it is offensive in its portrayal of American Indians.

Shaw, Janet; Graef, Renee, illus. Kirsten Learns A Lesson: A School Story. Madison, WI: Pleasant Company; 1990. 72 pages. (upper elementary).

Kirsten, a young Swedish immigrant to Minnesota in the 1850s, is befriended by an American Indian girl, Singing Bird. The American Indian aspects of the story are secondary to the main one: Kirsten's difficult adjustment to her new country. The pressures causing the Indians to leave the area in search of more plentiful food resources is the only Native issue raised. A factual section on frontier schools at the end of the book is illustrated with archival photographs.


Bruchac, Joseph (Abenaki). The Faithful Hunter: Abenaki Stories. Original ed. Greenfield Center, NY: Greenfield Review Lit.; 1989. 74 pages. (lower elementary) *.

This book consists of twelve traditional Abenaki creation and animal stories. The introduction stresses the message these traditional tales carry---a need for balance in our relations with all aspects of creation ---and describes the importance of storytelling in both traditional and contemporary Abenaki society. Includes a map of the Abenaki and neighboring areas. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Bruchac, Joseph . Fadden, John Kahionhes, illus. The Wind Eagle and Other Abenaki Stories. Greenfield Center, NY: Bowman Books; 1985. 34 pages. (lower elementary) *.

This book consists of some of the traditional tales that have been told, and are still being told, to Abenaki children by their elders. The protagonist in each one is Gluskabi, the man who formed himself from the dust that was sprinkled on the earth by Tabaldak, who had just made human beings with his own hands. These entertaining and educational stories explain why the wind is necessary, how grasshoppers came to spit tobacco, how a bullfrog was created, and how water became available for everyone. The text is ideal for reading to younger elementary students. The foreword gives a brief history of the Abenaki people. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Norman, Howard; McCurdy, Michael, illus. How Glooskap Outwits the Ice Giants and Other Tales of the Maritime Indians. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.; 1989. 60 pages. (lower elementary).

This book contains six tales from Maritime Canada and New England about Glooskap, a giant who invents mankind and becomes their protector. The tales are re-told with humor and illustrated with wood engravings, which complement the fun-loving text.

Taylor, C. J. (Mohawk); Taylor, C. J., illus. How Two-Feather Was Saved From Loneliness. Plattsburgh, NY: Tundra Books; 1990. 20 pages. (elementary).

This is a retelling of a charming Abenaki story about the origins of corn, fire, and communal life. A note gives a brief sketch of the Abenaki and indicates the Western Abenaki as the probable branch of the Abenaki from which the legend came. The source for the story is cited. Includes full-page color illustrations by the author.


Calloway, Colin G. The Abenaki. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 111 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (secondary) *.

This history of the several tribes comprising the Abenaki of northern New England describes traditional Abenaki lifeways, followed by a discussion of the losses the Abenaki suffered in the 17th century when contact with Europeans introduced deadly diseases. The book describes their wars with the English and forced migrations north to Canada as the English pushed onto their lands in the 18th century, and the Abenaki's struggle to preserve their culture and identity into the 20th century. Contemporary issues are also discussed. A full-color picture essay features Abenaki basketry and other crafts. Includes a bibliography, "Abenaki-At-A-Glance," a glossary, and an index.


Speare, Elizabeth George; Mars, W. T., illus. Calico Captive. Cambridge, MA: Dell; 1973. 278 pages. (upper elementary)?.

This is a story of teenage romantic love based on true events in the 1750s. A Vermont settler family, captured by a group of Abenaki, is taken to Canada, separated, and sold as slaves. The family is eventually ransomed and returned to the United States. The story is told through the eyes of 17-year-old Miriam, who published her recollections of the events fifty years later in her Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Johnson. The main theme of the story is Miriam's coming-of-age and finding her own identity in the challenges she faces while a prisoner. The Native aspect of the story is secondary to this theme and reflects captive Miriam's attitudes. The terms "savages" and "redskins" are used throughout and American Indians are described as having "hideous faces," while they give vent to "dreadful shrieks" and "blood-chilling yells." There is some attempt by other characters in the book to counter Miriam's prejudices, but this theme remains quite undeveloped.


Coehlene, Terri; Reasoner, Charles, illus. Little Firefly: An Algonquian Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press; 1990. 46 pages. (lower elementary).

This story, reminiscent of the story of Cinderella, concerns a motherless young girl mistreated by her sisters. The girl eventually marries a great hunter, The Invisible One. The story's original source is not given, and it is difficult to gauge the degree of its adaptation. A 10-page section of factual information about Algonquian history and contemporary life is included as well as a list of important dates, and a glossary. The book contains full-color illustrations in the story section and photographs in the factual section.

Martin, Rafe; Shannon, David, illus. The Rough-Face Girl. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons; 1992. 29 pages. (lower elementary).

Based on an Algonquian legend, this Cinderella story is, "in its original form, actually part of a longer and more complex traditional story." Three sisters compete for the love of the Invisible Hunter, who rejects the two beautiful but cruel and hard-hearted sisters for the scarred sister who is beautiful inside. Illustrated with striking full-page, full-color paintings.



Major, Kevin. Blood Red Ochre. New York: Dell; 1990, 1989, Delcorte Press 147 pages. (secondary).

David, a tenth-grader living in Newfoundland, becomes intrigued with Nancy, a new student in his history class. As a result of their both having chosen the Beothuk as the subject of their history paper, Nancy convinces David to take a canoe trip to Red Ochre Island. This story is interwoven with that of Dauoodaset, a Beothuk man, who canoes to Red Ochre Island to find food for his people who are suffering from hunger and disease. When David and Nancy reach the island, the two stories join in time and Nancy becomes Shanawdithit, with whom Dauoodaset falls in love. David eventually finds no evidence that the events that occur on the island ever happened. The story includes some cultural information on canoe building and Beothuk funeral practices.





Irwin, Hadley. We Are Mesquakie: We Are One. Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press; 1980. 115 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is an engaging story about a young Mesquakie girl, Hidden Doe. Her people, forced to move from their home in Iowa to a reservation in Kansas, are encouraged to adopt Euroamerican culture. The author credits The Autobiography of a Fox Woman (1918) for much of the information the book imparts on Mesquakie culture, with special emphasis on women's roles.

Le Sueur, Meridel; Desjarlait, Robert (Chippewa), illus. Sparrow Hawk. New edition of (Alfred A. Knopf) 1950 ed. Duluth, MN: Holy Cow! Press; 1987. 176 pages. (upper elementary).

This fictionalized account of how the Sauk were driven from their land by squatters is told through the eyes of young Sparrow Hawk, who shares many of his adventures with his non-Indian friend, Huck. The book makes the point that there are both good and bad non-Indians and good and bad Indians. The story is well- told, gradually drawing the reader into the events that marked the takeover of tribal lands. Foreword by Vine Deloria Jr. (Standing Rock Sioux).



Bonvillain, Nancy. The Huron. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 111 pages. Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. (Indians of North America). (secondary) *.

This book covers the history and culture of the Huron confederacy, who called themselves the Wendat, and traditionally lived in what is now southern Ontario, Canada. The book describes pre-Contact life, the importance of the trading relationship established with the French, conflicts with the Iroquois over control of the fur trade, devastation by smallpox and measles, and the influence and effects of the French missionaries, all of which contributed to the Huron's need to abandon their homeland and disband the confederacy in the mid-17th century. Warfare with Indian enemies and pressures from settlers led to two centuries of migration, until the Wyandot, as they are now known, settled in what is now Oklahoma in 1858. The book also includes information on the Huron and Wyandot today. Profusely illustrated with a color photo insert on moosehair embroidery. Includes a bibliography, "Huron-At-A-Glance," a glossary, and an index.

IROQUOIS (The Iroquois Confederacy is comprised of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora)


Bonvillain, Nancy. Hiawatha: Founder of the Iroquois Confederacy. New York: Chelsea House Publishers; 1992. 118 pages. (North American Indians of Achievement). (secondary).

This is a biography of Hiawatha, the Iroquois leader who united the independent nations of the Iroquois into one confederacy. The laws and rituals associated with the confederacy are discussed, as is its power from the 17th through the 20th centuries. Includes a chronology, a reading list, and an index.

Fradin, Dennis Brindell. Hiawatha: Messenger of Peace. New York, NY: Margaret K. McElderry Books; 1992. 35 pages. (elementary) *.

This is a well-written account of the life of Hiawatha, the Iroquois leader who founded the national government that united the five Iroquois tribes in the 15th century. The early events of Hiawatha's childhood are recreated based on accounts of traditional Iroquois life, and frequently the book incorporates more than one interpretation of events in his life. Regarding Iroquois influences on the U.S. Constitution, the author states, "...many historians claim that all Americans live according to some of Hiawatha's and the Peacemaker's ideas." Illustrated with a map and many photographs, including paintings by contemporary Iroquois artists. Includes a bibliography and an index.

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Patriot Chiefs: A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1961. 364 pages. (secondary).

This book describes the life stories of nine outstanding leaders in the Indian resistance movement, from different times, places, and nations. The author explains that "While this is not a history of American Indians...the subjects were selected to provide variety in Indian backgrounds and culture, geographic areas and historic periods, and particular large-scale problems that led to crises and conflicts. Arranged chronologically, they help to convey in ordered sense a narrative outline of much Indian history." Although it was published 30 years ago, this book remains one of the best written and most readable books of its kind. Included are biographies of Hiawatha, King Philip, Pope, Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Black Hawk, Crazy Horse, and Chief Joseph.

McClard, Megan; Ypsilantis, George Riccio, Frank, illus. Hiawatha. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press; 1989. 123 pages. (Alvin Josephy, Gen. Ed. Alvin Josephy's Biography Series on American Indians). (upper elementary/secondary).

This biography of Hiawatha describes how this Iroquois leader was instrumental in establishing peace and union among the Six Nations of the Iroquois, through formation of the Iroquois League. The importance of wampum as a record of law and history in association with the League is also discussed. The book describes the early part of Hiawatha's life based on oral traditions, since there are no written historical records. Includes black-and-white drawings.


Bierhorst, John; Parker, Robert Andrew, illus. The Woman Who Fell From the Sky: the Iroquois Story of Creation. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc.; 1993. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

Sources are cited for this version of the Iroquois story of the sky woman and the creation of the world. This story explaining why there are two minds in the universe--one hard, and one that is gentle--may be complicated for young readers, for whom it is intended. Illustrated with beautiful full-page, color paintings. e/star/Iroquois/Northeast/legend.

Bierhorst, John ed.; Zimmer, Dirk, illus. The Naked Bear, Folktales of the Iroquois. New York, NY: William Morrow & Co.; 1987. 115 pages. (lower and upper elementary).

This collection contains sixteen Iroquois folktales retold in simple language suitable for elementary students. According to the introduction, the happy endings and the sense of evil punished and virtue rewarded in these stories, collected 1880--1890, reflect 300 years of European influence. Accompanying notes explain cultural information that may be unfamiliar to readers. The illustrations tend toward cartoon-like caricatures, detracting from the editor's apparent concern for accuracy. Includes a bibliography.


Chadwick, Edward Marion. The People of the Longhouse. Toronto, Canada: The Church of England Publishing Co., 1897. 166 pages. (secondary).

This book, describing the history of the Iroquois from the creation of the League of Nations to the time of the book's printing (1897), opens with the following statement: "Unlike most Indian Nations, whose history is generally little more than vague tradition, interesting to few but ethnologists and other scientists, the People of the Longhouse, Iroquois, or Six Nations...possess a reliable history of respectable antiquity...." Following this, the author explains that the book "neither pretends to be exhaustive nor attempts to deal with the wider subjects of Indian origin, life, and customs especial claim to originality is made by the writer, for much of this work is founded upon the authorities mentioned...." Like other books of this period, the information it contains, some useful in an historical context, is tainted with the Eurocentric attitudes and stereotypes of the period. For example, when describing the traditional longhouse dwellings of the Iroquois, the author states: "As the people advanced in civilization their primitive long houses became gradually superseded by separate dwellings, more in accordance with the manner of their white neighbours...." The book covers subjects from history and territory, to information on chiefs, laws, marriage, customs, dress, dances, clans and totems, and detailed lists of personal names. The book also contains a reprint of a paper titled, "Remarks on the Indian Character." Includes black-and-white illustrations and photographs, a pronunciation guide, and an index.

Cutler, Ebbitt; Johnson, Bruce, illus. I Once Knew an Indian Woman. Boston, MA: Tundra Books; 1985. 72 pages. (secondary).

This book describes a Canadian woman's recollections of an Iroquois woman, Madame Dey, whom she saw on summer vacations in the late 1920s-1930s. Madame Dey emerges as an exceptional person, who sticks to her values, rising above the world of pettiness that surrounds her.

Doherty, Craig; Doherty, Katherine M. The Iroquois. New York, NY: Franklin Watts; 1991. 64 pages. (upper elementary).

The focus of this Iroquois ethnography is on traditional life, the book covers such topics as subsistence, religion, daily life, and the Iroquois League. Because of the use of the past tense, it is not always clear whether the activities described are still being practiced today. Little more than one page is devoted to contemporary life. Unfortunately, the book uses reproductions of old prints that are not informative and tend to reinforce stereotypes. The relationship between the text and the illustrations is not clear.

Graymont, Barbara. The Iroquois. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1988. 128 pages. (Frank W. Porter, III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

This description of the Iroquois who traditionally lived in what is now upstate New York discusses the origin and formation of the League of the Iroquois, traditional life, the effects of Euroamerican contact and economy on the Iroquois, and the devastating series of wars with other tribes on their western and southern borders. The book also describes the impact of the American Revolution on the Iroquois, the reservation period and the accompanying social, political, and military decline of the Confederacy, and the development of the longhouse religion founded by prophet Handsome Lake. Effects of the removal policy and continued loss of land through federal and state pressures are documented, as are recent attempts of the modern Iroquois to make the transition to a new economic system while continuing to fight for their land and rights. Illustrated with archival photographs, maps, and a color photographic essay on Iroquois false-face and husk face masks. It is important to note that many American Indians find depicting masks and using them for classroom activities offensive. Includes a glossary and an index.

Hill, Bruce; Gillen, Ian; MacNaughton, Glenda. Six Nations Reserve. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside; 1987. 64 pages. (Inside Communities Series). (elementary) *.

This short, well-organized presentation about the Six Nations Iroquois Reserve in Ontario, Canada is told as a first-person narrative by Carla, a fictitious Onondaga girl. The book describes contemporary life on the reserve and provides some historical information on the Iroquois. Thoughtful discussion questions for students are included. Illustrated with profuse black-and-white photographs of the reserve that give a feeling for contemporary life.

Hofsinde, Robert (Gray-Wolf ); Hofsinde, Robert, illus. Indian Costumes. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company; 1968. 94 pages. (upper elementary).

This simple reference on the traditional dress of various American Indian tribes makes distinctions between clothing used for everyday purposes, warfare, and ceremonial occasions. White the author uses the word "costume," more appropriate would be the terms "clothing," "dress," and "regalia." Stereotypical Indian dress is a popular "costume" for Halloween and western movies. Includes detailed black-and-white illustrations.

Hofsinde, Robert; Hofsinde, Robert, illus. Indian Warriors and their Weapons. New York, NY: William Morrow & Co.; 1965. 96 pages. (upper elementary).

The weapons, fighting methods, clothing, and charms worn for battle of seven representative tribes---the Ojibwa, Iroquois, Sioux, Blackfeet, Apache, Navajo, and Crow---are the focus of this book. There is very little discussion of the causes for warfare, or the historical context in which wars were fought. Illustrated with black-and white-ink drawings of traditional dress and weapons.

Job, Kenneth; Whitman, Shirley, illus. Indians in New York State. King of Prussia, PA: In Education, Inc.; 1989. 47 pages. (elementary) ?.

Short chapters describe traditional Iroquois lifeways and history up to the Revolutionary War. The Iroquois are compared and contrasted with their Algonquian neighbors. Each chapter is followed by suggested activities and multiple choice questions on the reading. The text contains spelling errors (i.e. chief Powhatan is misspelled two different ways) and generalizations, such as an explanation of the term "Indian file." The writing style is problematic, including frequent use of italicized words and exclamation marks.

Wheeler, M. J.; Houston, James, illus. First Came the Indians. New York: Atheneum; 1983. 26 pages. (lower elementary).

This book contains simplistic and short descriptions of the Creek, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Sioux, Makah, and Hopi. In the two-page section titled "Indians Now," the author emphasizes that American Indians live much like other Americans in rural and urban areas, are employed in a variety of occupations, and hold on to many of their traditions. Includes black-and-red illustrations.

Wolfson, Evelyn. The Iroquois: People of the Northeast. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press; 1992. 64 pages. (upper elementary).

This historical overview of the Iroquois describes traditional life, the French and Indian Wars, the establishment of reservations, and the Iroquois Confederacy today. The book opens with "Facts About the Iroquois," a summary of Iroquois life written in the past tense that gives the false impression that there are no Iroquois today. While the historical perspective documents events and changes to Iroquois culture, it does not capture the dynamic nature of Iroquois culture: change and adaptation are not presented in positive ways. The section on the Confederacy today discusses politics, but not the contemporary everyday life of the Iroquois. Illustrated with many fine color reprints, drawings, photographs, and maps. Includes a section on important dates in Iroquois history, a glossary, bibliography, and index.


Baker, Betty; Lobel, Arnold, illus. Little Runner of the Longhouse. New York, NY: Harper C Child books; 1989. 62 pages. (I Can Read). (lower elementary) ?.

This is the story of Little Runner, who wishes to participate in a False Face ceremony to earn freshly gathered maple syrup. This story has no basis in Iroquois culture. Little Runner's reference to the False Faces as "funny masks," and his capricious response towards them, leads one to question the accuracy of the cultural attitudes presented in the story. The illustrations are stereotypical; for instance, adults have hooked noses.

Banks, Lynne Reid. The Indian in the Cupboard. Garden City, NY: Cornerstone Books; 1988. 192 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

A nine year-old English boy, Omri, receives a plastic American Indian toy, a cupboard, and a key for his birthday, and finds himself in an adventure when the toy comes to life. The book objectifies American Indians and is replete with stereotypical attitudes. Little Bear, the Indian, speaks "Hollywood Indian," for example, "`You touch, I kill,' the Indian growled ferociously." Although this book is popular with children and educators, its offensive treatment of American Indians makes for inappropriate reading.

Banks, Lynn Reid; Geldart, William, illus. Return of the Indian. Garden City, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1988. 192 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

In this sequel to The Indian in the Cupboard, Omri finds Little Bear (the plastic toy Indian) close to death and in need of help. Like the original book, it abounds with stereotypes, for example: "`Astonishing these primitives,' said Matron. `Perfect control over the body. None over the emotions.'" Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Banks, Lynne Reid; Philpot, Graham, illus. The Secret of the Indian. London, England: William Collins Sons & Co., Ltd.; 1989. 144 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

In this story, Omri engages in adventures with his plastic toys---Little Bull, son of an Iroquois chief, and Boone, a Texas cowboy---who come to life in contemporary England. Omri and his friend Patrick, who temporarily goes back in time to the wild West, find it increasingly difficult to keep their family from learning their secret. As with all the books in this series, Omri is presented as the powerful controller who determines the fate of the Indian characters, who must look to Omri for all their needs. Stereotypical language is pervasive in the book, such as when Little Bull says, "Omri wake! Day come! Much need do!."

Girion, Barbara. Indian Summer. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1990. 183 pages. (secondary).

Teenaged Joni and her family accompany her pediatrician father to the Woodland Reservation for a month during the summer in this contemporary story. On the reservation she meets Sarah Birdsong, an Iroquois girl. Although both girls are skeptical of one another and their differing cultures, they slowly learn to understand and appreciate their differences during their summer together.

Katz, Welwyn Wilton. False Face. New York, NY: Dell; 1990 Mar. 176 pages. (upper elementary).

The action in this fictional story set in contemporary London, Ontario, centers around the discovery of two ancient Iroquois False Face masks. The masks, which retain their power to inflict or divert ill, cause conflict between the thirteen-year-old heroine, Lanie, and her mother. All characters in the story are non-Native, with the exception of Lanie's friend, Tom, who is half-Iroquois. Only Tom recognizes the dangers of the masks and eventually returns them to the bog where they were found. The story is well-written, fast-paced, and exciting, and introduces the issues of repatriation and Indian and non-Indian prejudice. However, the use of the masks as the basis for an exciting adventure story demeans their sacred character.


Bolton, Jonathan, and Wilson, Claire. Joseph Brant: Mohawk Chief. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1992. 109 pages. (Liz Sonnenborn, Series Ed. North American Indians of Achievement) (secondary)

This is an informative biography of Joseph Brant (1743--1807), the Mohawk leader who represented his people to their British allies. Brant sought to protect Iroquois lands from being taken over by Euroamericans. He was a leader in an alliance of midwestern and southern tribes to battle the spread of non-Indian settlers, and successfully negotiated with the British to secure land for the Iroquois in Canada. No cultural information is included in the biography. An introductory essay on American Indian leadership outlines the differing characteristics necessary for successful leadership. Illustrated with reproductions of black-and-white prints and maps. Includes suggestions for further reading, a chronology of the life of Joseph Brant, and an index.


Bonvillain, Nancy. The Mohawk. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1992. 112 pages. (Frank W. Porter, III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

This comprehensive guide examines the Mohawk's history from earliest origins to the present. A Northeast "longhouse" culture, the Mohawk originally lived in the area that is present-day eastern New York State. The book includes information on Early, Middle, and Late Woodland cultures, Iroquoian history, settlement areas, traditional activities, contact with Europeans and Americans in the 18th and 19th centuries, and the Handsome Lake religion. A final section discusses the lives of contemporary Iroquois. Includes a bibliography, "Mohawk-at-a-Glance," a glossary, and index. Illustrated with archival and contemporary black-and-white photographs, maps, and illustrations.

Duvall, Jill. The Mohawk. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1991. 45 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This short, easy-to-read description of the Mohawk covers social and political history including the importance and use of wampum and the Great Law of Peace and how it influenced the U.S. Constitution. Illustrated with maps, paintings, archival and contemporary color and black-and-white photographs. Includes a glossary and an index.


Peck, Robert Newton. Fawn. Boston: Little, Brown and Company; 1975. 143 pages. (secondary).

Sixteen-year-old Fawn, the son of a French Jesuit and grandson of a Mohawk warrior, witnesses the battle between the French and the English at Fort Ticonderoga in 1758. While the Mohawk have aligned themselves with the English and the Huron with the French, Fawn does not choose sides. He believes only the American Indians have a right to the land for which the Europeans are fighting over. Fawn saves the life of young colonist Ben[edict] Arnold from Connecticut, who in turn advises him on the movement of the English, so that Fawn can help his father who has chosen to fight along with the French. This is a story of a young boy who reaches his manhood and tells his father to return to France, while he joins Ben in Connecticut to learn to farm. The dialogue in this book is unrealistic and trite.

Peck, Robert Newton. Jo Silver. Englewood, FL: Pineapple Press; 1985. 132 pages. (secondary).

Sixteen year-old Kenny Matson hikes alone into the Adirondack wilderness in upstate New York in the hopes of finding Jo Silver Fox, a Mohawk writer-turned-hermit, whose work he admires. He finds the author, now a blind elderly woman living alone in the mountains, and spends several days with her. Through a mystical connection, Jo feels that Kenny is, in spirit, her daughter who died in childhood, as well as the link connecting Jo's soul to that of Kenny's prep school teacher Dr. Gray. "`Yesterday...'she said, `I called you my spiritual daughter...because no sooner had you arrived...I knew you were my lanyard...linking me to a past from which I ran. But more, connecting me to a third person. Someone whose face is only a blur. A face with no name.'" The book presents little accurate information on American Indians. At one point, Jo tells Kenny, "`In case you haven't heard, we Mohawks are obsolete. Dinosaurs of yesterday.'" And the improbable mystical link between the characters is another example of stereotyping American Indians as close to nature and spiritual. Not recommended as a source of information on American Indians.


Powell, Mary, ed.; Reade, Deborah, illus. Wolf Tales: Native American Children's Stories. Santa Fe, NM: Ancient City Press; 1992. 38 pages. (elementary).

These short stories from the Cherokee, Omaha, Seneca, Pawnee, Tlingit, Sioux, and Tsimshian describe the special attributes and power of the wolf and its interaction with other animals, including humans. Following each story is information, adapted for young children, on the historical and contemporary location of the tribe. Sources are provided for each of the stories. Illustrated with black-and-white and monotone drawings.


Duvall, Jill. The Seneca. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1991. 45 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This is a short, easy-to-read description of the traditional life and political history of the Seneca. A few pages are devoted to Ely S. Parker, the first sachem of the Haudenosaunee ("People of the Longhouse"), who later was appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs by President Ulysses S. Grant. Illustrated with black-and-white archival and contemporary photographs. Includes a glossary and index.


Porter, Donald Clayton. The White Indian Series. Reprint of 1980 ed. Boston, MA: Bantam; 1984. (secondary) ?.

This series of seven novels relates the story of Renno, the son of white settlers, who is adopted into an Iroquois tribe when his settlement is raided in the late 17th century. The books describe Renno as "extraordinary," "unique," and possessing "godlike qualities," and repeatedly emphasize, in both subtle and blatant fashion, how his white blood makes him somehow superior to the American Indians with whom he lives. When Renno's mother encourages him to marry in War Chief, book three of the series, Renno "wanted to protest that he knew virtually every eligible young woman in the entire Seneca nation and wasn't interested in any." When he does decide to wed, it is to a white woman. Although somewhat disturbed by Renno's American Indian upbringing, the bride-to-be's mother reassures herself that the questionable Renno is acceptable as a husband for her daughter, because he "was reared an Indian, to be sure, but it's plain he was the son of colonists...." The books use stereotypical references such as "savage," "primitive," "hot-blooded," and "Indian phlegm" when describing Indian characteristics.


Van Laan, Nancy; Vidal, Beatriz, illus. Rainbow Crow. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf; 1989. 28 pages. (lower elementary) *.

A specific source is cited for this retelling of a Lenni-Lenape (Delaware) legend in which Rainbow Crow saves the animals from an unending snowfall by going to the Great Spirit to ask for help. During the journey, his multicolored feathers are burned black and his beautiful voice becomes hoarse, but the Great Spirit rewards Rainbow Crow's generosity with the promise that he will never be hunted by men. Beautiful full-color illustrations.


Grumet, Robert S. The Lenapes. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 111 pages. (Frank W. Porter, III, Gen. ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This well-written account of the Lenape (also known as the Lenni-Lenape) describes traditional life; European invasion; and relationships with the English, Dutch, and Iroquois. Their decision to fight against the English in the French and Indian War changed their lives forever as it resulted in losing the protection of the powerful Iroquois. The book discusses the necessity for, and implications of, the continual moves and relocations that characterize Lenape history. There is a brief description of the contemporary conditions of the approximately 13,000 people listed on the Delaware tribal rolls. Illustrated with maps, photographs, and drawings, with a color section on material culture. Includes a bibliography, a glossary, "Lenapes-At-A-Glance."

Myers, Albert Cook, ed. William Penn's Own Account of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians. Reprint of 1937 ed. Somerset, NJ: Middle Atlantic Press; 1970. 96 pages. (secondary).

This book is William Penn's 1683 description of the Lenape he met during travels for the purchase of American Indian land. He discusses the Lenapes' appearance, housing, childrearing, religion, burial, and ceremonies. The book is educational as a reflection of the period in which it was written. For instance, Penn speculates that the Lenape may be part of Israel's ten lost tribes; he also deplores the fact that Christian nations brought liquor and guns to American Indians.


Harrington, M. R. The Indians of New Jersey: Dickon Among the Lenapes. Reprint of 1938 Holt, Rinehart and Winston ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 1963. 352 pages. (secondary).

Written in the 1930s, the author hoped that this book would be "the most complete and accurate account of this interesting people [the Lenape] that has yet appeared in story form or otherwise." This chronicle of pre-Contact Lenape life is recounted by a fictional fourteen-year-old English boy, Dickon, who is swept overboard from an English ship in 1612 and rescued by the Lenape, with whom he lives for the next two years. The novel, written by a former curator of the Museum of the American Indian and the Southwest Museum, is full of detailed information on pre-Contact lifeways of the Lenape and illustrated with carefully drawn, clearly detailed illustrations based on Lenape artifacts in the National Museum of the American Indian and the American Museum of Natural History. Includes an introduction and appendix on the Lenape language.

MacGill-Callahan, Sheila; Moser, Barry, illus. And Still the Turtle Watched. New York, NY: Dial Books for Young Readers; 1991. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

This story mourns the loss of a way of life that respected nature. It is told from the point of view of a stone turtle carved by Lenape in pre-Contact times. Centuries pass, and the turtle sees his people's world give way to non-Indian "civilization." Finally, after years of neglect and abuse, the turtle is recognized and taken to the New York Botanical Garden. This moving tale effectively contrasts some American Indian and Euroamerican attitudes toward nature. Includes full-color illustrations.

Oakley, Don; Wiggins, D. Kevin, illus. The Adventures of Christian Fast. Marietta, GA: Eyrie Press; 1989. 267 pages. (secondary).

This historical novel is based on the life of Christian Fast, a young man who was captured and adopted by the Lenape Indians during the Revolutionary War. As a child, Christian viewed the Lenape as "friendly primitive people"; during the war his feelings turned to hatred as he saw family and friends killed in Indian attacks. Not until his captivity does Christian come to admire the Lenape and understand that non-Indians and Indians can be equally brutal. While Shawnee violence is vividly described, so too is the violence of the American soldiers toward the Moravian Indians; however, black-and-white illustrations depict American Indians as stern and fierce, while non-Indians are generally depicted as smiling.


Porter, Frank W. III. Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today. Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society; 1983. 26 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This is a clearly written description of Maryland Native history and culture for young readers. The 14,000- year prehistory of the region is outlined. The effects of European contact on the Native peoples of Maryland are discussed, including the establishment of reservations; the subsequent migration of Maryland Natives to Pennsylvania, New York, and Canada; the adaptations of the Native peoples who remained into the economic life of the dominant culture in the 19th century; and the continuation of traditional lifeways into the 20th century. The development and effects of racial prejudice towards Indian communities and their impact on Native education and religion, are also discussed. The book is illustrated with maps and archival photographs and includes "Indian Population of Maryland in 1980"; Indian place names and their meanings; references; and suggested readings.


Knight, James E.; Guzzi, George, illus. Blue Feather's Vision. Mahwan, NJ: Troll Associates; 1982. 32 pages. (Adventures in Colonial America). (lower elementary) ?.

In this story, Blue Feather, an elderly chief of the Massachusett tribe, shares with his son, Little Bear, his deep concerns that many white people will invade the land of his ancestors and destroy forever the traditional life of the American Indian. Interwoven throughout the story are descriptions of traditional Massachusett lifeways, including the construction of moccasins, wigwams, weapons, and pottery, the use of sign language, the importance of hunting, and the planting and harvesting of crops. Strangely, Little Bear refutes his father's premonitions, insisting that the encroaching Euroamerican culture will have little influence on American Indian life. When the chief dies, Little Bear assures his worried niece that, although Blue Feather was "very wise,...his vision was wrong." Stereotypical language such as "braves," "palefaces," "thundersticks," "red man," and "squaw" is used throughout the text. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings.


Ourada, Patricia K. The Menominee Indians: A History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1979. 274 pages. (secondary).

This is a comprehensive history of the Menominee, who inhabited the forests of what is now northern Wisconsin and who continue to live in that region today. A short chapter on traditional Menominee culture is followed by detailed descriptions of Menominees' relationships with the French, British, and Americans. The book describes the tribe's economic successes in the first half of the 20th century, followed by a discussion of the disastrous consequences of the termination policy implemented by the federal government in the 1950s, and the tribe's subsequent fight for restoration of their tribal status and reservation. Includes an index and a bibliography.



Norman, Howard; McCurdy, Michael, illus. How Glooskap Outwits the Ice Giants and Other Tales of the Maritime Indians. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.; 1989. 60 pages. (lower elementary).

See annotation under Abenaki Traditional Stories.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes; Kaulbach, Kathy, illus. Stories from the Six Worlds: Micmac Legends. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing Limited; 1988. 242 pages. (secondary).

This collection includes translations of twenty-nine Micmac legends grouped according to their setting---the earth, the worlds above and below, and the ghost world. The language of the translations gives a sense of the original oral tradition, and the stories, some with complex plots, draw the reader into the Micmac world. A useful, well-written twenty-page introduction describes and clarifies concepts that may be difficult for non-Micmac readers. A final section lists sources for each legend and notes existing variants. A Micmac pronunciation guide is provided in the appendix. Includes black-and-white design illustrations.



Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans. New York, NY: Signet; 1962. 427 pages. (secondary)

An adventure story set in 1757 upstate New York during the French and Indian Wars, this tale tells of the daughters of a British commander who visit him at his military fort when the French attack. In the ensuing action, the girls are captured by the Huron, allies of the French. They and their rescuers---a British major, a trapper/scout, Chingachgook (the last of the Mohicans), and his son, Uncas, subsequently undergo many perils. The book was first published in 1826, and conveys the prejudices of the time. This is primarily an adventure story written from a European viewpoint. The "dusky, savage" Huron kidnappers are the villains, and the Mohicans are stereotypically romanticized as courageous and stoic. However, even complimentary comments sometimes indicate underlying prejudice as when Uncas is described as displaying "a sympathy that elevated him far above the intelligence, and advanced him probably centuries before the practices of his nation," or as when scout Hawkeye observes to Chingachgook, "You are a just man for an Indian." The term "squaw" is used several times. The author's introduction to the 1850 edition discusses the possible Asiatic origin of American Indians and notes how non-Indians have corrupted the language and history of the Mohicans, dispossessing them of their country. An afterword outlines Cooper's life and analyzes the significance of the book. Includes a bibliography on Cooper's writings.

Jennings, Paulla (Niantic and Narragansett); Peters, Ramona (Wampanoag), illus. Strawberry Thanksgiving. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press, Inc.; 1992. 23 pages. (Multicultural Celebrations). (lower elementary).

This is a the story of Adam and his sister Holly, who attend a multi-tribal celebration called "Strawberry Thanksgiving." During the event, the children's grandmother tells the legend of Strawberry Thanksgiving. Illustrated with full-color drawings and contemporary photographs. Includes a glossary of terms.

Krensky, Stephen; Watling, James, illus. Children of the Earth and Sky: Five Stories about Native American Children. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1991. 32 pages. (elementary).

This collection includes five short stories focusing on the pre-Contact lives of American Indian children from a variety of tribes. "The children in this book are imaginary but their world was very real....The stories display some of the range and variety of the Native American experience." The tribes represented are the Hopi, the Comanche, the Mohican, the Navajo, and the Mandan. Illustrated with large, colorful drawings, the book Includes a map and a glossary with illustrations of dwellings characteristic of each tribe.




Porter, Frank W. III. The Nanticoke. New York: Chelsea House Publishers; 1987. 96 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. The Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book provides a history and cultural description of the Nanticoke, an Algonkian tribe that inhabited what is now Maryland. With continuous encroachment upon their land and destruction of their major plant and animal resources by Euroamerican settlers, many of the Nanticoke left their traditional lands in the mid-1700s for Pennsylvania, New York, and Canada, to live among the Iroquois. Those who remained continued with their struggles, including racial discrimination, when skin color became an issue. Today, the Nanticoke, whose ancestors adopted many of the customs of non-Native culture, are revitalizing their heritage by studying Algonkian traditions and borrowing others. Includes a section of paintings by John White, color photographs of a modern powwow, a glossary, bibliography, and "Nanticoke-At-A-Glance."

Porter, Frank W. III. Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today. Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society; 1983. 26 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

See annotation under Lumbee Non-Fiction.


Doherty, Craig A. and Doherty, Katherine M. Smolinski, Richard, illus. The Narragansett. (Native American People series.) Rourke Publications, Inc. 1994. 32pp. (upper elementary)

The Narragansett still live today in Rhode Island, where they have a reservation. The book describes daily life, food, clothing, political and social organization, religious life, and European contact. The short section on "The Narragansett Today" relates to the tribe's success in obtaining land they had lost and federal recognition. Contains color illustrations and photographs, a map, glossary, bibliography, and index.

Simmons, William S. The Narragansett. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1989. 111 pages. (Frank W. Porter Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book on the culture and history of the Narragansett describes their traditional life, the loss of their land and population as a result of contact and wars with Euroamerican settlers, and their successful efforts at retribalization (1934), gaining federal recognition as a tribe (1983), and winning back lost land (1985). Many Narragansett words still persist today such as "quahog," "squaw," "wigwam," "powwow," "sachem," and "papoose." The book is illustrated with black-and-white photographs, and a color picture essay of contemporary items made from textiles, beads, and skins. Also includes a glossary, bibliography, and "Narragansett-At-A-Glance."


Fleischmann, Paul. Saturnalia. New York, NY: Harper and Row; 1990. 112 pages. (secondary).

A fourteen-year-old Narraganset boy, captured during King Philip's War in 1675, lives happily with his new English family in Boston, where he is a printer's apprentice. William, as he is now called, secretly roams the streets at night playing his bone flute in the hopes of finding his twin brother. He meets his father's uncle, Michamauk, who teaches him Narraganset history and inspires him to vow to "devote his memory not to the Bible or the tales of the Greeks, but to the lore of his own Narragansets...listen and learn...become their book." This novel contains interesting information on King Philip's War and on New England American Indians as servants to the English following the war.

Jennings, Paulla (Niantic and Narragansett); Peters, Ramona (Wampanoag), illus. Strawberry Thanksgiving. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press, Inc.; 1992. 23 pages. (Multicultural Celebrations). (lower elementary).

See annotation under Mohegan Fiction.

OJIBWA/ANISHINABE/CHIPPEWA (Chippewa ordinary for U.S. and southern Ontario; Ojibwa for rest of Canada)


Broker, Ignatia; Premo, Steven, illus. Night Flying Woman: An Ojibwa Narrative. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press; 1983. 131 pages. (secondary).

This book by an Ojibwa elder provides a portrait of the Ojibwa people during the period when reservations were established and aspects of non-Indian civilization, such as Christianity and boarding schools, were imposed. Narrator Awasasi (Mary, b. 1921), writing in the early 1980s, recounts the life of her great-great grandmother Oona (Night Flying Woman, 1860s--1940s). Through Oona's eyes, the reader experiences the Ojibwas' initial flight from encroaching whites, confinement to reservations, and the mix of old ways with new. In the opening chapter, the narrator briefly describes her own experiences as an urban Ojibwa in St. Paul in the 1940s. Over a century of Ojibwa experience is contained in this work, which the author indicates was written to preserve the old traditions for her family. Includes a glossary of Ojibwa terms.

Kegg, Maude; Nichols, John D., ed. Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press; 1991. 272 pages. (secondary).

This Ojibwa/English dual language book contains forty-one childhood reminiscences by Anishinabe elder Maude Kegg. The collection includes brief descriptions of maple sugar production, rice harvesting, and Ojibwa rituals, in addition to more universal childhood experiences---fears, mistakes, and their consequences. A 71-page Ojibwa/English glossary is provided. Accompanying notes on the structure of the Ojibwa language are difficult for the layperson to follow.

Kvasnicka, Robert M.; Whipple, Rick illus. Hole-in-the-Day. Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Publishers; 1990. 32 pages. (Herman J. Viola, Gen Ed. American Indian Stories). (elementary).

This is a biography of Hole-in-the-Day, chief of the Mississippi band of Chippewa in Minnesota. Hole-in-the-Day is presented as believing in the white man's way of life. He is resented by some of his people for being too friendly with the U.S. government, and by both non-Indians and Chippewas for his wealth and fame. He was murdered in 1868 by American Indians hired by white traders. The book states: "Most American Indian leaders who are remembered today were great warriors who challenged the might of the U.S. Army and who resisted the federal government. Hole-in-the-Day did neither. His military exploits came against the Sioux, and he led his tribe along a path of cooperation with the federal government. As a result, he was soon forgotten by the general public. As colorful and gifted as he was, he failed to capture lasting fame."


Esbensen, Barbara Juster; Davie, Helen K., illus. Ladder to the Sky: How the Gift of Healing Came to the Ojibwa Nation. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.; 1989. 30 pages. (lower elementary) *.

This Ojibwa legend describes how sickness and death were introduced, along with the healing plants and the art of healing. Romantic full color illustrations enhance this charming tale.

Esbensen, Barbara Juster; Davie, Helen K., illus. The Star Maiden: An Ojibwa Tale. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.; 1988. 29 pages. (lower elementary) *.

This tale, charmingly retold and illustrated, explains the origin of waterlilies. An introductory note provides the source of this story and explains that different versions exist.

Johnston, Basil. (Ojibwa) Ojibwa Heritage. New York, NY: Columbia University Press; 1976. 171 pages. (secondary).

This book describes Ojibwa culture as revealed through a collection of Ojibwa legends collected and translated from Ojibwa into English by the author "in the hope that the heritage of the Ojibwa speaking peoples...will be a little better understood...." Included are stories about the creation of the physical world, the plant and animal worlds, and death and the afterlife. The stories are simple and yet complex, each containing many different themes and levels of understanding.

Larry, Charles retold and illus by. Peboan and Seegwun. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1993. 28 pages. (lower elementary).

The transition from winter to spring is described in this Ojibwa legend when Peboan (Old Man Winter) meets Seegwun, the Spirit of Spring. The source of the legend is provided. Attractive full-page color illustrations.

McLellan, Joseph; Kirby, Jim, illus. The Birth of Nanabosho. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Pemmican Publications, Inc.; 1989. 36 pages. (elementary).

In this story, two contemporary Ojibwa children ask their grandfather to tell them the story of how the legendary trickster and protector character Nanabosho was born. No source is cited for the legend. Full- color and black-and-white drawings illustrate this touching tale.

McLellan, Joe; Brynjolson, Rhian, illus. Nanabosho Dances. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Pemmican Publications; 1991. 45 pages. (elementary).

In this retelling of an Ojibwa legend, the trickster and teacher Nanabosho receives the gift of tobacco from the Creator. The origin of the hoop dance is explained as grandfather tells this story to his grandchildren while they are preparing their dance outfits for an upcoming powwow. Illustrated with full-color drawings bordered by traditional Ojibwa designs patterns.

San Souci, Robert; San Souci, Daniel, illus. Sootface: An Ojibwa Cinderella Story. New York, NY; Bantam Doubleday Dell; 1994. 28 pages (lower elementary).

This retelling of a Cinderella-type tale extolls the virtues of kindness and gentleness over beauty. The author consulted several traditional versions of the tale and cites three of these. Handsome full-color illustrations seek to reflect traditional 18th century Ojibwa clothing and designs.

Scribe, Murdo; Gallagher, Terry, illus. Murdo's Story: A Legend from Northern Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Pemmican Publications; 1985. 42 pages. (lower elementary).

A charming, clearly written legend about the origin of the summer and winter seasons and of the Big Dipper. The foreword notes that the author recorded this story to give today's generation a sense of pride in the contribution of their Cree and Ojibwa ancestors. Excellent black-and-white illustrations.

Tales from the Wigwam. Markham, Ontario, Canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside; 1989. 120 pages. (lower elementary).

In this collection of five legends of the Algonkian, Cree, and Ojibwa, different authors retell each story. Includes illustrations by different artists.


Brill, Charles. Red Lake Nation: Portraits of Ojibwa Life. Update of 1974 Indian and Free edition. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press; 1992. 176 pages. (elementary/secondary).

This is a unique photographic portrait of the Red Lake Chippewa Nation of Minnesota, whose land is "the one parcel on the map of the United States that has never been owned by white government or settlers." In over 150 black-and-white photographs and accompanying text, the author traces both the traditions and changes seen by the Red Lake Nation and captures the spirit of the land and people of the reservation today. Responding to criticism that he romanticized American Indians and dehumanized them by avoiding the negative aspects of their lives in this book, the author responded: "I am very much aware of so-called `Indian problems' which plague Red Lake as they do other Indian reservations and communities....But it is not the intent of this book to analyze such problems or offer suggestions for solving them. I believe the people of Red Lake are sensitive to their...problems and are fully capable of finding solutions without my advice."

Clifton, James A.; Cornell, George L.; McCracken, James M. The People of the Three Fire: The Ottawa, Potawatomi and Ojibwa of Michigan. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids Inter-Tribal Council; 1986. 107 pages. (secondary)

This is a clearly written, excellent history for Michigan high school students. Each of the three authors focuses on a different tribe and takes a different approach. The chapter on the Potawatomi focuses on the political and economic forces that have affected Potawatomi life. The chapter on the Ojibwa discusses environment, subsistence patterns, beliefs, and customs and how these have been affected by federal policy. The chapter on the Ottawa describes European contact and the Ottawa's responses to the changes brought by this contact.

Fasquelle, Ethel Rowan. When Michigan Was Young: The Story of its Beginnings, Early Legends and Folklore. Reprint of 1950 (William B. Eerdman Publishing) ed. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios; 1987. 152 pages. (secondary).

This history of the Ottawa and Ojibwa and the early settlers in Michigan is divided into three parts, the first two devoted principally to Euroamerican history. The third, titled "Peoples and Customs, Stories and Legends," discusses migrations of the tribes, the transcriptions of the Ottawa language, the cultivation and preparation of corn, as well as ceremonies associated with corn, and an Ottawa legend. No bibliography, sources, or index are provided. The author's attempt to present a balanced view is undermined by such statements as: "The unfairness of the trader in his dealings with the Indians is almost unbelievable, and in a measure exonerates them [the American Indians] for their childish resentment when they realized this." The style is old-fashioned, chatty, and patronizing, e.g. "our Native Americans," "our aborigines."

Hofsinde, Robert (Gray-Wolf ); Hofsinde, Robert, illus. Indian Costumes. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company; 1968. 94 pages. (upper elementary).

See annotation under Iroquois Non-Fiction.

Hofsinde, Robert; Hofsinde, Robert, illus. Indian Warriors and their Weapons. New York, NY: William Morrow & Co.; 1965. 96 pages. (upper elementary).

See annotation under Iroquois Non-Fiction.

Martinson, David, ed.; Savage, J. P., photog.; Peyton, John, illus. A Long Time Ago is Just Like Today. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee; 1976. 69 pages. (upper elementary/secondary)*.

Conversations with and recollections of fifteen Chippewa elders include such topics as traditional tales, memories of trapping, maple syrup collecting, rice gathering, cooking methods, herbal medicine, beadwork, quilting, powwows, names of months, old sayings, and earning feathers.

Osinski, Alice. The Chippewa. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1987. 48 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This brief history of the Chippewa covers traditional lifeways, contact with whites (fur trade), and contemporary life, both on and off the reservation. The information is clearly presented with separate chapters for each topic. The word "Americans" is used to refer to only non-Native Americans. The pronunciation guide (TRYBE for "tribe") is confusing. Illustrated with modern and archival photographs and reproductions of paintings.

Pedersen, Joan; Quigg, Pamela Jacobson; Cousins, David, illus. Treaty Days. Ottawa, Canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside; 1985. 32 pages. (Canadian Families Program). (lower elementary).

This is a contemporary story of Sarah, an Ojibwa girl who travels with her family to the reservation for a special celebration, "Treaty Days." Sarah dresses in traditional Ojibwa clothing, converses with her grandmother, and helps her mother with various tasks as she enjoys the unique sights and sounds of the event. When she returns to her school, she shares the experience with her classmates. Includes full-color and two-color illustrations.

Regguinti, Gordon; Kakkak, Dale, photog. The Sacred Harvest: Ojibwa Wild Rice Gathering. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications; 1992. 48 pages. (upper elementary). *.

This informative book describes the history and tradition of the annual wild rice harvest as viewed through the eyes of a contemporary eleven-year-old Ojibwa boy, who participates in his first harvest. A staple food for the Ojibwa, wild rice takes on additional importance because it is considered sacred, making the annual harvests doubly significant for the Ojibwa. Includes a foreword by Michael Dorris, a word list, and suggested readings. Illustrated with color photographs and maps.

Tanner, Helen Hornbeck. The Ojibwa. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1992. 119 pages. (Porter, Frank W. III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This comprehensive history of the Ojibwa stresses their resilience in the face of geographical dispersion and the federal government's attempts to eradicate their traditional culture. Topics covered include the Anishinabe creation story, early history, pre-Contact life, relationship with the French, treaties, intra-tribal factions, and contemporary issues. A center section includes full-page, color photographs of traditional designs in quill and beadwork. Illustrated with historical photographs, prints, and maps. Includes a bibliography, an index, and "Ojibwa-At-A-Glance."

Wheeler, M. J.; Houston, James, illus. First Came the Indians. New York: Atheneum; 1983. 26 pages. (lower elementary).

See annotation under Iroquois Non-Fiction.


Hassler, Jon. Jemmy. New York, NY: Ballantine Books; 1980. 149 pages. (secondary).

Jemmy Stott, the seventeen-year-old daughter of a Chippewa mother and a white father, is unhappy at home and at school in rural Minnesota. When Jemmy is asked to model for a prominent painter's interpretation of a Chippewa myth that will be made into a large mural in Minneapolis, she develops a friendship with the painter and his wife that gives her hope and the strength to help herself and her family.

Johnson, Gail E.; Round Face, Howard; Bull Tail, Alex; Lee, Dirk, illus. The Phantom Horse of Collister's Fields. Billings, MT: Montana Council for Indian Education; 1974. 32 pages. (upper elementary).

This is the story of Skipper Sunday, a young Ojibwa boy, and his quest to capture a beautiful runaway horse. Little or nothing of traditional Ojibwa culture is included in this story. Grammar is often compromised in this book, as exemplified by the frequent use of "it's" in place of the grammatically correct possessive "its." Illustrated with black-and-white sketches and photos.

LeGarde, Amelia; Borgren, Julie, illus. Aseban: The Ojibwe Word for Raccoon. Duluth, MN: Anishinabe Reading Materials; 1978. 50 pages. (lower elementary).

The introduction of this book states that the Ojibwa told stories that "explained the reasons behind changes in the world." This story retells how Nanaboujou, hero and trickster, gave the raccoon its distinctive markings. The story is also told in the original Chippewa language. Includes large color illustrations.

Martinson, David. Manabozho and the Bullrushes. Reprint of 1971 ed. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee; 1976. 35 pages. (lower elementary).

In this entertaining story, Chippewa trickster Manabozho dances all night to show off his dancing ability. In the morning, he realizes he has been showing off to clumps of bullrushes. Includes black and white drawings. e/Chippewa/Northeast.

Martinson, David; Gawboy, Carl, illus. Shemay, the Bird in the Sugarbush. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee; 1975. 29 pages. (lower elementary).

This book describes the spring maple syrup harvest and the cooperation it requires. Lisa, a Chippewa girl, is happy in this season, but a note of sadness is introduced by a shemay (birdcall) . Lisa's grandmother explains that the bird is grieving for its brothers and sisters who died in the winter cold. Lisa must not call the bird or she, too, will disappear like the melted snow. Includes water-color illustrations.

Peyton, John L.; Peyton, John L., illus. Faces in the Firelight. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co.; 1992. 267 pages. (secondary).

This is a fictionalized account of a year in the life of a 19th-century northern Ojibwa family as they follow their yearly cycle of harvesting and hunting, suffer attacks by their Sioux enemies, and experience the effects of Euroamerican encroachment. The author, who spent part of his youth among the Ojibwa in the early part of the 20th century, based the novel upon stories related to him by an Ojibwa guide who accompanied him on an annual fishing trip. The story contains much detailed information on traditional Ojibwa life. There are graphic descriptions of torture. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings by the author.

Peyton, John L.; Peyton, John L., illus. Voices from the Ice. Blacksburg, VA: The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co.; 1990. 52 pages. (elementary).

An Ojibwa child describes the seasonal travels of his family as they leave their isolated winter hunting camp and journey to the sugarbush to tap the maple trees for syrup. This simple story details northern Ojibwa life in the early 1900s and is illustrated with black-and-white drawings.

Voight, Virginia Frances. The Adventures of Hiawatha. Champaign, IL: Garrard Publishing Co. 48 pages. (A Reading Shelf Book). (upper elementary).

This entertaining adaptation of the classic Longfellow poem about the folk hero Hiawatha follows the hero's adventures as he discovers that he possesses supernatural powers. Hiawatha travels swiftly and easily, communicates with wild animals, and has the strength of many men. With these powers he acquires the gift of maize for his people and conquers menacing monsters. The story contains no cultural information on American Indians. Illustrated with interesting two-color drawings.

Wosmek, Frances; Lewin, Ted, illus. A Brown Bird Singing. New York, NY: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books; 1986. 120 pages. (upper elementary).

Anego, a nine-year-old Chippewa girl, is being raised by a non-Indian family in a Scandinavian community in northern Minnesota until her natural father can return for her. When Anego overhears that her real father may soon be returning, she fears he will take her away from the only family she has ever known. Throughout the course of the novel, Anego struggles with her sense of identity, initially rejecting her heritage but later accepting it. Profusely illustrated with black-and-white drawings.




Fleischer, Jane. Pontiac: Chief of the Ottawas. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1979. 48 pages. (lower elementary).

This is a simply written account of the life of the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. Best-known for his role as a leader, Pontiac organized the 1761 multi-tribal revolt against the English during which Fort Detroit and eight other English forts were taken. Numerous other tribes participated in attempting to drive the English out of the area. Pontiac is presented as defeated and disillusioned as he signs the 1765 treaty of peace at Detroit. Illustrated with brown-and-white watercolors.

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Patriot Chiefs: A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1961. 364 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Iroquois Biography.

Rothaus, James; Henrikson, Harold, illus. Pontiac, Indian Statesman and General 1720-1769. Mankato, MN: Creative Education; 1987. 31 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This book describes the life of Pontiac, who, in 1763, successfully united the tribes of the Great Lakes area against the British. The book describes events leading up to the united Indian attack, the initial success of the plan, and its eventual failure. The description of these military events seems to take precedence over helping young readers understand why the American Indians sought to preserve their culture and homeland. This book is marred by simplistic, awkward writing that suggests that the actions of American Indians rather than non-Indians were responsible for the majority of the aggression. The final sentence: "But the vision [of Pontiac]...ignited a hatred between white men and red that would burn for more than 100 years---until the last western Indian surrendered to the white invaders." This seems to imply that Pontiac alone was responsible for the non-Indian animosity. Includes color illustrations.


Clifton, James A.; Cornell, George L.; McCracken, James M. The People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi and Ojibwa of Michigan. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids Inter-Tribal Council; 1986. 107 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Ojibwa Non-Fiction.

Fasquelle, Ethel Rowan. When Michigan Was Young: The Story of its Beginnings, Early Legends and Folklore. Reprint of 1950 (William B. Eerdman Publishing) ed. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios; 1987. 152 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Ojibwa Non-Fiction


Blos, Joan W. Brothers of the Heart: A Story of the Old Northwest, 1837--1838. New York, NY: Macmillan Child Group; 1987. 162 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This well-written frontier novel describes the experiences of physically handicapped, fourteen-year-old Shem. The story focuses on his friendship with Mary Goodhue, a dying Ottawa woman, whom he lives with for six months in the Michigan wilderness during the winter of 1837--38. What Shem learns from her gives him the strength and courage to return to his family and face the challenges of his handicap with new maturity. Pioneer letters and journal excerpts (some authentic, some fictional) provide the feeling of the 19th century.


Smith, Claude Clayton. Quarter Acre of Heartache. Blacksburg, VA: Pocahontas Press; 1985. 167 pages. (secondary).

Told through the voice of Aurelius Piper, Chief Big Eagle of the Paugusset Nation, the book describes the life of the American Indians of Connecticut, and the narrator's fight against legal termination of the tribe and the reservation in the 1970s.


Doherty, Katherine M. and Doherty, Craig A. The Penobscot. Franklin Watts. 1995. 63 pp. (upper elementary)

The Penobscot were an Eastern Woodland tribe, and to this day they still reside near the Penobscot River in what is now the state of Maine. Contemporary and historic photographs accompany the chapters on Penobscot Homeland, the Coming of the Europeans, Family Bands and Villages, Religion and Beliefs, and Daily Life. While the book focuses on the traditional life of the Penobscot, the final two-page chapter discusses the resurgence of their culture, and the Penobscot's success in winning a large settlement for land lost in a 1794 treaty. Includes full-color illustrations and a glossary.



Clifton, James A.; Cornell, George L.; McCracken, James M. The People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi and Ojibwa of Michigan. Grand Rapids, MI: Grand Rapids Inter-Tribal Council; 1986. 107 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Ojibwa Non-Fiction.


de Montaņo, Marty Kreipe (Potawatomi). Coffin, Tom, illus. (Potawatomi). Coyote in Love with a Star. (National Museum of the American Indian: Tales of the People Series.) Abbeville Press. 1998. 30 pages. (upper elementary) *

This is an amusing and imaginative story about Ol' Man Coyote who leaves the Potawatomi reservation to find work in New York City, a bustling place that highly contrasts with his home back in Kansas. Beautiful full-page color illustrations add to the charm of the story. Includes one-page descriptions of Coyote the Trickster and the Potawatomi people, as well as a glossary and some historic black and white photographs.

Whelan, Gloria; Johnson, Pamela, illus. Next Spring an Oriole. New York, NY: Random House; 1987. 60 pages. (A Stepping Stone Book). (lower elementary).

This is the story of Libby, a young girl who travels with her family from Virginia to Michigan in a covered wagon in 1837. Along the way, the family meets a Potawatomi family whose young daughter is sick with the measles, and Libby's family offers to care for the girl on the journey. The father tells Libby, "...when the Indian get measles, it is much more serious," yet the feverish girl recovers completely in two days. The families separate, but Libby encounters the girl later, and is surprised to discover that she speaks English. The girl, named Taw-cum-e-go-qua, explains to Libby that she attended a missionary school for American Indians when her family lived outside of Detroit. Taw-cum-e-go-qua and her family are described as quiet, emotionless, and often unresponsive. Includes black-and-white illustrations.


Adams, Patricia; Capparelli, Tony, illus. The Story of Pocahontas: Indian Princess. New York, NY: Dell Publishing Co., Inc.; 1987. 92 pages. (elementary).

This biography of Pocahontas maintains the tradition that she saved John Smith's life, now disputed by some scholars, who feel that Smith may have misinterpreted events. The author states that "the dialogue has been carefully researched and excerpted from authentic biographies," and that she has attempted to avoid the pitfall of attributing improbable thoughts and attitudes to her characters. However, the book expresses such sentiments as: "These people, who could cross the great water in big canoes and make thundersticks and build houses with many rooms, believed in one god. Perhaps their god was the right god and her gods of good and evil were wrong." Includes a chronology of Pocahontas' life and black-and-white illustrations.

Benjamin, Anne; Powers, Christine, illus. Young Pocahontas: Indian Princess. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1992. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

This is a simply-written biography of the 17th-century Powhatan "princess," Pocahontas. The book offers almost no information on Powhatan lifeways, but like many biographies of this famous woman, it focuses instead on her association with Captain John Smith and the English settlers of Jamestown. The book's conclusion offers the ultimate example of this focus by stating, "Pocahontas' life was short, but important. Thanks to her, the Jamestown colony was a success," leading young readers to believe that her sole worth is based upon this single event. The book makes no mention of the vast destruction to Pocahontas' people caused by the influx of European settlers to the New World. The only other Indian individual mentioned in the book is Pocahontas' father, Powhatan, who is described as a "powerful Indian chief [who]...could be very cruel." Includes simplistic, cartoonish, full-color illustrations.

Bulla, Robert Clyde; Burchard, Peter, illus. Pocahontas and the Strangers. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1988. 176 pages. (lower elementary).

Pocahontas is portrayed as having idealistic faith in the good intentions of the English in this fictionalized account of her life. The traditional story that she "saved" John Smith's life is repeated, though Smith's interpretation of events is now questioned by scholars. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

D'Aulaire, Ingri; D'Aulaire, Edgar. Pocahontas. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday; 1989. 48 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

Text and illustrations in this biography provide a romanticized version of the Pocahontas legend.

Fritz, Jean; Young, Ed, illus. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York, NY: Puffin Books; 1987. 96 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This fictionalized account of Pocahontas' life is well-written and coherent. The author presents what is accepted by scholars as a more probable explanation of events. For example, what John Smith perceived as his imminent execution, which has encouraged the popular legend that Pocahantas saved Smith's life, may actually have been a ceremony that would have made him an adopted member of the tribe. Includes a bibliography, notes, and a map of the Jamestown area in Pocahontas' day.

Gleiter, Jan; Thompson, Jan. Pocahontas. Milwaukee, WI: Raintree Children's Press; 1985. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

A retelling of the Pocahontas story, which explains little about Powhatan lifeways. The standard version of Pocahontas' "saving" of the life of John Smith is repeated in this book, though the accuracy of Smith's interpretation of events is now questioned by scholars. Includes full-color illustrations.

Greene, Carol. Pocahontas: Daughter of A Chief. Chicago: Childrens Press; 1988. 45 pages. (A Rookie Biography). (elementary).

This is an uninteresting account of Pocahontas' life in poorly written dialogue. The legend that Pocahontas saved John Smith's life is presented as historic fact, though this version is now questioned by scholars. [See The Powhatan Tribes by Christian F. Feest.].

Holler, Anne. Pocahontas: Powhatan Peacemaker. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1993. 103 pages. (North American Indians of Achievement). (secondary).

This well-written biography of Pocahontas presents the life of the daughter of chief Powhatan in historical context, amid the changing political relationships between the English and the Native inhabitants of what is now eastern Virginia. The story of Pocahontas saving John Smith's life is presented in light of recent anthropological interpretations that question its accuracy. The book is profusely illustrated with photographs, maps, and historical documents. Includes a chronology, suggested reading, and an index.

Jassem, Kate; Eitzen, Allan, illus. Pocahantas, Girl of Jamestown. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1979. 48 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

No new insights are offered in this uninspired retelling of Pocahantas' life. This story relates the legendary "saving" of John Smith's life, which is now questioned by some scholars. The black-and-white drawings are mediocre and stereotypical. For instance, Chief Powhatan is shown in a Plains headdress. Includes a map showing the Jamestown area at Pocahantas' time.

Raphael, Elaine; Bolognese, Don. Pocahontas: Princess of the River Tribes. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1993. 30 pages. (Drawing America). (lower elementary).

This profusely illustrated biography of Pocahontas for young readers presents a short and simplistic account of the early part of Pocahontas' life and the events surrounding the Powhatans' encounters with the English settlers. The second half of the book is a series of guidelines and instructions for reproducing drawings of Pocahontas and the Powhatan.

Rountree, Helen. Young Pocahontas in the Indian World. 1995. Available from Helen Rountree, c/o J. & R Graphic Services, Inc., 124 Production Dr., Yorktown, VA 23693. (elementary).

Written by a scholar, this is an easy-to-read account of what is historically known about Pocahontas. Published by the author, the quality of the text exceeds the illustrations.


Commonwealth Studies Program, Virginia Department of Education. Indians of Virginia. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Co.; 1983. 99 pages. (elementary).

The lifeways of 17th-century American Indians in Virginia are presented in workbook format for elementary students. Each short chapter highlights vocabulary words, and includes end-of-chapter "Things To Think About," "Try This," and "Find Out More" sections. The Powhatans' activities are described in fictionalized first-person accounts by a man, woman, boy, girl, and chief on a typical day in 1607. Contact with Europeans is described in a poorly written poem that supposedly reflects the American Indian perspective, but exemplifies common stereotypes, and avoids mention of the effects of contact on Native culture. Unfortunately, there is no discussion of contemporary American Indians. The book uses the word "squaw." Illustrated with reproductions of John White's paintings and other black-and-white drawings.

Feest, Christian F. The Powhatan Tribes. Indians of North America. New York, NY: Chelsea House, 1990. 111 pages. (upper elementary/secondary)*.

A well-researched and clearly presented account of the history and complex relationships in the 19th and 20th centuries between the Powhatan tribes and non-Natives in what is now called the Chesapeake Bay in present-day Maryland and Virginia. The five Powhatan tribes include the Chickahominy, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Pamunkey, and the Rappahannock. The book is illustrated with full-color photographs of Pamunkey pottery and includes a glossary and a bibliography.


Clifford, Mary Louise; Haynes, Joyce, illus. When the Great Canoes Came. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Co.; 1993. 144 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

In this fictionalized re-creation, Cockacoeske, a 17th century Pamunkey chief and queen (a non-native title), tells how the arrival of the Europeans changed forever the lives of the members of the Powhatan confederacy. Through stories Cockacoeske tells to an assembled group of Pamunkey youth, she relates and interprets events that took place between 1560 and 1686, in an attempt to teach the children about their heritage. This is a well-researched and well-written account of events of the time, presented from the American Indian perspective. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings. the book includes a bibliography.

O'Dell, Scott. The Serpent Never Sleeps. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1987. 227 pages. (secondary).

In this novel, in 17th-century England, young Serena Lynn meets King James, who gives her his magic serpent ring. She later follows the man she loves to North America, where the second part of the book takes place. After learning several Indian dialects, Serena becomes friends with Pocahontas, whom she tries to persuade to help the struggling Jamestown settlement. Though based on some historical facts surrounding Pocahontas and the relationship between the Powhatans and the settlers, much of the book's historical accuracy is questionable, including the sighting of herds of buffalo in colonial Virginia. According to scholars, there are no accounts of buffalo sited in eastern Virginia in the 17th century, although they may have been present in the state's western section.


Porter, Frank W. III. Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today. Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society; 1983. 26 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

See annotation under Lumbee Non-Fiction.

Ruskin, Thelma; Patton, Yvonne P., et al. Indians of the Tidewater Country of Maryland, Virginia, Delaware and North Carolina. Lanham, MD: Maryland Historical Press; 1986. 132 pages. (elementary).

This is a collection of short, easy-to-read descriptions of various aspects of the traditional lifestyle of the Indians living near the Chesapeake Bay and the inlets and rivers which flow into it. The book emphasizes the American Indians' roles in helping the first settlers survive. Each page contains a large, simple, black-and-white illustration. Although no information on the 19th or 20th centuries is included, this book is useful for basic information on the American Indians of this area. The author does attempt to explain the motivations of both the Europeans and Indians; however, she at times uses stereotypical language, such as describing Powhatan as "crafty" and "wily." Includes bibliography, suggested reading list, index, and additional resources for teachers.


Agle, Nan Hayden; Sopher, Aaron, illus. Princess Mary of Maryland. Reprint of 1956 (Tradition Press) ed. Hatboro, PA: Tradition Press; 1967. 108 pages. (upper elementary) ?.

This is a fictionalized account of the life of a 17th-century Piscataway chief's daughter who eventually marries the acting governor of Maryland. A patronizing attitude prevails throughout the book. American Indians are depicted as wanting to emulate non-Indians, for instance, in their dress and in religion. The title "Princess" was not used by American Indians, but rather is a term used by the English. Includes stereotypical line drawing illustrations of the Native people.


Cleven, Cathrine; Morrow, Gray, illus. Black Hawk: Young Sauk Warrior. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc.; 1966. 200 pages. (Childhood of Famous Americans). (elementary) ?.

This account of the life of Sauk leader Black Hawk focuses on his early years. The heavy use of invented dialogue is intended to engage young readers, but seems improbable in many instances, especially considering that no sources are cited for the biography. The word "squaw" is used, and "bad Indian" appears twice: "`You bad Indian, the French trader gave us that glass,' Little Hawk said angrily." `And "I'll never believe that bad Indian again!'" The book includes a timeline of important dates, questions on the reading, and lists of things to look up and do related to the story. Although some of the questions and activities are useful, others are leading questions, subtly perpetuating preconceived notions about American Indians. For example, "What former presidents of our country once helped to fight Indians?" and "Find out what advantages present-day Indians have living on reservations." These questions do not encourage balanced views.

Oppenheim, Joanne; Frenck, Hal, illus. Black Hawk: Frontier Warrior. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1979. 48 pages. (elementary).

This short biography of the life of the Sauk Chief Black Hawk begins in his boyhood when he kills an attacking Osage and becomes a warrior and, later, chief. The book describes the Sauk's alliance with the English against the Americans in the War of 1812, their move west into Iowa following the signing of an 1816 treaty, and their courageous attempt to return to their homeland and reclaim their land.


Shea, Robert. Shaman. New York, NY: Ballantine Books; 1991. 519 pages. (secondary).

This is a historical novel set in 1830s Illinois against a background of war as the embattled Sauk seek to preserve rights to their former lands. Young shaman White Bear has a Sauk mother and a white father. At age fifteen, he is claimed by his father, who adopts him, gives him a non-Indian education and makes him heir to the vast land-holdings of his aristocratic French family. White Bear remains Sauk at heart, but finds himself morally obliged to defend his inheritance from a rival heir, his adoptive uncle Raoul, presented as a villain. Much of the action centers around Raoul's relentless hatred for White Bear. As a boy, Raoul was captured and enslaved for two years by the Potawatomi, and when the story is presented from his point of view, offensive language is used, such as "Indian bucks," and "squaw man." White Bear believes that Indians can survive only by adopting white men's ways, a path he reluctantly chooses. His Sauk wife, Redbird, on the other hand, opts to remain with her people to rebuild Sauk strength after their defeat and removal by the U.S. Army. The story is loosely based on historical fact, and the cast of characters features Abraham Lincoln, Zachary Taylor, and Jefferson Davis in cameo roles. A small amount of cultural information on the Sauk origin myth, the vision quest, and healing practices is included, but the author makes no claim for accuracy. Vivid descriptions of rape and battlefield violence may be disturbing to some readers.

Le Sueur, Meridel; Desjarlait, Robert (Chippewa), illus. Sparrow Hawk. Reprint of (Alfred A. Knopf) 1950 ed. Duluth, MN: Holy Cow! Press; 1987. 176 pages. (upper elementary).

See annotation under Fox Fiction.



Connell, Kate; Jones, Jan Naimo, illus. These Lands Are Ours: Tecumseh's Fight For the Old Northwest. New York, NY: Steck-Vaughn Company; 1993. 96 pages. (Alex Haley, Gen. Ed. Stories of America).(upper elementary).

This biography for young readers is about the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, the warrior and statesman who devoted his life to his vision of a united American Indian nation. Little information on his early life is included; instead, the book focuses on Tecumseh's struggle to enlist support from the tribes against the "Long Knives" and to reclaim the American Indian lands lost in the signing of the unfairly negotiated Fort Wayne Treaty. The defeat of Tecumseh's followers in the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, and the subsequent destruction of his people's village, Prophetstown, were setbacks from which Tecumseh barely recovered. Tecumseh was killed while fighting against the Americans in the War of 1812, and with him died his unrealized dream---to unite all American Indian tribes. The afterword explains to young readers the use of dialogue in the biography, and presents the notes documenting details presented in the book, an unusual addition for a non-scholarly book written for children. Illustrated with full-page black-and-white drawings.

Cwiklik, Robert. Tecumseh: Shawnee Rebel. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1993. 110 pages. (North American Indians of Achievement). (secondary).

In this biography of Tecumseh, the Shawnee leader who dedicated his life to forming a united American Indian nation, the book describes Tecumseh's childhood; his growth as a distinguished war chief and orator; and the development of his political ideas and leadership. Tecumseh was killed in battle in 1813, and with his death, the American Indian resistance movement lost its most visible, well-known leader. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings, engravings, and paintings, this book includes a chronology and an index.

Eckert, Alan W. Blue Jacket: War Chief of the Shawnees. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company; 1969. 177 pages. (secondary).

In 1771, at the age of 17, Marmaduke Van Swearingen, along with his younger brother Charley, are captured by the Shawnee, who allow the brothers to live under the condition that Marmaduke remains with them. After surviving a torturous gauntlet, Marmaduke is adopted into the tribe and receives the name Blue Jacket. Known for his courage and cleverness in winning major battles against enemies , Blue Jacket becomes a chief of the Shawnee. After the 1791 battle against Governor General St. Clair, Blue Jacket is made Brigadier General of the British Army. Blue Jacket died of cholera in 1810, fifteen years after signing the Treaty of Greenville while his people were still at peace with whites settlers. The author notes that "all of the major incidents described in the book are true; the author has taken license only with minor items which do not affect or alter history. Much of the dialogue is taken directly from historical records, but a certain amount was created to help maintain the smooth flow characteristic of a novel." This well-written biography, presented as a chronicle with each chapter headed with a date, uses the word "squaw" in a few instances.

Eckert, Allan W. A Sorrow in Our Hearts. New York, NY: Bantam Books; 1992. 862 pages. (secondary).

This is a narrative biography of the life of the Shawnee warrior Tecumseh, who attempted to unite American Indians against Euroamerican encroachment. The author covers the complex, shifting alliances between various tribes, the French, the British, and the Americans, and portrays the Shawnee in a sympathetic way. Interesting ethnographic details and the liberal use of dialogue promote interest in the events and characters. s/bio/Shawnee/Northeast.

Kent, Zachary. Tecumseh. Chicago, IL: Childrens Press; 1992. 32 pages. (Cornerstones of Freedom). (upper elementary).

This biography of Tecumseh, the famous Shawnee chief who fought valiantly for pan-Indian rights and freedom during the early 1800s, emphasizes the chief's struggle against the encroachment of whites on American Indian territory and its natural resources. Illustrated with historical black-and-white and color engravings. Includes an index.

Hook, Jason. Tecumseh: Visionary Chief of the Shawnee. Dorset, UK: Firebird Books, Ltd.; 1989. 48 pages. (Heroes and Warriors). (upper elementary/secondary).

This is a concise history of Tecumseh's life and his efforts to unite the Eastern Woodland tribes to resist Euroamerican encroachment upon tribal lands. Illustrated with maps, archival photographs, and color and black-and-white illustrations. Includes an index, chronology of events, and bibliography.

McGovern, Ann. The Defenders. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.; 1987, 1970. 128 pages. (upper elementary).

Through the biographies of chiefs Osceola (Seminole), Tecumseh (Shawnee), and Cochise (Chiricahua Apache), the story of American Indians' struggle to keep their lands is told in a simple, engaging style that should keep young readers interested. No sources or bibliography are provided. Illustrated with prints and archival photographs.

Shorto, Russell; Sisco, Tim, illus. Tecumseh and the Dream of an American Indian Nation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press; 1989. 123 pages. (Alvin Josephy, Gen. Ed. Alvin Josephy's Biography Series on American Indians). (elementary/secondary) *.

This well-written biography recounts the life of the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his attempt to form a union of American Indian tribes to limit Euroamerican expansionism. The book covers topics such as American Indian dependence on trade goods and the ravages of smallpox and alcoholism. Illustrated with a small number of drawings and maps.

Stevenson, Augusta; Dowd, Vic, illus. Tecumseh: Shawnee Boy. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc.; 1955. 200 pages. (Childhood of Famous Americans). (lower/upper elementary).

This book describes the life of Tecumseh, the famous Shawnee chief who attempted to unite American Indian tribes into a single nation, and who fought for American Indian land rights in the early 1800s. Neither references nor documentation support the extensive dialogue and the anecdotal events described in this book. The dialogue includes words such as "red man," "squaw," and "paleface." Includes sections with reading comprehension questions, activities for young readers, a bibliography, and a glossary. The illustrations are unappealing.

Thom, James Alexander. Panther in the Sky. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1985. 656 pages.

This is a fictionalized biography of the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh (1768--1813), leader of the confederated tribes who sided with the British in their wars against the United States. The author portrays events from the American Indian point of view, opting for the Native version where conflicting records exist. Specific sources are not cited. A fully-rounded portrait of Tecumseh emerges from the depiction of his childhood, family, spiritual outlook, and political and military strategies in dealing with unreliable allies and a relentless enemy. A feeling for the life of the Shawnee people of the period is conveyed through descriptions of their constant uprooting and displacement. The battle scenes are especially well-written. Early chapters portray a few aspects of traditional life, such as childbirth, courtship and marriage practices, and festivals. Graphic, detailed descriptions of prisoner torture and a rape may be disturbing. The word "savages" is occasionally used to convey white prejudice toward American Indians. Three maps illustrate American Indian lands lost during Tecumseh's lifetime, Tecumseh's travels to unite the tribes, and his activities in the war of 1812. (secondary/adult).

Van Hoose, William H.; Tupper, Constance. Tecumseh: An Indian Moses. Canton, OH: Daring Books; 1984. 232 pages. (secondary).

This book is a comprehensive, detailed account of the life of Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief who led an organized resistance against Euroamerican encroachment on Indian lands during the early 1800s. The book emphasizes the political activities of Tecumseh's latter life. Much useful information, presented in an engaging manner, is evident in this well-researched book, although terms such as "red men" are used throughout. Includes a black-and-white map and portrait.


Eitzen, Ruth; Eitzen, Allan, illus. The White Feather. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press; 1987. 64 pages. (lower elementary).

This fictionalized account, based on the experience of a Quaker family in 1812 in the settlement of Cincinnati, Ohio, seeks to offset the image of the "marauding Indian." The Quaker family remains behind when the rest of the settlement flees at the rumor of an impending Shawnee attack. When the Shawnee arrive, they are greeted with friendship rather than firearms and they depart in peace, leaving a white feather (a symbol of peace and protection) above the family's cabin door. Includes color illustrations.



Bulla, Clyde Robert. Squanto: Friend of the White Man. New York, NY: Scholastic; 1985. 112 pages. (lower elementary).

This is a fictionalized account of the life of "Squanto" (Tisquantum), his long sojourn in England, captivity in Spain, and subsequent aid to the newly arrived Pilgrims. In attempting to portray a lifelike character, the author attributes questionable attitudes to Squanto, for example, his admiration of the "wonderful white men."

Cwiklik, Robert. King Philip and the War With the Colonists. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Simon & Schuster, Inc.; 1989. 131 pages. (secondary) *.

This is a biography of the Wampanoag leader Metacom, called King Philip by the English. King Philip led the American Indians of New England in a war to drive out the British. This powerful and well-written book engages the reader in the events leading up to the wars of 1675.

Dubowski, Cathy East; Petruccio, Steven James, illus. Squanto: First Friend to the Pilgrims. New York, NY: Dell Publishing; 1990. 91 pages. (A Dell Yearling Biography). (upper elementary).

A simply written biography of "Squanto" (Tisquantum), the Wampanoag leader who assisted early Pilgrim settlers in the area that is now southern New England. A "Note to the Reader" explains that the history of Tisquantum (as well as that of the Pilgrims) is mired in legend, and that much information about him and other Native figures is derived from European accounts, and may or may not be accurate. Includes an afterword and black-and-white illustrations.

Graff, Stewart; Graff, Polly Anne; Doremus, Robert, illus. Squanto: Indian Adventurer. Champaign, IL: Garrard Publishing Co.; 1965. 80 pages. (lower elementary).

The story of "Squanto" (Tisquantum), the Wampanoag leader known for his friendship with the English, and his presence at the first Thanksgiving. The book opens with a description of the Wampanoag written in the past tense, fostering the notion that there are no longer any Wampanoag. Includes tri-color illustrations.

Fradin, Dennis Brindell; Dunnington, Tom, illus. King Philip: Indian Leader. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Publishers; 1990. 48 pages. (upper elementary).

This is a biography of the leader Metacomet, son of Wampanoag chief Massasoit, who befriended the Pilgrims. The author sometimes generalizes, such as "Indians thought there were many gods," and his writing style is somewhat dry and uninteresting. Includes a list of dates and a glossary.

Kessel, Joyce K.; Donze, Lisa, illus. Squanto and the First Thanksgiving. Minneapolis, MN: Raintree Publishers; 1989. 48 pages. (lower elementary).

This is a well-written, simple biography of "Squanto" (Tisquantum), a Wampanoag leader who was captured twice by Europeans. He was first taken to England, where he learned English and later to Spain, where he was Christianized. Upon his second return home, Tisquantum discovers his village decimated by smallpox. The book describes how he helped the Pilgrims survive, and gives the standard, Euroamerican version of the first Thanksgiving. An afterward describes the subsequent establishment of Thanksgiving as an official holiday.

Roman, Joseph. King Philip: Wampanoag Rebel. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1992. 111 pages. (North American Indians of Achievement). (secondary) *.

This biography of Wampanoag leader Metacom, called King Philip by the English, describes how he came to power when his people were searching for someone to lead them into battle against the European settlers who were encroaching on Wampanoag land. Metacom found support for his war against the settlers from many other New England tribes. Over 2,500 colonists died in the battles collectively known as King Philip's War, the most destructive in New England history, which effectively halted European expansion in New England for almost one hundred years. Profusely illustrated with photographs, maps, and historical documents, the book includes a helpful introduction on Indian leadership, a chronology, an index, and a guide to further reading.

Stevenson, Augusta; Goldstein, Nathan, illus. Squanto: Young Indian Hunter. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.; 1962. 200 pages. (Childhood of Famous Americans). (elementary).

This is a biography of the famous Wampanoag "friend of the Pilgrims," Tisquantum ("Squanto"), who assisted the English settlers of Plymouth during the early 1600s. Neither references nor documentation support the extensive dialogue and the anecdotal events found in this book. For example, when Tisquantum, who was kidnapped and brought to Europe as a slave, eventually escapes and returns to his homeland, he finds that his family and friends in Patuxet have died in a plague. At this time, he requests that he be allowed to stay with the Pilgrims, confiding to Captain Miles Standish, "I am used to English ways now. I feel a little strange with Indians." The book includes a time line, activities and questions for young readers, a bibliography, and a glossary. Includes unappealing illustrations.

Voight, Virginia; Cary, illus. Massasoit: Friend of the Pilgrims. Champaign, IL: Garrard Publishing Co.; 1971. 80 pages. (upper elementary).

This book tells of the friendship that developed between the Wampanoag and the Pilgrims, and the gradual erosion of this friendship as settlers continued to arrive. The book successfully integrates historical information with fictional material.

Ziner, Feenie. Squanto, Update of Dark Pilgrim: The Story of Squanto. (Chilton Co). 1965 ed. Hamden, CT: Linnet Books; 1988. 149 pages. (upper elementary).

This book gives the sources for this fictionalized account of the life of Tisquantum ("Squanto"). The main part of the book concerns Tisquantum's long stay in England as a slave. The latter part of the book describes his vision and his role as helper in the "Manifest Destiny" of European settlers. This vision is described as "a signal, a portent of some great task which lay ahead, the nature of which was yet concealed from his sight."


Doherty Katherine M. and Doherty, Craig A. The Wampanoag. Franklin Watts. 1995. 63 pp. (upper elementary)

The Wampanoag still live today in southeastern Massachusetts, their traditional homeland. The Wampanoags' contacts with the Europeans went from peaceful, under Massasoit's leadership in the early 1600s, to conflict that led to King Philip's War. Photographs and prints illustrate the traditional life of this Eastern Woodland tribe. Includes a map, glossary, bibliography, and index.

Raphael, Elaine; Bolognese, Don; Raphael, Elaine and Don Bolognese, illus. The Story of the First Thanksgiving. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc.; 1991. 30 pages. (lower elementary).

This simple book on the first Thanksgiving tells of the Pilgrims' arrival to North America and the activities in which they were involved prior to the Thanksgiving celebration. The book also mentions the Pilgrims' relations with Tisquantum ("Squanto") and other Patuxet, who assisted the pilgrims with hunting and agriculture. A note from the authors explains that Tisquantum spoke English because he had been captured by an English sea captain and taken to England. It describes Tisquantum's people as struck with "a terrible illness," and when Squanto returned to his native land, "he found that all of his people had died or gone away." Unfortunately, the authors are not direct in explaining that European contact led to disease and devastating loss to the American Indian population, and consequently of Indian land.

Weinstein-Farson, Laurie. The Wampanoag. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 91 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

A well-written history of the Wampanoag, concluding with an account of the contemporary Wampanoag. The history is largely drawn from ethnohistorical accounts, while contemporary life is represented by descriptions of the lives of average individuals. Includes a bibliography, glossary, index, and "Wampanoag-At-A-Glance."


Fritz, Jean; de Paola, Tomie, illus. The Good Giants and the Bad Pukwudgies. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons; 1982. 38 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

Fragments of Wampanoag legends are combined to create a fictional tale, resulting in a confusing storyline. Stylized illustrations do not accurately reflect the people or the culture.

Jennings, Paulla (Niantic and Narragansett); Peters, Ramona (Wampanoag), illus. Strawberry Thanksgiving. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press, Inc.; 1992. 23 pages. (Multicultural Celebrations). (lower elementary).

See annotation under Mohegan Fiction.

Peters, Russell M. (Wampanoag); Madama, John, photog. Clambake: A Wampanoag Tradition. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company; 1992. 48 pages. (elementary) *.

In this contemporary story, twelve-year-old Steven Peters, a Wampanoag boy in Massachusetts, learns from his grandfather how to prepare an "appanaug," a traditional Wampanoag ceremony that honors an important person in the tribe or celebrates a change in seasons. Profusely illustrated with color photographs, this book includes a word list, pronunciation guide, and a short list of books for further reading.

Siegel, Beatrice; Bock, William Sauts (Lenni-Lenape), illus. The Basket Maker and the Spinner. Walker and Company: New York, NY; 1987. 63 pages. (upper elementary) *.

In this carefully researched book, Yawata, a Wampanoag woman, gathers materials for making a basket. Yawata's experience is contrasted with that of Mary Allen, a colonist, who converts flax and wool into yarn on her spinning wheel. The clearly presented book looks at basketry and spinning as ancient arts, and as historic symbols of changing cultures. This book includes excellent black-and-white illustrations, suggested readings, an index, and an appendix of the Wampanoag calendar.

Sewall, Marcia; Sewall, Marcia, illus. People of the Breaking Day. New York, NY: Atheneum; 1990. 48 pages. (lower elementary).

This description of the pre-Contact life and beliefs of the Wampanoag achieves immediacy through the use of the first-person plural narrative, detailed descriptions, and Wampanoag words. Beautiful, full-color illustrations by the author enrich the text. Includes a glossary.


Kazimiroff, Theodore L. The Last Algonquin. New York, NY: Walker and Company; 1982. 192 pages. (secondary).

Joe Two Trees, last surviving member of the Weckquaesgek band of the Algonquian Nation, relates the story of his life and his people to a young white boy named Theodore whom he meets and befriends. This true story, told by Theodore's adult son, unfolds during a period in 1924 when Theodore discovers Joe living a hermit-like existence in Pelham Bay Park in the northeastern Bronx. Unaware of the existence of any other American Indians, Joe talks with and teaches Theodore about his American Indian culture in an attempt to keep his people alive in the memory of the living. Much information about traditional life is conveyed as Joe teaches Theodore to make pots, hunt and fish, and flintknap.


Reuben Snake: Your Humble Serpent, Indian Visionary and Activist. As Told to Jay C. Fikes. Afterword by Walter Echo-Hawk. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Clearlight Press, 1996. 277 pages. (secondary/adult) *.

Reuben Snake (1937--1993), a Winnebago activist, educator, and political and spiritual leader, recounts his life to anthropologist Jay Fikes a month before his death. Snake, who overcame poverty, alcoholism, and racial discrimination, devoted his life toward tribal sovereignty and self-sufficiency. He was a "Roadman" or leader in the Native American Church, which integrates Christianity into its teachings. Snake's crusade for religious freedom led to President Clinton signing a 1994 law legalizing American Indian religious use of peyote. This rich and personal memoir of Reuben Snake's fifty-six years of life provides a glimpse of a man who overcame many personal challenges to become a respected leader of his community and of national American Indian organizations such as AIM and the National Congress of the American Indian. Contains a comprehensive index and illustrated with twenty-two black-and-white photographs.


Thomasma, Kenneth; Fleuter, Craig, illus. Kune: Escape on the Missouri. Jackson, WY: Grandview Publishing; 1989. 136 pages. (upper elementary).

The story of the Winnebago's forced removal from Minnesota to Crow Creek, South Dakota in 1862 is told through the fictional adventures of a young boy named Kunu. He and his grandfather escape from the reservation and return to Minnesota. An interesting component of the story is the complexity of Indian/non-Indian relationships. Includes black-and-white illustrations.


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