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Robert Leopold
National Anthropological Archives
Human Studies Film Archives
Smithsonian Institution

Last updated: March 2010

This is a continually updated bibliography about the ethics of exhibiting culturally sensitive materials. It focuses on how cultural heritage organizations decide which portions of their collections to exhibit or otherwise make available online, their policies regarding consultation with native peoples, and the effect of their policies on virtual archives and museums. It also includes key articles dealing with the more general issue of intangible cultural property.

Brown, Michael F.
Can Culture Be Copyrighted? Current Anthropology (1998) 39/2. [PDF]

Brown, Michael F.
Cultural Records in Question. Information and Its Moral Dilemmas. CRM (1998) 21/6.

Christen, Kimberly A.
Archival Challenges and Digital Solutions in Aboriginal Australia. SAA Archaeological Record (Aug 2008) 8/2: 21-24

Christen, Kimberly A.
Access and Accountability: The Ecology of Information Sharing in the Digital Age. Anthropology News, Special issue on Visual Ethics (April 2009): 4-5.

D-Lib Magazine
Special Issue on Digital Technology and Indigenous Commmunities. (March 2002).

Downey, Laura
A Tourist Album and its Implications for the Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Peoples. WAAC Newsletter (Western Association for Art Conservation), May 1998 Volume 20 Number 2.

Durrans, Brian
Museums, Representation and Cultural Property, an article first published in Anthropology Today 8 (4) 11 - 15.

First Archivists Circle
Protocols for Native American Archival Materials.

Hardison, Preston 
Indigenous Peoples and the Commons (Dec 2006)

Hennessey, Kate
Virtual Repatriation and Digital Cultural Heritage: The Ethics of Managing Online Collections. Anthropology News, Special issue on Visual Ethics (April 2009): 5-6.

Hopi Cultural Preservation Office
Intellectual Property Rights.

Indigenous Peoples Biodiversity Information Network (IBIN)
Indigenous Peoples and Intellectual Property Rights.

National Library of Australia
First Roundtable on Library and Archives Collections and Services of Relevance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

Nine Tribes of Mataatua
The Mataatua Declaration on Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Peoples - June 1993.

Pockley, Simon
Blinding the Duck (Aboriginal representation, censorship and restriction online)

2008 Annual Conference of CIDOC
Athens, September 15 – 18, 2008

Romanek, Devorah
Digital Curation: Theorizing the Digital Object. Annual Conference of CIDOC (Athens, September 15-18, 2008)

Seeger, Anthrony
Intellectual Property and Audiovisual Archives and Collections. Library of Congress, American Folklife Center: Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis Symposium Keynote Addresses.

Skrydstrup, Martin
Towards IP Guidelines and Best Practices for Recording and Digitizing Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Survey of Codes, Conduct and Challenges in North America. WIPO, Oct. 2006


Policy Statements / Procedures / Remarks on Consultations

Peterson, Elaine
A Shared Digital Library of Native American Images.
First Monday, volume 6, number 4 (April 2001).

Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia
Management of Culturally Sensitive Materials.

Museum of Northern Arizona and the Hopi Tribe
Memorandum of Understanding Between the Museum of Northern Arizona and the Hopi Tribe.

University of Melbourne Archive Image Catalogue
(Note the fine print: "Indigenous Australians are advised that UMAIC may include names and images of people now deceased")

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