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Some pictures appeared in the 1971 annual report of the Smithsonian Institution Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. They show people purported to have a stone-age culture. The discovery was treated by the television show "20/20" as a hoax perpetrated by the Philippines government under Ferdinand Marcos. There has been dispute about the two views.

DATES: 1971

QUANTITY: 23 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-49


Sol Tax attended and taught at the University of Chicago. He based his dissertation about Fox social organization on 1932-1934 field work at the Tama, Iowa, Mesquakie settlement.

Tax began the Fox Project to provide field experience to University of Chicago students. During the first season, inquiries into Fox social organization and leadership suggested internal dissension within Tama caused by outside pressures from the white community. In deciding to interfere with the ongoing process, Tax and the students were confronted with their lack of authority to enforce changes. To cope with this, Tax and the students developed a theoretical framework that is know as action anthropology. The basic idea was that, with the help and advice of anthropologists, the Indians would define their problems and seek solutions for them.

From 1948 to 1953, project members continued to study the Fox and to discuss the Indians' problems. In 1953, a plan was devised and money obtained from a private foundation. At the same time, the University of Chicago group was joined by students and faculty from the University of Iowa. Initially, the plan was largely educational; but in time it came to include economic and social aspects. Efforts were made in these different directions. The Fox Indian Professional Education Program began; a community center was established; a clinic was sought; and a crafts industry (Tama Indian Crafts) was launched.

Students who were involved in the project include Herbert Becker, Ariane Brunel, Charles Callendar, Marie Furey Callendar, Carl Couch, Paul Diesing, Lloyd Fallers, Eugene Fugel, Frederick O. Gearing, Irving Gerick, Grace Gredys, Jerry Jayne, Richard Kluckhorn, Charles Leslie, Joseph R. Marlin, William McCormack, Walter Miller, Fred Okita, Lisa Redfield Peattie, Steven Polgar, Robert Rietz, Sarah Robinson, Lucinda Sangre, Walter H. Sangre, Florence Simon, Claude Tardita, Caroline Wiesender, and Davida Wolffson. Also involved were Alton Fischer, Otis Imboden, Carol Ruppé, and Reynold Ruppé. Correspondents include Len Borman, Henry F. Dobyns, William Dunning, Charles Frantz, Robert A. Hackenburg, Wesley R. Hurt, Alexander Lesser, LaVerne Madigan, Lola Manzolillo, D'Arcy McNickle, Ralph Nader, Ben Reifel, Emil J. Sady, Robert K. Thomas, and Tillie Walker.

Some material has been published in Frederick O. Gearing, Robert McC. Netting, and Lisa R. Peattie, Documentary History of the Fox Project, 1948-1959: A Program in Action Anthropology Directed by Sol Tax, University of Chicago, 1960.

DATES: 1932-1934; 1948-1959

QUANTITY: ca. 2.4 linear meters (ca. 8 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Student's papers; (2) journals; (3) newspaper clippings; (4) maps; (5) census data; (6) psychological tests; (7) linguistic material; (8) proposals, programs, reports, and related memoranda; (9) individual interviews; (10) notes regarding education; (11) authority questionnaire; (12) historical data; (13) material regarding economics; (14) material regarding social organization (including pow wows, formal clubs, religion and peyote, factionalism, council, and women's club); (15) notes regarding Tama Whites; (16) notes regarding nonTama Whites; (17) notes and other material regarding the Bureau of Indian Affairs; (18) miscellany; (19) photographs; (20) correspondence; (21) subject field; (22) field notes; (23) financial records; (24) copies of documents concerning Fox history; (25) Sol Tax's field notes (census, children, social organization [marriage, sororate, levirate, incest, adultery, menstruation, kinship terminology, households, clans, genealogies], material culture, social control, history, gifts and obligations, individual schedules, census recapitulation, factions, ceremonies)


CALL NUMBER: Manuscript 4802

THOMPSON, LAURA MAUD (1905-2000), Papers

Laura Thompson was born in Hawaii and trained at Mills College, Harvard University, and the University of California at Berkeley (Ph.D., 1933). She did post-doctoral training at the University of Chicago.

Thompson's career has been a varied one, embracing ethnography, archeology, and linguistics; studies of the relationship between environment and culture; culture change; culture history; personality and culture; applied anthropology; and theoretical anthropology. She has carried out field work on three continents--Asia, North America, and Europe--and three island groups of the Pacific--Fiji, the Marianas (Guam), and Hawaii. In addition, she has carried out extensive work in museums and libraries, beginning such studies with her dissertation on trade in New Guinea.

Thompson's papers reflect the work of a private researcher and one with considerable experience with government agencies. Her work on Guam was as a social scientist employed by the United States Navy. Her work with American Indians was carried on in part as a Bureau of Indian Affairs consultant.

Much material reflects Thompson's work as coordinator of Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Project and consists of both administrative materials and special research interests relating to the project. Related material will be found in the papers of Robert J. Havighurst and Dorothea C. Leighton. Other material consists field notes, bibliographic notes, reading notes, unpublished and published writings, aides memoire, correspondence, and printed and processed materials. Some materials are background sources rather than Thompson's own original documents. Thompson has retained notes, correspondence, photographs, and other material. This includes papers concerning her work with the Institute of Ethnic Affairs as well as several other projects. Except the files relating to her service with the Indian Education, Personality, and Administration project, none of the series is complete.

DATES: 1930s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 3.7 linear meters (ca. 12 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Material concerning Fiji, including (1) material concerning Kambara, 1933-1934; (2) correspondence, 1934-1976; (3) letters from Fiji, 1933-1934 (typescripts); (4) notes, ca. 1930s; (5) photographs, 1930s (?); (6) material concerning "Famine Islands of Fiji" (proposed publication), 1979-1983; material concerning Guam, including (7) field study material, 1938-1939; (8) correspondence 1963-1982; (9) notes, 1938-1939, 1981; (10) publications, ca. 1938-1981; material concerning Iceland, including (11) field studies material, 1952, 1960; (12) correspondence, 1952-1981, 1981; (13) Ann Pinson Gill material, 1974-1980; (14) publications, 1940; 1946-1976; material concerning theoretical and applied anthropology, including (15) subject file, 1967-1982; (16) material concerning Holistic Anthropology, 1967-1982; (17) material concerning New Image of Man, 1972; material concerning the Institute of Human Values, including (18) correspondence, 1975-1981; (19) publications, 1973-1979; anthropology miscellany, including (20) personal material, 1932-1937, 1979; (21) material concerning "People I Have Known," 1960; (22) material concerning North American Indians, 1941-1971; (23) ethnography notes; (24) sound recordings, 1949 and 1962; material concerning the Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Research project, including (25) correspondence, 1941-1951, 1956, 1972; (26) subject file, 1941-1953, 1960, 1973; (27) interviews, 1942-1945; (28) material relating to the Rorschach monograph, 1943-1965; (29) material concerning the free drawing test, 1942-1946; (30) material concerning the pilot study at the Papago Reservation, 1942; (31) material concerning the Hopi, 1935-1980; (32) publications, 1941-1956

FINDING AID: Joy Elizabeth Rohde, Register to the Papers of Laura Thompson. National Anthropological Archives, November 2000.

RESTRICTION: Some material is temporarily restricted to maintain the privacy of individuals. For additional restrictions, please contact the archives.


The prints show Piscataways and a Comanche.

DATE: 1974

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-49


The Imperial Russian Geographical Society issued the boxed set of mounted O.M. Norzunov platinum prints. The subjects are largely structures and settlements.

DATE: 1904 or earlier

QUANTITY: ca. 50 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-122


In 1962, the Bureau of American Ethnology purchased the photographs from Willis G. Tilton, of Topeka, Kansas. Many seem to have been taken at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, in 1904, apparently by personnel of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago.

Notable subjects include Big Foot, dead in the snow at Wounded Knee; an Arapaho and Cheyenne social dance; Hopi ceremonies; reenactment of the shooting of Sitting Bull; sun dances (Arapaho, Assiniboin and Atsina, Blackfoot, Cheyenne); and views of the United States Indian School Building at the St. Louis World's Fair. Other photographs include many portraits and such subjects as artifacts, basket weaving, cradles, dress, dwellings, tipis and other dwellings, and tree "burials."

Tribes include Apache (White Mountain, Jicarilla), Arapaho, Assiniboin, Atsina, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Coast Salish, Comanche, Crow, Dakota (Brule, Hunkpapa, Oglala), Eskimo, Flathead, Sauk and Fox, Seminole, Haida, Hopi, Iroquois, Kickapoo, Kutenai, Kwakiutl, Maya, Navaho, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Pueblo, Shoshoni, Umatilla, and Wichita.

Besides the American Indian subjects, there are photographs made on Henry Field's expedition to Iraq in 1934, showing a chess game, irrigation, and flute playing; and other photographs show Burmese work elephants, a Yucatan church, and a Ceylonese rickshaw and cart.

DATE: Before 1912

QUANTITY: ca. 675 negatives

ARRANGEMENT: By numbers used by Tilton

FINDING AIDS: Most are in the card catalog of copy negatives and in the reference file prints by tribe.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-8


A new National Museum of Natural History North American Indian exhibit was to feature the Tlingit. After planning was done, a team led by JoAllyn Archambault traveled to Klukwan, Alaska, to present the plan to Sealaska Corporation board members. Permission was then gained to photograph the village. The color slides form a panoramic view of the village. Sets of the slides are held by the village and by the Sealaska Corporation.

DATE: August 6, 1993

QUANTITY: 111 slides

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93-19


The print shows a Passamaquoddy.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-28


The geological survey of John Wesley Powell, first authorized in 1870, had had several names before it became the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. As the Topological and Geological Survey of the Valley of the Colorado, the survey concentrated on extending Powell's earlier explorations. The stereographs are mostly from two series--"Canyons of the Green River" and "Canyons of the Colorado River of the West."

The images are credited to Powell and A.H. Thompson, but Powell's photographers of the time were E.O. Beaman, James Fennemore, and John K. Hillers. The images were distributed not as an official activity but for private profit with proceeds distributed among Powell, Thompson, and (for the photograph he made) Hillers.

One stereograph is by William Henry Jackson and shows Washakie's camp on September 4, 1871. It is from the series "Picturesque Views of Rocky Mountain Scenery."

DATE: 1870s

QUANTITY: 44 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-131


The negative has no further identification.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 negative

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-5

TULAMNIU PROJECT (1933-1934), Records

The records concern William Duncan Strong and Winslow M. Walker's archeological work in Kern County, California, sponsored by the Civil Works Administration. Waldo R. Wedel, also on the expedition, used the material for his Archeological investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, California,Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 130, 1941.

DATES: 1905-1937 (mostly 1933-1934)

QUANTITY: ca. .7 linear meter (ca. 2.25 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Winslow M. Walker's field notes; (2) notebooks of field burial and house records and other field notes; (3) catalogs of specimens; (4) notes about artifacts; (5) scrapbook of newspaper clippings; (6) correspondence; (7) reference material; (8) photographic records; (9) maps; (10) charts and tables; (11) cross sections, profiles, stratigraphs; (12) miscellany

FINDING AID: Draft register


The collection consists of copy negatives by Tunica officers. The images include Joe Pierite, Andre Gallardo, lacrosse sticks, a horn spoon, gourd dipper, clay pot, and pipes. Tunicas excavated the specimens.

DATE: ca. 1977

QUANTITY: 6 negative

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-65


The print shows a chief of the Piscataway Indians.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

TURNER, WILLIAM WADDEN (ca. 1810-1859), Papers

Born in England, W.W. Turner came to America when he was still a child. As a young man, he studied Oriental, Classical, and modern European languages with the assistance of Isaac Nordheimer. In return, Turner helped Nordheimer in the preparation of his Hebrew Grammar, Chrestomathy, and Concordance. Turner studied formally at Yale University and then assisted in the reorganization of the Columbia University library. In 1842, he was appointed to the chair of Oriental literature at Union Theological Seminary. While in New York, he was active with the American Oriental Society and the American Ethnological Society.

In 1852, Turner became the librarian at the United States Patent Office. Before this, he had worked for the Smithsonian as a linguistic consultant. In Washington, he continued this work and also reorganized and cataloged the Smithsonian's library, employing his sister Jane as an assistant.

Although Turner's early specialty was Hebrew and other Near Eastern languages, his linguistic interests were worldwide, and he became an authority on American languages. Little of his learning, however, was directed toward producing original works. Although he published articles in the Bibliotheca Sacra, Iconographic Encyclopedia, Journal of the American Oriental Society, and Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, his main vocation was as translator and editor. For the Smithsonian, as an example, he imposed form on the materials that went into Stephen Return Riggs's Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota Language (1851) and T.J. Bowen's Grammar and Dictionary of the Yoruba Language (1858).

The collection is a miscellany obtained from Jane Turner in the 1890s. Much consists of drafts, notes, and notebooks on a wide range of subjects, including Arabic, Welsh, Russian, Himyaritic inscriptions, the language of Blacks in Guyana, music, and geometry. Also included are vocabularies of American Indian languages (Kansa, Oto, Omaha, Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Gros Ventre, Shoshoni, Crow, Cherokee, Winnebago, Cocopa, Yuma, and Mohave) recorded by Arthur Schott in 1859. (Included earlier was a notebook with a Gambier vocabulary copied from Father Louis Désiré Maigret by Horatio Hale; but, because of the uncertainty of its relation to the Turner papers, it has been removed and cataloged as NAA manuscript 7441.) Some documents appear to be original materials; others are from published sources; and still others may be exercises or aides memoire. The correspondence consists of both incoming and outgoing letters. It is, however, small in quantity, discontinuous, and often unidentified as to correspondent. There are usually only one or two items from any given person.

Correspondents include Elisa De Frondat, Theordore Dwight, Jr., Josiah W. Gibbs, Homan Hallock, Samuel S. Heldeman, William F. Lynch, Isaac Nordheimer, Edward Robinson, Sarony and Major (lithographers), Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, and E.G. Squier.

DATES: ca. 1838-1859

QUANTITY: ca. .4 linear meter (ca. 1.3 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence, 1838-1859; (2) notebooks; (3) writings; (4) notes; (5) legal agreements; (6) book catalogs, prospectuses, and bibliographies; (7) miscellany


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-22

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