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The Fourth Southeastern Archaeological Conference was held at the Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon, Georgia. John C. Ewers, who is in the portrait, was the acting superintendent of the monument.

DATE: November 1940

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-36


The Southeastern Archaeological Conference began in 1938 with an informal meeting to consider southeastern pottery typology held at the Ceramic Repository for the Eastern United States, University Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan. Later that year, a second meeting on pottery typology was held in Birmingham, Alabama. Afterwards, there were frequent meetings (sometimes two a year) until 1941. Meetings were suspended following the outbreak of World War II and did not resume until 1950. Since then, there have been regular annual meetings.

In its first several decades, the conference operated on an informal basis with a chairman, secretary, meeting organizer, and editor (later an editor/treasurer). The tenure in these positions was indefinite, and sometimes one person appears to have functioned in several capacities. With considerable growth during the 1960s and 1970s, the informality could not continue. In 1974, a president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer were elected. In 1978, to gain tax exempt status, a constitution was adopted.

Other than meetings, the main SEAC function has been its publications. These have included the SEAC Newsletter, 1939-1941, 1951- ; SEAC Bulletin, 1964- : Southeastern Archaeology, 1982- ; and special publications. SEAC proceedings were reported in its newsletter through 1963 and afterwards in the bulletins.

DATES: 1938-1995

QUANTITY: ca. 3 linear meters (ca. 10 linear feet)

ARRANGMENT: (1) Stephen Williams' files as treasurer, editor, and meeting organizer, ca. 1959-1964; (2) treasurers' records, 1970s; (3) Jerald T. Milanich's files as editor, 1980-1981; (4) Jefferson Chapman's file as president, 1984; (5) Albert Goodyear's files as conference coordinator, 1987; (6) presidents' files (Charles H. McNutt, Bruce D. Smith, Jefferson Chapman, Jerald T. Milanich, Barbara A. Purdy), 1978-1992; (7) Vincas P. Steponaitis's file as editor and exective committe members, 1984-1988; (8) publications, 1939-1994 (periods missing); (9) sound recordings, 1959-1986


RESTRICTION: Editorial material is subject to long-term restriction.


Until 1966, the Southern Sociological Society (SSS) served as the meeting ground for anthropologists in the South. In that year the Southern Anthropological Society (SAS) was founded after John J. Honigmann, in response to recommendations by Asael T. Hansen, called a meeting of anthropologists in conjunction with the SSS's convention in New Orleans. A constitution and bylaws for the new organization were adopted in a meeting in 1967, and the SAS was incorporated under the laws of Georgia in 1975.

The SAS purpose is "the promotion of anthropology in the Southern United States." To that end, meetings are held in the South. However, membership is open to all persons interested in anthropology, and members and participants at meetings, although strongly from the South, include anthropologists from throughout the United States. Originally the SAS had officers consisting of a president, vice president, secretary-treasurer, and two elected councilors. The constitution of 1967 replaced the vice president with a president-elect and added the immediate past president as a third councillor.

The SAS has been mainly concerned with meetings, publications, and its two awards. The publications include a newsletter, The Southern Anthropologist, and the Proceedings of the Southern Anthropological Society. The awards include a prize for a student paper and the James Mooney Award for a "book-length manuscript that best describes and interprets the people or culture of a distinctive New World population." The SAS has also sponsored a visiting lecture program that brought anthropologists to smaller southern colleges.

SAS records consist mainly of the files of the secretary-treasurer, but these include some correspondence of other officers. Added to these are materials of former officers donated for inclusion in SAS records. Of these, John J. Honigmann's records concern his part in the SAS founding. The records donated by Harriet J. Kupferer include copies of the original articles of incorporation and by-laws.

Correspondents include Michael V. Angrosino, Eugene P. Banks, William E. Carter, Frank J. Essene, Valerie I. Fennell, John L. Fischer, John Gulick, Asael T. Hansen, Mary W. Helms, Carole E. Hill, Irma Honigmann, John J. Honigmann, Charles M. Hudson, David M. Johnson, Solon T. Kimball, Arden R. King, Harriet J. Kupferer, Lewis H. Marson, Jr., Michael D. Olien, Nancy H. Owens, Miles Richardson, E. Lamar Ross, and Malcolm C. Webb.

DATES: 1965-1984

QUANTITY: ca. 1.8 linear meters (ca. 5.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Secretary-treasurer's records, 1966-1979; (2) records of John J. Honigmann, Irma Honigmann, Harriet J. Kupferer, Eugene P. Banks, and Miles Richardson, 1965-1978; (3) miscellany, 1971-1982 (includes record copies of issues of the SAS newsletter); and (4) treasurer's records, 1980-1984



Most prints have little data. One image features steatopygia in a Hottentot woman. Others depict Zulus, including Dinizulu. Some are by J.E. Middlebrook.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 13 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-29


The prints and negatives relate to the Handbook of South American Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143). They include Aymara, Chaco, Chane, Matako, Pilaga, and Toba subjects.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 62 items

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 90


The lot is a miscellany of prints and negatives. Some images were in exhibits in the National Museum of Natural History. Most were taken from publications, possibly for reference purposes. One item is a print of a William L. Abbott photograph.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 31 items

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 112


The prints probably relate to a WJ McGee expedition. Included are Papago and Yuma subjects. There is related material in WJ McGee Expedition Photographs.

DATES: Probably 1890s, early 1900s

QUANTITY: 26 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 144


The Southwestern Anthropological Society began as the Southwestern Archaeological Federation at a 1928 meeting in Los Angeles. Reorganized with broader purposes in 1946, it took the present name.

Although membership in the association is open to all interested persons and recent membership lists include persons from many states and foreign countries, membership is mainly from California and most meetings are in that state. The main function has been meetings, particularly its large annual meeting. The society also issues a newsletter.

Except for very recent materials, the records are discontinuous and incomplete. Included are letters, minutes of the executive board, election materials, meeting registration forms, papers presented at meetings (1976), and financial records.

DATES: 1962-1982

QUANTITY: ca. 1.3 linear meters (ca. 4.25 linear feet)

FINDING AIDS: Packing lists for part of material; item list provided by Rose Tyson for other material

RESTRICTION: Material less than ten years old is restricted.


Albert C. Spaulding studied at Montana State University (B.A. in economics, 1935), the University of Michigan (M.A. in anthropology, 1937), and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1946). In 1946-1947, he taught at the University of Kansas and was an assistant curator at the university's Museum of Anthropology. From 1947 to 1961, he taught at the University of Michigan and was curator of its Museum of Anthropology. In 1959-1961, Spaulding was first program director for the History and Philosophy of Science Program, National Science Foundation, and then NSF program director for anthropology. In 1963-1966, he was professor and chairman of anthropology at the University of Oregon. In 1967-1971, he was dean of the College of Letters and Science, University of California at Santa Barbara, and taught at that institution until 1983. Spaulding served the Society for American Archaeology as associate editor, secretary, vice president, and president. In 1964, he was vice president of Section H of American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Spaulding carried out several field projects. In 1936, he was on the crew of Will C. McKern's excavations at Rice Lake and Spencer Lake, Wisconsin. He was foreman for a WPA excavation of a large shell mound in Butler County, Kentucky, in 1937-1938. During the following year, he was a member of a Columbia University-University of South Dakota W.H. Over Museum-WPA project and supervised excavations at the Arzberger site, Hughes County, and Buffalo Pasture site, Stanley County, South Dakota. In 1940-1941, he 2he did exwas state supervisor for a WPA archeological survey of Mississippi. During 1941, he supervised excavations at Wynot, Nebraska, for a University of Nebraska-WPA project. In 1949, as a member of a University of Michigan party working on Agattu Island in the Aleutian Islands, he carried out excavations at Krugloi Point. Again for the University of Michigan, he made excavations at Cahokia Mound in 1949-1950. In 1953, he was a member of a university party surveying the upper Great Lakes, and he excavated the Garnell site. During the 1970's and 1980s, he worked on Santa Cruz Island archeology in California.

Spaulding is best known for his theoretical and methodological concerns. In relating his first archeological field work, he declared: "My fundamental interest at the time (and now) was clarification of the basic concepts of archeology, which led me into explicit applications of quantitative technique and explicit definitions of archaeological problems in terms of relationship between or among well-defined variables." Spaulding produced many articles and book reviews in which he dealt with such problems. Perhaps the best known appeared in the pages of American Antiquity in 1953 and 1954 when he debated James A. Ford concerning the most productive methods of archeology in general and the nature of archeological types and methods of defining them in particular. Because of his rigorous method, Spaulding is considered one of the main forerunners of the "new archeology" of the 1960s. For his contributions, he received the SAA Distinguished Service Award in 1981.

Although several significant and inexplicable lacunae exist in Spaulding's papers, they nevertheless touch on most phases of his professional life. There is, however, little field material, the only two projects even partially documented being those on Agattu Island and at the Arzberger Site in South Dakota.

List of correspondents

DATES: 1940s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 1 linear meter (3.25 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence, 1948-1982; (2) manuscripts of Spaulding's writings; (3) material concerning students; (4) site reports and field project data; (5) material regarding conferences and committees; (6) material related to work as National Science Foundation archeological program director; (7) student notebooks and dissertation; (8) material regarding the Arzberger site; (9) administrative material regarding the University of Michigan; (10) academic papers collected by Spaulding, teaching aids, and lecture notes; (11) Philip C. Phillips and Gordon R. Willey file; (12) James A. Ford file; (13) correspondence regarding publications; (14) miscellany; (15) photographs

FINDING AID: List of series and list of correspondents


The photographs were sent to the archives from the Department of Anthropology Processing Lab. Identified subjects include inscribed tablets--the Waverly Tablet from Waverly, Ohio; Richardson Tablet, from near Wilmington, Ohio; Grave Creek Tablet from West Virginia; Cincinnati Tablet from Cincinnati, Ohio; a copy of the winter count of the Yanktonai Dakota Lone Dog; a winter count by the Shoshoni Washakie; a Tutla statuette, USNM catalog number 222,579 (several images showing details); artifacts from the Cascades area of Oregon and Washington apparently collected by Herbert W. Krieger; National Museum of Natural History anthropology exhibits (most may be of the 1950s and 1960s); miscellaneous plains artifacts; folsom-like points received from various parts of the United States for examination and return to the owners; and artifacts from Bluestone Reservoir, West Virginia, recovered by Ralph Solecki in 1948. There is also a Solecki manuscript on the Round Bottom site. The remainder of the materials--mainly Hebrew manuscripts--are unidentified and unarranged.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: ca. 500 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 88-35

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