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Bruce D. Smith attended the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1973) and has been on the staffs of the University of Michigan University Museum of Anthropology, the University of Georgia Department of Anthropology, and the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology, where is a curator for North American archeology. He is a specialist in southeastern archeology and has focused mainly on Mississippian (Temple Mound) culture, especially its ecology. He also has interests in ethnobotany, the history of archeology, and archeological theory.

The collection includes material relating to publications, lectures, and meetings and generally includes copies of writings, drafts, letters, programs, announcements, handouts, and administrative records. There are also field materials relating to Smith's work at the Gypsie Joint site in Ripley County, Missouri. Material concerning the Mound Division Conference of the Lower Mississippi Survey concerns a meeting Smith arranged at the Smithsonian.

DATES: Mostly 1970s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 1.2 linear meters (ca. 4 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Subject file; (2) material concerning the Gypsie Joint site; (3) teaching materials; (4) material concerning the conference on the [Bureau of American Ethnology] Mound Division, 1980

FINDING AID: Annotated folder list


Included are prints made in Panama (including Madden Lake, El Valle Petroglyphs, basket making), Haiti, Cuba (including Finca dos MarĂ­as), and, possibly, Venezuela and the Canal Zone. Most show archeological work. There are also photographs of archeological crews made at Angel Mound, Evansville, Indiana; Moccasin Bluff, Buchanan, Michigan; and Starved Rock, Illinois that show Hale, Glenn A. Black, Douglas S. Byers, Joseph R. Caldwell, Robert Gray, James B. Griffin, Madeline D. Kneberg, Kenneth Orr, and Albert C. Spaulding.

DATES: ca. 1937-1952

QUANTITY: 102 photographic prints and 125 photographic negatives



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-30


The prints are a miscellany that includes portraits of William Henry Holmes, William Duncan Strong, Robert L. Stephenson, Marshall T. Newman, Neil M. Judd, Walter Hough, and Lucile E. St. Hoyme. There is also a 1952 group portrait of the Department of Anthropology. Some photographs include Smithsonian Secretary Alexander Wetmore.

DATE: Undated

QUANTITY: 7 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-80


The prints apparently formed a display. They show group portraits made in 1904, 1931, 1952, 1959, and 1962. There are also individual portraits of John Wesley Powell, Otis T. Mason, William Henry Holmes, and Walter Hough.

DATES: 1898-1962

QUANTITY: 9 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 39


The anthropological exhibits at the St. Louis World's Fair were designed by William Henry Holmes for the United States National Museum and the Bureau of American Ethnology. Included were illustrations of "the higher culture of the native American peoples as shown in their arts and industries." Featured were examples of architecture, sculpture, ceramics, metal work, water craft, musical instruments, pipes, and ceremonial objects. The exhibit included models of Aztec ruins based on plans by De Lancey W. Gill.

The BAE's part in the exhibit featured symbolism in the decorative arts of the Zuni, Northwest coast tribes, and Hopi. It also illustrated J. Walter Fewkes' investigations of the pre-Columbian Carib and Arawak culture and James Mooney's study of paintings on Plains Indian tipis and shields.

DATE: 1904

QUANTITY: 31 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-31


The prints are from photographs made at award ceremonies for the Department of Anthropology staff. Smithsonian Secretary Leonard Carmichael presented the awards.

DATES: 1955-1963

QUANTITY: 14 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-52


The prints were formerly in the possession of Wilfred Charles Twiss, a University of Utah botanist. By report, they resulted from a Smithsonian archeological expedition to southern Utah. No information has been found that connects the material with a specific expedition.

The images include an expedition party, cliff dwellings, and a natural bridge.

DATES: ca. 1910-1920

QUANTITY: 5 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-58


The slides have no further identification.

DATE: 1973

QUANTITY: 17 slides

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-109


In 1988, anthropologist Charlene James-Duguid, program manager with the Smithsonian Associates, organized the Smithsonian Research Expedition Program. The program offered members the opportunity to work with professional scholars in a variety of disciplines. In return, participants contributed financial support and labor.

One of the program's offerings was guided on-site anthropological field work. The subjects and itineraries differed from year to year. They included loggers of Balinese ceremonial dancers; merchants at the Brimfield, Massachusetts, Antique and Collectible Flea Market; Cheyenne, Wyoming, Frontier Days celebration; Crow Indians at the Crow Fair and Family Reunion; Crow Indian Agency legal system; Orofino, Clearwater County, Idaho, lumberjacks; and Willow Tree Health Club in southwestern Washington, D.C., and . James-Duguid led each group.

In addition to the collection of data, the expeditions, in the words of James-Duguid, aimed "to examine the ability of nonprofessionals with basic field training to conduct anthropological investigations, the quantity and quality of data possible from these teams, the potential of data collected by teams with varied professionals skills outside anthropology for analysis by anthropologists." James-Duguid has used the material for presentations and has produced two forthcoming books: Work as Art: Logging as an Aesthetic Experience and Silent Power: Crow Women and the Word. The program ended in 1994.

The collection includes material from the expeditions led by James-Duguid. Among them are field notes, audio and video tapes, photographs and slides, and typescript transcriptions.

DATE: 1988-1994

QUANTITY: ca. 3 linear meters (ca. 10 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: By research site



The item is a photograph mounted on a greeting card. It shows Lucile E. St. Hoyme, Angela Margola, J. Lawrence Angel, and Donald J. Ortner.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-45


The prints and negatives show Department of Anthropology members being presented awards by National Museum of Natural History Director Porter Kier. The awards were made in the Division of Physical Anthropology conference room.

DATE: 1970s

QUANTITY: 41 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-51


The forerunner of the Society for American Archaeology was the National Research Council Committee on State Archeological Surveys. The committee, founded in 1921 to promote archeology primarily in the Midwest, became in time "a clearing house and advisory center for North American archeology." With such needs clearly established, archeologists became concerned with launching an organization that would be permanent, self-sufficient, and capable of reaching a greater number of archeologists than the committee was designed to serve.

Discussions of a professional society took place at the 1933 meeting of the American Anthropological Association and, during the following months, there were efforts to contact prospective members and draft a constitution. After this, the Society for American Archaeology was founded in Pittsburgh on December 28, 1934, following a dinner meeting of Section H (Anthropology) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

As stated in its original constitution, the SAA's purposes were "to stimulate scientific research in archeology of the New World by creating closer professional relations among archaeologists and between them and others interested in American archaeology; guiding on request the research work of amateurs; advocating the conservation of archaeological data and furthering the control or elimination of commercialization of archaeological objects; and promoting a more rational public appreciation of the aims and limitations of archaeological research."

To accomplish its purposes, the SAA opened membership to all persons interested in the archeology of the Americas. Members were divided into fellows--those who carried out research and publication--and affiliates. A council was entrusted with SAA's business, and an executive committee acted during its adjournment. Officers included a president, vice president, secretary-treasurer, and editor. The secretary-treasurer was charged with the clearing-house, advisory-center functions. Council members and officers were chosen from among the fellows, but all members voted.

The SAA has undergone several organizational changes. In 1942, the status of fellows and affiliates ended when both were combined into a class of active members. The offices of secretary and treasurer were separated, the secretary taking the clearing-house, advisory-center functions. In addition, a second vice president and an associate editor were added to the roster of officers. In 1947, the council was eliminated, its functions being transferred to the executive committee. The 1947 revision also placed the associate and assistant editors under the editor. In 1959, a president-elect replaced the vice presidents. In 1970, provisions were made for a secretary-elect, treasurer-elect, and editor-elect. Other changes in the constitution have affected the make-up of the executive committee, affiliation with other organizations, powers over assets, definition of duties, terms of officers, methods of elections, and limitation of powers to conform with government regulations concerning tax-exempt organizations.

Originally, the officers managed SAA's affairs, including routine business. In 1951, however, The SAA began to use services of the executive secretary of the American Anthropological Association. This dependence grew through the years and became particularly great after the association appointed an executive director in 1968. The director carried on such activities as billing, maintenance of membership records, arrangement of annual meetings, and the management side of publications. Because of government regulations concerning tax-exempt groups, the arrangement ended in 1983. The SAA has lately come to depend on a management firm.

The SAA has carried on two major activities throughout its history. The first has been meetings. The annual meeting required by the constitution has been a normal affair of learned societies, with committee activities, elections, reports, and scientific papers. During the first several years, meetings were normally held in the Midwest and often took place in conjunction with meetings of the Central States Section of the American Anthropological Association (later the Central States Anthropological Society). In addition, the SAA authorized special meetings and conferences, including some joint meetings with other organizations and regional meetings.

The second activity has involved publications. The major organ has been American Antiquity, a periodical devoted to scientific articles and information of special interest to archeologists. It has regularly included SAA's annual report. In 1939-1941, a mimeographed Notebook was also issued and included publications aimed at amateurs. In 1942, the SAA began a series of Memoirs (later Papers), which has served as a vehicle for book-length writings. In addition, the SAA has published on microform Archives of Archaeology, which appeared between 1959 and 1971 and included scientific archeological reports. Also on microform was Abstracts of New World Archaeology, which appeared in 1959 and 1960. Although proposals for a newsletter came up frequently, it was not until 1977 that the SAA began to use the American Anthropological Association's Anthropology Newsletter in a one-page coverage of archeological news in each issue. In 1983, the SAA began its own Bulletin of the Society for American Archaeology.

The SAA has also had certain special concerns. Maintenance of relationships with other organizations--such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, International Congress of Americanists, National Research Council, and the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences--has been one of these. The SAA has promoted special recognition for archeologists through selecting recipients of the Viking Fund Award in Archeology and awarding its own Fryxell Award and Distinguished Service Award. In recent years, the SAA has compiled lists of field training available to archeologists and become concerned about availability and priorities in radiocarbon dating. It has also been concerned with the opportunities of minorities and women in archeological work. The SAA has also come to monitor news media, advertising, and entertainment and protest anything inconsistent with scientific purposes or that presented an unfavorable picture of archeology. It has also become involved in relationships between American Indians and archeologists, particularly over the disposition of skeletal remains.

With its emphasis on annual meetings and publications, the overwhelming concern of the SAA down to the late 1960s and early 1970s was the dissemination of scientific information. By 1974, however, so many SAA resources were used on public relations and government policy that an official declared a revolution had taken place. The causes of this are complex and are not entirely unlike changes that had taken place in other organizations. They are not without precedence in the SAA; for, as early as 1944, its Planning Committee became engaged in a review of archeology under New Deal agencies to influence future efforts toward more scientific ends. Furthermore, during the 1960s, several pieces of archeological legislation caused SAA increasingly to watch and influence government policies.

The federal government's consideration and adoption of the Salvage Archeology (Moss-Bennett) Act of 1974 made the change in the SAA evident. By this time, many archeologists had come to depend on government funds, and others had become concerned about the quality of with increased government influence on archeology. The Moss-Bennet bill itself was initiated by archeologists as individuals; but, many supporters being SAA members and officers, they used their affiliation to promote passage of the bill. Furthermore, SAA's Committee on Public Understanding of Archaeology (in time, the Committee on Public Archaeology) became increasingly involved in promoting the Moss-Bennett Bill, establishing and using wide-spread connections to monitor government activities, keeping archeologists informed of developments, and influencing government policy.

In 1977, a National Archaeological Policy Information Committee was appointed; and, in 1980, the SAA appointed a Legislative Policy Coordinator. In 1983, it engaged a professional lobbyist in Washington.

One byproduct of this activism was to bring to a boil an issue that had been simmering for several years. This concerned a definition of the term "professional archeologist" and clarification concerning archeological ethics. In 1955, the SAA had circulated a statement on archeological standards. In 1960, a committee was appointed to explore questions of professional standards and ethics. In the following year the committee's report--a statement generally defining scientific archeology, methods, ethics, and adequate training--was adopted and published in American Antiquity.

In 1974-1975, an SAA committee considered the idea of a register of professional archeologists. This stirred up such a heated debate, however, that the committee dissociated from the SAA and constituted itself as the Society of Professional Archeologists to fulfill its own recommendations.

Yet another SAA stance reflected changes during the 1970s. The SAA became a vocal watchdog of the growing trade in antiquities and an advocate of government action against it. In 1971, the SAA threatened museums involved in the trade with action for disacreditation before the American Association of Museums and during the 1970s considered legal action against persons involved in the trade.

Accompanying these expanded interests has been the development and growth of other archeological organizations, including the Society of Professional Archaeologists and the Society for Conservation Archaeology. Generally, the SAA has cooperated with the new organizations through the Coordinating Council of National Archeological Societies organized in 1978.

SAA records include correspondence; memoranda; minutes; lists; reports of officers, auditors, committees, and representatives to other organizations; programs; agenda; printed and processed material; congressional bills; and miscellaneous materials. Much material consists of records maintained by the SAA secretary, although materials of a few other officers and committees are included.

List of SAA correspondents

DATES: 1930s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 20.5 linear meters (ca. 67 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (Note: The material came into the archives in several accessions, and no attempt has yet been made to interfile them.)(1) Records of the secretary-treasurer, 1935-1947; (2) treasurer's records, 1935-1950; (3) executive committee meetings minutes, 1961-1978; (4) records concerning annual meetings, 1935-1978; (5) records concerning nominations and elections, 1971-1978; (6) secretary's general correspondence, 1968-1978; (7) secretary's correspondence with SAA presidents, 1970-1978; (8) correspondence with affiliated organizations, 1968-1976; (9) secretary's subject files, n.d.; (10) records relating to committees, n.d.; (11) records relating to constitutional revision, n.d.; (12) copies of legislation; (13) resolutions, n.d.; (14) antiquities actions, 1970-1976; (15) financial statements and treasurer's correspondence with the secretary, 1968-1977; (16) membership records, 1970-1977; (17) records concerning publications, 1970-1977; (18) field school lists, 1968-1979; (19) indexes and other compilations regarding executive committee and annual meeting actions; (20) executive committee meeting minutes, 1945-1978, 1980; (21) material relating to executive committee and annual meetings, including some reports, 1978-1983; (22) secretary's subject file, ca. 1967-1983; (23) procedural materials; (24) material relating to proposals from and contract with management firm, 1983; (25) printed and processed material; (26) chairperson's records of the Committee on the Status of Women in Archaeology; (27) Fred Wendorf's files, 1972-1981; (28) records of the Committee on Public Archaeology, 1969-1981; (29) videocasettes and photographs, 1985; (30) editor's files; (31) Don D. Fowler's files; and (32) additional unprocessed material

FINDING AID: Draft register for part; folder lists

RESTRICTIONS: Records less than ten years old are closed to researchers. Editorial files have a fifty year restriction.


In October, 1941, the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) was founded at Harvard University and, later that year, it was incorporated under the laws of the state of Massachusetts. SfAA's purpose has been "the promotion of scientific investigation of the principles controlling the relations of human beings to one another and the encouragement of their wide application."

The main SfAA organ has been the journal Applied Anthropology, which became Human Organization in 1949. One issue of a newsletter, apparently part of a promotional effort to increase membership, was issued in mimeograph in 1950. The Clearinghouse for Research in Human Organization appeared in 1951, and the Bulletin, was published between 1951 and 1957 to inform members of ongoing research and publications in applied anthropology. Beginning in 1978, the SfAA published the periodical Practicing Anthropology. Since 1956, it has also issued special publications, largely in a series of monographs that began in 1959. In 1990, a SfAA Newsletter was started.

The SfAA has understood anthropology as broadly defined, and its membership has included anthropologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, sociologists, industrial managers and engineers, and persons of allied vocations. Early in its history, the members were divided into active and subscribing members. In 1962, active members became SfAA fellows, a group of professionals who elected SfAA officers from their own ranks. In recent years, the main distinction has been that nonfellows cannot vote on issues involving SfAA composition, commitment, and purpose.

SfAA officers have been a president, vice president (in early days the SfAA also had regional vice presidents; and, more recently, it has a president-elect instead of a vice president), secretary, treasurer, editor of Human Organization, editor of Practicing Anthropology, and elected councilors. These officers form an executive council that has control of SfAA affairs. With the establishment of the class of fellows also came a Council of Fellows that hears officers' reports and deals with matters the executive council brings before it.

Early in its history, the SfAA established a central office in New York City. It was moved to Ithaca, New York, in 1956 and to Lexington, Kentucky, in 1966. In 1970, the SfAA turned certain routine business matters the executive director of the American Anthropological Association. In 1983, this arrangement was ended, and the SfAA established its own office in Washington D.C. and, later, Oklahoma City. Besides the main body, for a time after 1952 there were local chapters in New York, Boston, Chicago, Washington, and Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

For the field of anthropology, SfAA has been a pioneer in two developments. Its code of ethics was first adopted in 1948 and revised in 1963 and 1974. The other development involved work for applied anthropology for government and private organizations. An example is the Indian Education, Personality, and Administration Projects (see entries 30, 49, and 79).

SfAA developments during the 1980s and early 1990s include improvement of cooperation with other organizations, including affiliation of regional regional organizations, and the establishment of a government affairs liaison. It also increased student involvement, largely a committee on students and the establishment of the Peter New Award for students.

Other SfAA awards include the Malinowksi Award for senior social scientists "in recognition of efforts to understand and service the needs of the world's peoples through social science" and the Margaret Mead Award for the contributions of young scholars in interpreting anthropological data for the public.

The records are relatively complete and continuous since the late 1960s. Before that time, documentation is scant. Correspondents include John Adair, Clifford Barnett, Art Gallagher, Nancie Gonzalez, Ward H. Goodenough, William K. Hubbell, William Henderson Kelly, Margaret L. Lantis, Margaret Mead, Gunnar Myrdal, Conrad Reining, James M. Silverberg, Omer C. Stewart, Morton I. Teicher, Murray Wax, Hazel Weidman, and many others.

DATES: 1946-1991

QUANTITY: ca. 5.2 linear meters (ca. 17 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence of officers, 1946-1976; (2) executive committee and secretarial files, 1968-1977; (3) membership lists, 1959-1976; (4) programs for annual meetings, 1949-1976; (5) Human Organization, 1956-1972; (6) copies of publications in monograph series, 1959-1972; (7) secretary's records, 1975-1978 (most 1976-1977); (8) treasurer's records (J.Thomas May), 1983; (9) memoranda of the membership committee to the executive committee, 1979-1984; (10) records regarding the Malinowski Award, 1976-1986; (11) records of officers (Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Art Gallagher, Thomas Greaves, Gilbert Kushner, and Marion Pearsall), ca. 1953-1991

FINDING AID: Draft register

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