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The print shows a Modoc Indian. A genealogical note is on the reverse.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 78-22


The subject of the print is Laura Fish Somersal, of Sonoma County, California. A letter from Shanks is included.

DATE: July 28, 1982

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-69


The image--which is unidentified--is in the City Art Museum, Bristol, England. The original was painted around 1793-1795. The archives obtained reference photographs largely because of the trade silver included.

DATE: 1963

QUANTITY: 1 print and 1 color slide

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81D.


Shaw, a United States Army lieutenant, served under Captain John J. Pershing during a punitive action against the Lake Lanoa Moros of Mindanao. The collection is made up of enlarged prints that depict United States soldiers and Philippine natives.

DATE: 1903

QUANTITY: 27 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-55

SHELDON, WILLIAM HERBERT (1898-1977), Papers

William H. Sheldon received a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Chicago in 1925 and an M.D. from the same institution in 1933. He taught at the University of Texas in 1923-1924; University of Chicago, 1924-1927: University of Wisconsin, 1927-1930; University of Chicago Theological Seminary, 1931-1938; Harvard University, 1938-1942 (as lecturer in psychology and research associate in anthropology); and University of Oregon Medical School, 1951-1970. He served in the United States Army Medical Corps in 1942-1944. In 1946, he became the director of the Constitution Clinic of Presbyterian Hospital in New York. He continued there from 1946 to 1959. Sheldon became a research associate of the Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkeley, in 1956 and, in 1961, attending chief at the research facility of Rockland State Hospital, Orangeburg, New York. In 1972, he assumed his last post as director of the Biological Humanics Foundation, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Around 1927, Sheldon became interested in both biological and sociological aspects of personality, and he followed this interest the rest of his life. It brought about his decision to study medicine and determined his research during military service, teaching positions, and appointments at medical institutions. Some of his work concerned the relationship between constitutional factors and medical disorders, including psychiatric ones, and much involved the relationship among constitutional factors, personality, and behavior, including sociopathic behavior.

Sheldon became widely known for his classification of male body types. It was based on variations and combinations of three characteristics--mesomorphy, endomorphy, and ectomorphy (roughly muscularity, fattiness, and lack of both). To different body types, he ascribed personality and behavioral characteristics.

The papers reflect much of Sheldon's professional life and aspects of his personal life. Although the material consists mainly of photographs, there are also letters, notes, questionnaires, lectures, announcements, charts, illustrations, and printed materials. The photographs are usually composite front, side, and rear views of nude individuals, male and female of all ages. Among the photographic subjects are hospital patients, patients in mental institutions, college students, and convicts. Sheldon or his assistants took most of them. The Smithsonian has given certain photographs of students to their colleges.

There are also photographs of child growth studies, including selected cases from the Growth Study of the Institute of Child Development at the University of California at Berkeley and the Gesell Institute in New Haven, Connecticut. There are also photographs made by other researchers in the field of constitutional studies. Most of Sheldon's own photographs and many others include information about the subjects such as identification, date, place, age, height, weight, and the numerical classification following the Sheldon scheme for morphological types. Some photographs have special information about illnesses and other conditions. There are other notes for some photographs. The Smithsonian has given certain photographs of students to their colleges.

Following Sheldon's death, the collection was in the custody of Dorothy Paschal, Roland Elderkin, Emil Hartl, and Edward P. Monnelly. Paschal was the one to whom Sheldon left the collection. She had been an assistant, handling many of Sheldon's administrative matters and, with other women, taking photographs of females. Elderkin was a social worker and one of Sheldon's assistants. For some projects, he had recorded notes concerning the research subjects. He was also the person who assembled and arranged much of the nonphotographic material. Emil Hartl, a minister and social worker affiliated with the Morgan Memorial Charles Hayden Goodwill Inn School in Boston, Massachusetts, helped Sheldon in his early studies of delinquent boys. Sheldon regarded these and certain others as collaborators, and he shared authorship of some of his publications with them. Monnelly, a psychiatrist, was a later colleague and follower of Sheldon. Limited material of all four individuals have been incorporated in the papers.

The collection also includes correspondence or other material from Sherry L. Alpert, Louise Bates Ames, Hudson Ansley, L.J. Bischof, Ruth Barnhouse, Priscilla Alden Beach, W.G. Bowerman, Stanley E. Bradley, Mary Brandon, Walter Breen, E.W. Burgess, Victor L. Butterfield, J.E. Lindsay Carter, Stephen Chaplin, Irvin L. Child, H. Harrison Clarke, John A. Clausen, Thomas E. Coffin, John B. Cortes, Ray A. Craddick, Luther S. Cressman, Albert Damon, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Willard Dalrymple, Lawrence P. DeBoer, Eric Darnall, C. Wesley Dupertius, Henri F. Ellenberger, Joseph W. Eaton, Joseph Fletcher, Eleanor T. Glueck, Frank Haronian, W.E. Heston, Dean R. Hoge, Carl E. Hopkins, W.W. Howells, Barbara Honeyman (Heath), Edward J. Humphreys, Aldous Huxley, Laura Huxley, Francis Ilg, Ernst Kretschmer, Wilton M. Krogman, Nathan S. Kline, Stanley Keleman, Ian Kent, Ida Inna, Joseph C. Lagey, Ned Lewis, Leonard A. Larson, Gardner Lindsey, Joseph LoPiccolo, Howard P. Louis, John B. Martin, Abraham Maslow, Bertha Maslow, C.H. McCloy, Victor A. McKusak, J.E. Merriman, Charles Morris, Wayne Morse, Lewis Mumford, James Corson Niederman, Lim O'Connor, Seishi Oka, Glenn A. Olds, E.D. Olson, Richard H. Osborne, Humphrey Osmond, Vance Packard, Melvin E. Page, Guy Paschal, Raymond Pearl, Tony Pearson, Ann Humber Porter, William D. Ross, Frederick Rand Rogers, Carol Saltus, Richard Schlegel, James H. Shore, Didi Stevens, E.M. Swengle, Henry Steele, Israel Sheldon, Stanley Smith Stevens, James Tanner, Ashton Munroe Tenney, Warren H. Thompson, Francille Trotter, W.B. Tucker, Richard N. Walker, Henry A. Wallace, Ellis Weitzman, Hugh C. Wyland, and Samuel Yochelson.

DATES: 1922-1983

QUANTITY: ca. 45.75 linear meters (ca. 150 linear feet)

FINDING AID: Draft box and folder list available for use in the archives only.

RESTRICTION: The photographic material is not available for research.


Frank F. Hilder was a former British army officer, writer, and chief clerk of the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1900, the BAE detailed him to be a special agent of the government board of the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Working for several different departments of the government but apparently under the supervision of Smithsonian officials, who were also exposition officials, Hilder collected material in the Philippine Islands for an exhibit concerning American colonial areas. Early thinking about the exhibit included the construction of lay figures to represent the Philippine nonchristian tribes. Accordingly, Hilder's instructions were to collect a variety of photographs of these people.

After Hilder arrived in Manila, he collected photographs from several sources. He also engaged the services of P.L. Sherman, a young chemist and associate of Dean C. Worcester, of the Philippine Commission. Hilder found that Sherman was a skilled photographer and requested his Smithsonian (and Exposition) superiors to furnish photographic supplies so that Sherman could take some required photographs. Worchester, himself an accomplished photographer, allowed the use of his camera and darkroom. Since Worchester's material was used, he was allowed to make his own copy negatives of the images.

Two sets of images can be attributed to Sherman with certainty. One is in this lot of negatives and prints that show nude, full-body, front, back, and side views of men and women intended as models for lay figures. Tribes represented are Vicol (Bicol), Pangasiana, Ilocano, Tagalog, Visayan, Pampanga, and Mestizos of Chinese-Tagalog ancestry and Tagalog-Pampanga ancestry. The heights are included.

The lot is United States National Museum catalog numbers 210,801 and 210,802.

For other photographs by Sherman, see Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Photographs Made at Shiloh Mound.

DATES: 1900

QUANTITY: 81 negatives and prints (some prints duplicated)



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 106A.


The set of dry-plate glass negatives represents a photographic project that P.L. Sherman undertook for the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. See the preceding entry for a note on Sherman's work.

The images are mostly school buildings in Manila. There are also pictures of a roof being raised, demolition of the outer walls of Manila, and rope making. A group portrait shows native teachers in Manila.

Related prints are in the Department of Anthropology, Division of Ethnology Collection ("USNM Collection"). Those prints generally feature teachers and students in contrast to the buildings of this lot. There are multiple copies of the prints, one item with the notation "Bureau of Education Collection."

Sherman had considerable difficulty making the photographs. He complained that the hot weather melted his plates; then, with the onset of heavy rains, the emulsion was difficult to set. He found consolation in the fact that the schools were empty when he first started his work (see the negatives of this lot). The delay gave time for students to return to their classrooms.

Obviously interested in entering museum work, Sherman also used the delay to try to gain an appointment as the Smithsonian's Philippines representative. He hoped to continue collecting artifacts. The Smithsonian declined, however, and after the time he made additional school photographs he no longer considered himself in the Institution's services. This is perhaps the reason that Sherman sent the Smithsonian the negatives, but sent prints of the school children to the United States Bureau of Education. Ignoring the fact that the Institution had furnished the plates, Sherman believed himself free to dispose of the prints as he saw fit. Once Smithsonian officials found this out, they demanded the negatives and prints.

Sherman did not make prints for the negatives of the school buildings. He claimed the paper furnished him was unsatisfactory and the weather made it worse. The whereabouts of the negatives of schoolchildren is not known.

DATES: 1900

QUANTITY: 37 negatives



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 138


The slides include portraits (including Indians, Williams, and Sandra D. Bissell) and show pottery making, weaving, and other work with textiles. The images relate to specimens (catalog 422,098-422,153), and the collection includes a field catalog for the specimens.

DATES: 1979

QUANTITY: 15 slides

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-32


The photographs were made by Shoberg in Minneapolis at the Lou Sweet studio. The subjects include "the last of the 1870-1880s Indian Chiefs of the Indian/White wars" and their wives" brought to Minneapolis to have oil paintings made for the T.B. Walker Art Gallery." The clothing, which includes war bonnets, may be of Plains tribes and one portrait may be a Blackfoot. Otherwise, tribal affiliation is unidentified.

DATE: 1918

QUANTITY: 5 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-30


Schufeldt was an American diplomat in China, Japan, and Korea between 1878 and 1887. The glass positive is one of several photographs he collected. It shows Americans Dr. Horace N. Allen, Minister Lucius Foote, and Mrs. Foote with their Korean interpreter and other Korean officials and attendants with a sedan chair. The group is before the American Legation in Seoul.

Other items in the Schufeldt collection are in the Department of Anthropology, Division of Ethnology Collection ("USNM
. This image is Department of Anthropology catalog 211,199.

DATE: ca. 1884

QUANTITY: 1 item

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-64

SIMMONS, OZZIE G., Papers Relating to the Institute of Social Anthropology


George E. Simpson studied sociology and anthropology at Coe College (A.B., 1926), the University of Missouri (A.M., 1927), and University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D., 1934). He taught at the State Teachers College, Superior, Wisconsin (1927-1938), Temple University (1928-1934), Pennsylvania State University (1934-1947), and Oberlin College (1947-1971). He has also had temporary and visiting appointments at West Virginia State University, the University of Pennsylvania, Columbia University, and the College at Kingston, Jamaica.

Simpson has focused his research on Caribbean religions, including vodun in the Plaisance, Haiti, area; Rastafarianism and revivalism of the Kingston, Jamaica, area; and Spiritual Baptism and the Shongo Cult of the Port of Spain, Trinidad, area. He has also studied Yoruba medicine and religion of the Ibadan, Nigeria, area. In addition, Simpson is a student of American race relations.

The collection is almost entirely photographic and includes thirty-five-millimeter color slides, glass lantern slides, film negatives, and prints. The photographs made in Haiti during 1936-1937 (ca. 430 items, with considerable duplication between the various formats) show a wide range of subjects, including houses, schools, public buildings, street scenes, people (peasants, religious figures, work groups), markets, food preparation, drummer, dancers, and religious scenes. The locale of most photographs was Plaisance, but some were taken at Cap Haitien and other towns.

The photographs made in Jamaica (mainly in Trench Town, West Kingston during 1953 and 1947 (ca. 220 items) are largely religious subjects. The photographs made in Trinidad in 1960 (ca. 180 items) are mostly of religious subjects (Shango and Shouters [Spiritual Baptists]). Many photographs made in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1964 (ca. 70 items) are of religious or medical subjects but there are also other subjects like markets, houses, and dances.

DATE: 1936-1964

QUANTITY: ca. 900 items

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93-14


The photographs are prints of Wilton S. Dillon, of the Smithsonian; Rose Robinson (Hopi), of the Phelps Stokes Fund; and students from the college.

DATE: 1981

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-65


The collection includes black-and-white prints and color slides of a skull from Cerro de Tlapacoya. Arturo Romano made the photograph.

DATES: 1970

QUANTITY: 6 slides and 6 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-10


The prints show artisans at work.

DATE: ca. 1975

QUANTITY: 8 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-36


Mary S. Slusser was born in Canada and became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1934. She was educated at the University of Michigan and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1950). The main focus of her graduate work was in archeology. She also studied at the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University and took archelogy courses at Harvard University.

In 1951-1958, Slusser worked for the United States Department of State, first being responsible for anthropological reports concerning Latin America and then Southeast Asia. Following her husband's posting to Vietnam, she was stationed at Saigon beginning in 1954. There she produced basic ethnological studies of Vietnam and Laos.

Later, Slusser accompanied her husband on assignments, she herself usually having no institution affiliation (although she was a Research Associate of the Smithsonian Institution during the early 1970s). For five years she worked in Yugoslavia and, beginning in 1969, she started work in Nepal. Confronted with a dearth of basic works on Nepalese history and culture, she began study that would continued the next twenty years and led to the publication of Nepal Mandala: A Cultural Study of Kathmandu Valley, 2 volumes, 1982.

The papers relate to three phases of Slusser's life: archeological study; life and work in Vietnam and Laos; and work in Nepal. The latter is fairly narrowly focused on her scholarly work, particularly on her monograph on Nepal. The Southeast Asian material is broader, for it concerns her life in Southeast Asia and includes personal letters and journals.

DATES: 1954-1992

QUANTITY: ca. 1 linear meter (3.25 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Arctic archeology, including (1) "A Possible Culture Connection Between the Eurasian Steppe and the Ipiutak Site of Northern Alaska," with photographs; (2) photographic portrait of Helge Larsen; Laos and Vietnam, including (3) alphabetical file; (4) ethnographic notes; (5) manuscript on Vietnam people; (6) photographs; Nepal, including (7) correspondence; (8) subject file; (9) maps and plans; (10) writings

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