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The albums are those of a United States naval officer who, after 1902, became an economic botanist with the United States Department of Agriculture. While in the navy, Safford was on the U.S.S. Mohican for a survey of Easter Island and cruises in the South Pacific. In 1891-1892, he commanded an expedition to Peru and Bolivia in connection with the World's Columbian Expedition. He served in the Spanish American War and was vice-governor of Guam in 1899-1900. Through much of his service, he collected specimens for the United States National Museum.

The prints show views in Chile, Easter Island, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, and Samoa. Generally included are portraits of natives, views of towns and countryside, flora and fauna, houses, and structures. Some photographs include members of ships' crews. Many photographs taken on Easter Island appear in William J. Thomson's Te Pito Te Henua or Easter Island, Reports of the United States National Museum, 1889. There are related photographs in the Department of Anthropology, Division of Ethnology Collection ("USNM Collection").

DATES: 1886

QUANTITY: 145 prints

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-26


Oliver N. Wells donated the photographs. He claimed to have reintroduced the Salish loom to British Columbia Indians. One print shows Mrs. William Kelly, a Coast Salish, spinning yarn with an Indian spinner. The other shows Mary Peters, an Interior Salish, using a loom.

DATE: ca. 1967

QUANTITY: 2 color prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81C


The prints, donated by the United States Army's Historical Office, show Philippine scenic views and Bagobo, Moro, Negrito, Subanun, and Unanyan.

DATES: 1928-1929

QUANTITY: 114 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-73


The studio of Samuel and Mays operated in Meeker, Colorado. The subjects of the four photographs are very imperfectly identified. One shows a Ute Indian named Chief Antelope who "killed [Nathan] Meeker." Another image is of an Indian named White Crow and yet another shows White Crow with persons who were perhaps of his family. There is also an encampment of Indians who "Harris, state game warden, Sulphur Creek,"captured. Two photographs showing Indians in encampments are completely unidentified and may be the work of amateurs rather than Samuel and Mays.

DATE: Probably late 19th or early 20th century

QUANTITY: 6 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-93


Included are albumen and gelatin photographic prints, photomechanical prints, postcards, and stereographs. The archives put the file together, much material coming from the Department of Anthropology. Incorporated are items from many accessions.

Most images are views of land forms, but some also show flora, fauna, archeological ruins and excavations, field parties, other people, and settlements. There are Indian graves at Sitka, seals and human inhabitants of the Prybilof Islands, Fort Verde, model of a ground plan of McElmo Tower by William Henry Holmes, the Albuquerque Indian School, Thomas Moran, Henry Wood Elliott, Frederick W. Hodge and party preparing to ascend the Enchanted Mesa, Grand Canyon, Yellowstone National Park, and the ice-bound H.M.S. Discovery. In addition, there are photographs made in Canada, Hawaii, Idaho, Utah, and Washington State.

Donors and photographers include George A. Addison, Edwin Baer (on J. Walter Fewkes' expedition to Arizona, 1895), E.O. Beaman, William Bell (for the Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian), W.C. Billington, Mrs. John G. Bourke, Caswell and Davy (for the Northern Pacific Railroad), William Chamberlain, E.F.X. Cleveland, Continent Stereo Company, C. Wythe Cook, Edward S. Curtis, C.T. Dahlier, William H. Dall, I.G. Davidson, Frederick S. Dellenbaugh, Frances Densmore (at Fort Berthold, North Dakota, 1912), Katherine T. Dodge, Lewis Engel, James Fennemore, F.W. Fuller, G.F. Gates, Jennie M. Griswold, Alfred C. Hawley, John K. Hillers (for the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region), William Henry Holmes, Walter Hough (for the Gates-United States National Museum Expeditions), Thomas Houseworth, W.H. Illingworth, William Henry Jackson (for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories and his own photographic firms), G. Wharton James, George Kirkland, J.A. and S.A. Leach, Mrs. William Duncan McKim, McMurry (of Port Townsend, Washington), Edgar A. Mearns (on expeditions to Arizona), Thomas Mitchell (London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company), John Moran, Edward W. Nelson, Albert P. Niblack (on the 1885 cruise of the United States Coast Survey steamer Carlile Patterson along the southeast coast of Alaska), William Notman, Herbert Gouverneur Ogden, Timothy H. O'Sullivan (for the Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian and the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel), Park and Company (for the Santa Fe Railroad), Partridge, A. Frank Randall, Rice and Perkins, Henry R. Rusby, Israel Cook Russell, Charles R. Savage, Clarence H. Shaw, Mrs. T.F. Spangler, Randall Spaulding (on 1883 botanical and geological expedition to Arizona), Mrs. Joseph Stanley Brown (concerning in part her husband's work), J. Thurlow, Frederick W. True, Lucien McShan Turner (in Labrador, 1882-1884), United States Bureau of Education, A. Clark Vroman (on Frederick W. Hodge's expedition to Enchanted Mesa, 1897), G. White, Whitney and Zimmerman, and J.J. Williams.

DATES: ca. 1871-1912

QUANTITY: ca. 1195 items

ARRANGEMENT: In four divisions: numbered accessions arranged by number and donor; unnumbered accessions arranged by photographer,

geographic location (Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and Wyoming), and miscellany (artifacts, artwork, plants, portraits)

FINDING AID: Draft guide

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 37


Harold K. Schneider was an economic anthropologist specialized in Africa. He was trained at Macalester College (B.A., 1947) and Northwestern University (Ph.D., 1953). In 1946-1948, he attended Seabury-Western Theological Seminary. He taught at Lawrence University (1953-1970) and Indiana University (1970-1987).

The Schneider papers in the National Anthropological Archives comprise mainly documents relating to East African field work. One set concerns the Pokot (Suk), a pastoral people of Kenya about whom Schneider wrote his dissertation. A Fulbright grant allowed Schneider to visit the Pokot in 1951-1952. The other set concerns the Turu, a pastoral tribe of Tanzania whom Schneider visited in 1959-1960.

The collection includes a few original field notes, complete copies of expanded typescript versions of the notes, collations of data by subject categories, lexicons, other linguistic material, indexes, maps, and a few photographs. Also among the materials are translations of German documents, copies of archival items, and notes from archival research, especially in records of colonial district offices. There is also an alphabetical file based on personal names that includes correspondence, obituaries, and publications.

Although Schneider published important general works on both Africa and the methodology of economic anthropology, there are only a few materials in the collection that reflect those interests. There is also little that reflects trips to Africa following the work with the Turu.

Correspondents include William R. Bascom, G. Boulogne, John Bucklew, Stephan Borhegyi, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Father Delbert Ewing, Lloyd A. Fallers, George Fathauer, William N. Fenton, Daryll Forde, Meyer Fortes, H.A. Fosbrooke, Padraic Frucht, Alexander Galloway, James Gibbs, Maurice Godelier, J.R. Good, Melville J. Herskovits, Hubert H. Humphrey, Father Raymond F. Kelly, Edward E. LeClair, Jr., Alan P. Merriam, James Moody, Joseph G. Moore, Leonard Moss, Raoul Narroll, Maxine Nimitz, J. Peristiany, Nathan M. Pusey, Audry I. Richards, Chandler W. Rowe, Aidan W. Southall, Kathleen Stahl, Roy Swanson, Curtis W. Tarr, Sol Tax, and E.H. Winter.

DATES: 1949-1960 (some copies of material dated as early as 1919)

QUANTITY: ca. 3.7 linear meters (ca. 12 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Personal name file (including correspondence), 1951-1986; Suk (Pokot) material, including (2) diary, 1951; (3) typescript field notes; (4) linguistic material; (5) social structure; (6) dissertation, 1953; (7) miscellany; (8) slides with list of captions; Turu material, including (9) original field notebooks; (10) index to typescript notes; (11) typescript notes, 1959-1960; (12) field note summaries (subject arrangement); (13) charts recording uriha; (14) dictionary; (15) draft manuscript on the Turu; (16) miscellany; (17) reference materials; (18) photographic negatives of reference materials; general African material, including (19) Kalenjin Today project (20) reference materials; (21) trait distribution; (22) photographs (many are Turu); other material, including (23) Harold K. Schneider publications and papers; (24)sound recordings

FINDING AID: Folder list


Schueler taught at the Tulane Medical School Department of Pharmacology. In 1958, he taught in Colombia.

The black and white photographs record a trip to a village of Coreguaje Indians from arrival to departure. Shown are the countryside, boats on the bank of the Rio Negro, food preparation, a musician with drum and pipes of Pan, and Schueler with the village chief. Some photographs show blow pipes.

DATE: 1958

QUANTITY: 17 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93-15


As as young woman, Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore became a resident of Washington, D.C. First, she worked as a newspaper correspondent covering the capital's social scene, but this did not continue for long. She soon turned to travel and wrote books and articles about life and politics in foreign lands. Beginning in the 1880s, she lived for long periods in southern and eastern Asia, particularly in China, India, Japan, Java, and the Philippines. Promotion of intercultural understanding and cooperation was her theme, and she spent the last five years of her life in Geneva promoting the League of Nations.

During her life abroad, Scidmore became a strong advocate of Japan. She came particularly to encourage understanding between America and Japan, where her brother served as a Consul General in Yokohama. For her sympathetic reports on Japan's treatment of Russo-Japanese war prisoners, the Japanese emperor decorated her. Among her credits is the idea of planting Japanese cherry trees in Washington.

Scidmore wrote for many popular journals, but she was especially associated with the National Geographic Magazine. Not only was she on its staff, but she also served as its board of managers only female member. She was an amateur photographer, and many of her images appear in her publications, including those in the National Geographic.

The collection consists of lantern slides that Scidmore collected. There are also negatives of Japanese and Chinese subjects probably taken by her. The Smithsonian received the collection because it had lent Scidmore photographic equipment.

Among the images are those that show agriculture, costume, occupations and crafts, pottery and jewelry, scenic views, street scenes, structures, transportation, and women.

DATES: 1914-1916

QUANTITY: 192 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 139

SCIENCE SERVICE (1920- ), Records

Science Service was established in 1920 as a news service "to popularize science and to disseminate scientific knowledge." The material is part of a large file broken up among several units of the Smithsonian (for information about this consult the Smithsonian Institution Archives). This portion mostly concerns ethnology, archeology, and physical anthropology and consists of new releases and photographs together with a small amount of correspondence and other material. Included are portraits of anthropologists, views of archeological work, and ruins and reconstructions of ancient remains. Specific materials are related to the work of Robert Broom with Zinjanthropus; Richard E. Byrd in Antarctica; Henry B. Collins at Cape Prince of Wales; Frances Densmore among the Chippewa and Papago; Thorne Deuel with radiocarbon dating; Melvin L. Fowler with radiocarbon dating; Edgar B. Howard and Folsom discoveries; John P. Harrington with Ishi; Mark R. Harrington at Gypsum Cave; Aleš Hrdlicka among the Eskimo and in archeological work on Kodiak Island; Albert E. Jenks in Minnesota archeology; Neil M. Judd at Pueblo Bonito; Alfred V. Kidder in Central America; Henry Kleke and his Folsom skull; Frederica de Laguna among the Eskimo; William S. Laughlin; Charles Lindbergh at Chaco Canyon; J. Alden Mason in Peru; Guy E. Mitchell in China; Vincenzo Petrillo with the Goajiro; Froelich G. Rainey at Point Hope; Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr. in connected with Folsom man; C. Bertrand Schultz at Lime Creek, Nebraska; Sergio Sergi at work with Shanidar remains; Harlan I. Smith in British Colombia; Frank G. Speck among the Naskapi; T. Dale Stewart with Shanidar specimens and Tepexpan Man; and Matthew W. Stirling with the Jivaro.

See appendix I for the subject headings of the files.

DATES: ca. 1920s-1950s

QUANTITY: ca. 2.8 linear meters (ca. 9 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: By Library of Congress call letters.

FINDING AID: List of filing categories


Senyürek was a Turkish physical anthropologist mainly concerned with man in Asia Minor. A specialty was human dentition. Much material concerns teeth, jaws, and skulls from archeological sites. Included are documents relating to Anatolian sites including Gordion, Alaca, Alisar, Ahlatlibel, and Tilkitepe and measurements of Early Bronze Age skulls from sites in western Turkey. There are also probably materials relating to Magracik, but this has not yet been confirmed. Many documents are unidentified. The collection includes much material in Turkish that has not been analyzed.

Correspondents include Raymond Dart, Arthur Keith, Jean Perrot, Alfred S. Romer, Adolph H. Schultz, Sergio Sergi, Ralph S. Solecki, Franz Weidenreich, and Leonard Woolley.

DATES: 1935-1961

QUANTITY: ca. 6.3 linear meters (ca. 20.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Incoming letters, 1949-1961; (2) outgoing letters, 1948-1961; (3) research notes and papers, n.d.; (4) published writings (reprints), ca. 1949-1961; (5) writings of others (reprints), 1938-1961; (6) photographs, n.d.; (7) papers of Eleanor Shenyurek, 1955-1961; (8) unprocessed material, 1935-1961

FINDING AID: Draft register


Biographical information about Frank M. Setzler appears in the description of his papers.

The collection includes glass lantern slides, color transparencies, prints, and negatives. Most concern archeology and depict maps, plans, views of sites, site features, artifacts, skeletal specimens, and field crews. There are also ethnological materials.

Some items relate to sites in Ohio, including those at Miami and Paint Creek, the Marietta works, original Hopewell site, Turner site, Newark site, High Bank works, Tremper mound, Seip mound #1, Turner group, Miamisburg mound, Serpent mound, and Madisonville site. Images of sites in Wisconsin include the Schwert group, Nicholls mound, and Trempealeau group. Other material relates to Louisiana and includes the Marksville works and sites at Saline Point, Johnson place, and West Carroll, Madison, and Union parishes. Photographs made in Arkansas show the Foster Place site. Still other items relate to White Dog Cave in Arizona, the Big Bend area of Texas, including Knight, Cartledge, Sunny Glen, and Rock Pillar caves; Welcome Mound in West Virginia; sites in McIntosh, Camden, Glynn, and Decatur counties in Georgia, and excavations at Marlborough Town, Virginia. Some photographs show the excavation of an Indian canoe on Cumberland Island in Georgia, and a body found in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Views in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida relate to the work of the De Soto Commission.

Photographs made in Australia during the Arnhem Land Expedition largely relate to Delissaville, Yirrkala, Milingimbi, Oenpelli, and Groote Eylante. Subjects include travel scenes, dances, preparation of face masks and bark for drawing, and physical features of Aborigines, especially those employed for the archeological work.

Other photographs are of a miscellany of Latin American ruins and artifacts from Jalapa, Palenque, Uxmal, Chichén Ítza, Xoducales, and Cuzco that once belonged to William Henry Holmes. There are also 1929 photographs of Hopewell artifacts in the Ohio State Museum. One series of slides relates to a popular lecture about the Smithsonian.

DATES: 1920s-1950s

QUANTITY: ca. 650 items

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Mississippi Valley (North); (2) Mississippi Valley (South); (3) Australia; (4) Texas; (5) Latin America; (6) West Virginia; (7) Georgia; (8) North Carolina; (9) South Carolina; (10) Florida; (11) Kentucky; (12) miscellany; (13) lecture about the Smithsonian Institution; and (14) Welcome Mound excavation, October-November 1957

FINDING AID: List for the first four series.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 36

SETZLER, FRANK MARYL (1902-1975), Papers

During the mid-1920s, while Frank M. Setzler was an Ohio State University undergraduate, he was an assistant field director at the Ohio State Museum and worked under Henry C. Shetrone on excavations of the Hopewell and Seip mounds in central Ohio. He was later a graduate student of anthropology at the University of Chicago and took courses from Fay-Cooper Cole, Robert Redfield, and Edward Sapir. He also worked on the university's pictorial survey of Mississippi Valley archeology. At the same time, he worked as an Indiana state archeologist and excavated mounds in southeastern Indiana and surveyed the Whitewater River Valley.

In 1930, Setzler was appointed assistant curator in the United States National Museum Division of Archeology. In 1935, he became acting head curator for the Department of Anthropology and two years later became head curator. Several significant developments took place during his career at the Smithsonian. During the 1930s and early 1940s, the government was involved in many archeological projects through its work relief programs. Setzler not only took advantage of the assistance provided by these programs for his own archeological work, he was also liaison officer to the Civil Works Administration directing eleven projects in the South and California. For the Work Projects Administration, he served as a consultant, reviewing project proposals.

While he was head curator, Setzler participated in a study of visitor reactions to the United States National Museum exhibits and supervised the modernization of the Department of Anthropology exhibits. He strove to remove nonanthropological sections that had long been part of the department, expand the curatorial staff to include specialists outside North America, and establish a docent service. In addition, he was responsible for the department's response to World War II, including protection of the collections, special tours for soldiers, special exhibits, and work for the Ethnogeographic Board.

In spite of many administrative duties, Setzler also carried on field work. From 1931 to 1933, he surveyed and excavated in southwestern Texas to find links between Mexican Indian cultures and those of the Mississippi Valley. Under Setzler's direction, Walter W. Taylor undertook related archeological work in the Mexican state of Coahuila. Setzler also worked at sites in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and reconnoitered along the Yampa and Green Rivers in Colorado and Utah. In 1948, he was deputy leader for the Australian-American Arnhem Land Expedition sponsored by the Smithsonian, National Geographic Society, and government of Australia.

Setzler's chief interest continued in the archeology of the midwestern states, especially their Hopewell mounds, and he developed a strong interest in the southeastern states. He worked at Marksville, Louisiana; Proctorville, Ohio; Cumberland Island, Florida; the Kincaid site, Illinois; Cambridge, Maryland; New Martinsville, West Virginia; and Saltsville, Virginia. With John R. Swanton, he investigated sites of villages reported by the chroniclers of Hernando de Soto. Late in his career, he joined C. Malcolm Watkins and Oscar H. Darter in excavating historical sites at Marlborough Town and near Bell Plains in Virginia.

Setzler was a member of the National Park Service Advisory Board for National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments and its secretary in 1940-1942. He represented anthropology on the National Research Council in 1940-1942 and was vice chairman of the National Academy of Science Division of Anthropology and Psychology in 1942-1943. In 1937-1940, he was secretary of the American Anthropological Association; and, between 1939 and 1953, he held offices with the Washington Academy of Sciences, including the presidency in 1953. He was secretary of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1932-1937 and president in 1940-1942. In 1930-1941, he was on the council of the Society for American Archaeology.

The papers concern many aspects of Setzler's professional life. There are relatively few field notes, but the collection included Setzler's diaries and other materials relating to the Yampa-Green reconnaissance, material relating to the Arnhem Land Expedition, and aerial photographs and related flight logs made over Marksville, Louisiana, through arrangements with Dache M. Reeves. There are also a few materials of other workers, including field materials concerning Taylor's work in Mexico, a parchment deed to land in Maryland, correspondence between Neil M. Judd and J. Townsend Russell, and manuscript articles on culture sequences in Illinois by Thorne Deuel and on Wisconsin pottery by Will C. McKern.

Correspondents include Charles G. Abbot, Raymond S. Baby, William M. Bass III, J.M.P. Bassett Smith, Brian P. Billington, Joseph B. Birdsell, Glenn A. Black, Theodore C. Blegan, J.P. Blickensdefer, Donald D. Brand, J.O. Brew, Sam R. Broadbent, Jesse H. Buffum, D. Butcher, Douglas S. Byers, Joseph R. Caldwell, Arthur Calwell, Moreau B.C. Chambers, T.D. Campbell, Leonard Carmichael, Ralph. W. Chaney, T.M. Cherry, V. Gordon Childe, Forrest E. Clements, William B. Colburn, Fay-Cooper Cole, Donald Collier, G. Arthur Cooper, Henri G. Courtais, Harold Cummins, John E. Dahlquist, Paul H. Davis, C. DeJong, Adrian Digby, Henry W. Dorsey, Fred R. Eggan, J. Norman Emmerson, William J. Enright, Clifford Evans, Paul Fejos, James A. Ford, Nelson Glueck, John Enos Graf, Arthur M. Greenwood, James B. Griffin, Eric Gugler, Herman Gunter, Carl E. Guthe, John C. Harrington, Robert F. Heizer, Earnest A. Hooton, Henry Hornblower II, R. Hughes, Charles E. Humberger, Jesse D. Jennings, Neil M. Judd, A. R. Kellogg, Arthur R. Kelly, Alfred V. Kidder, Clyde Kluckhohn, Alex D. Krieger, Herbert W. Krieger, Ignacio Marquina, Frederick McCarthy, Robert E. McConnell, Harold McCracken, W. Wallace McKaig, William McKell, Betty J. Meggers, Robert R. Miller, W.E. Moore, Richard G. Morgan, Charles P. Mountsford, Philleo Nash, Marshall T. Newman, A. Perry Osborn, Robert Redfield, D. Lloyd Reichard, William A. Ritchie, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., James Townsend Russell, Edward Sapir (newspaper clipping concerning), Carl O. Sauer, Henry C. Shetrone, H.D. Skinner, Raymond L. Specht, Leslie Spier, T. Dale Stewart, Gene M. Stirling, Matthew W. Stirling, William Duncan Strong, John R. Swanton, Walter W. Taylor, Jr., Mildred Trotter, William S. Webb, William W. Wells, Alexander Wetmore, Gordon R. Willey, Laurence L. Wilson, Conrad L. Wirth, George Woodbury, and Erwin C. Zepp.

DATES: 1927-1960

QUANTITY: ca. 4.6 linear meters (ca. 15 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence, 1929-1960; (2) Work Projects Administration correspondence, 1930s-1940s; (3) diaries, 1948; (4) drafts for journal articles, 1932-1954; (5) reprints of published articles, 1930-1956; (6) addresses and lectures, 1928-1951; (7) school notebooks, 1927-1928; (8) Smithsonian exhibits, reports, affairs, 1925-1960; (9) papers relating to the National Park Service Advisory Boards, 1940-1952; (10) papers relating to the National Research Council, 1934-1935; 1937-1943; (11) papers relating to professional societies, 1930s-1950s; (12) miscellany, 1930-1959; (13) photographs; (14) maps

FINDING AID: Draft register


The print shows Setzler unpacking material from the Arnhem Land Expedition to Australia.

DATE: 1949

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-36

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