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RAU, CHARLES (1826-1887), Collection

Charles Rau was born in Belgium and educated in Germany. He left his studies in 1839 and became an apprentice in the iron industry in Siegen and, later, a mining superintendent in Remagen. In 1848, he immigrated to the United States, settling in the St. Louis area. While teaching languages to support himself, he collected archeological specimens from various sources and began to investigate archeological sites in the St. Louis area. Beginning in 1859, he regularly published articles on archeology and other anthropological concerns. In 1861, he moved to New York and, while still teaching, continued archeological work that would make him one of America's leading authorities in the field. In 1863, he became a contributor to Smithsonian publications and, in 1875, he worked on the anthropological exhibit of the Smithsonian and Bureau of Indian Affairs at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. In 1881, he became a curator in the United States National Museum Department of Archeology, a position he held until he died in 1887.

The Rau collection is a miscellany. Its anthropological content consists largely of manuscripts of Rau's own publications and lectures and copies of articles published by other scholars. One 1881 from Charles C. Jones describes artifacts allegedly connected with the De Soto expedition that were found in Murray and Habersham counties, Georgia. Many letters were written before 1848, apparently antedating Rau's deep involvement in anthropology. Some concern political events in Germany. Two letters written after 1850 are from the artist Heinrich Balduin Möllhausen. Still other letters were sent by Rau to Carl Hermann Berendt. These reflect their personal relationship and include references to American politics, Smithsonian administration, and miscellaneous developments among anthropologists. Most correspondence is in German script.

Rau's catalog of his own archeological collection, now in the National Museum of Natural History, is in the series of Numbered Manuscripts.

DATES: 1839-1887

QUANTITY: .25 linear meter (.8 linear foot)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Incoming letters, 1839-1856; (2) letters to Carl Hermann Berendt, 1869-1876; (3) writings, n.d.; (4) material collected by Rau, 1865-1887; (5) miscellany, n.d.



The Oglala Dakota leader Red Cloud and Marsh, a well-known paleontologist, had known one another since 1874, when Marsh was at the Red Cloud Agency doing field work. The paleontologist heard the Indian's complaints against Indian agent J.J. Saville, and his subsequent appeals on Red Cloud's behalf led to an investigation and removal of Saville. In 1883, Red Cloud visited Marsh at the Peabody Museum of Yale University and was photographed there.

DATE: Probably 1883

QUANTITY: 1 print

RESTRICTION: The print is a copy from a photograph in the Peabody Museum at Yale University. It was obtained for reference purposes only and cannot be reproduced for researchers.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-49

REEVES, DACHE M. (1894-1972), Papers

During World War I, Dache M. Reeves was a United States Army Air Force officer who specialized in balloon reconnaissance and aerial photography. His interest in aerial photography continued throughout his life. In 1925, he was a lecturer on photographic intelligence at the United States Military Academy at West Point. In 1927, he wrote Aerial Photographs: Characteristics and Military Applications (The Ronald Press Company, New York). In 1932, he invented a stereoscope to aid in making maps from aerial photographs and sold it to the Fairchild Camera Company. He also took part in establishing the Army Aeronautical Museum (later the United States Air Force Museum) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. He served the museum as a curator and director.

Reeves's involvement in archeology had begun by 1914, when Westminster Magazine commissioned him for articles on early man in Georgia. The connection between this early interest and aerial photography is not clear, but by the 1920s it was growing. For example, Reeves had discovered that aerial photography can reveal outlines of earthworks even in plowed-over land. Although he was making aerial photographs of archeological sites by 1924, it was not until the 1930s that he took or had someone else take most of the photographs.

Most photographs are of mounds and other earthworks in Ohio, but there are also views of sites in California, Louisiana, Georgia, Illinois, and Colorado. Reeves was in touch with archeologists in the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States National Museum, and photographs of the Lindenmeier site in Colorado and the Marksville site in Louisiana were made for Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., and Frank M. Setzler.

For these and most other photographs, there is provided the name of the site, photograph number, date, and reference to a map. There are also maps that plot his flights. Such information as altitude, speed, and time, however, are generally lacking. About the Marksville photographs, he wrote "the time of year may be ascertained by studying the foliage on trees. As the camera used was probably of twelve inches focal length, the altitude may be computed from the length and the scale of the vertical photographs."

Reeves's interest in archeology extended beyond the technical problems of aerial photography. He thought of himself as resurveying Indian mounds and was interested in information about related artifacts as well as other data. He normally acquired such information from publications and placed it in information files. The files include data outside areas where he photographed and include midwestern, southeastern, and Pennsylvanian sites.

There are small amounts of material that relate to nonarcheological subjects. Among these are photographs of Army Air Service activities in France during World War I, land forms of the Philippine Islands, and Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. There are also lantern slides used at a lecture at the United States Military Academy.

DATES: 1911-1968

QUANTITY: ca. 4 linear meters (ca. 13 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Mound culture notes, n.d.; (2) mound formations, 1934-1940; (3) Ohio state index, 1934-1940; (4) general state site index, 1934-1940; (5) general notes on archeology and anthropology, ca. 1925-1968; (6) miscellany, n.d.; (7) photographic prints, 1911-1946; (8) photographic negatives, 1911-1940; (9) oversized material (cartographic material, artwork, and large photographs), n.d.

FINDING AID: Draft register, list of photographs


The photographs were made by the Cutter Service Bering Sea Patrol. They show natives and dwellings at Lutke Harbor, St. Lawrence Bay, and Chennotski. Prints from which the collection was copied are in the United States Coast Guard Library in Washington, D.C.

DATES: 1907-1908

QUANTITY: 6 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-16

REINING, CONRAD COPELAND (1918-1984), Papers

Conrad Copeland Reining (born Conrad Reining) was trained in German and Public Speech at Akron University (B.A., 1940), in social service administration at the University of Chicago, and in social anthropology at Oxford University. At the latter institution, where his studies were directed by E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Reining received a diploma in 1951, a B.Litt. in 1952, and a Ph.D. in 1959.

Reining stated that vacations at the Red Lake Indian Reservation in 1947 and 1950 caused his interest in anthropology as a career. In addition, his marriage to anthropologist Priscilla Copeland in 1944 undoubtedly affected the course of his life, he sharing her interest in the Haya of Tanzania. His dissertation for the B.Litt. degree was a study of British applied anthropology to determine the distinction between applied and basic, or academic, anthropology. Reining did this research using traditional historical sources. Field work for his Ph.D. dissertation was done in 1951-1953 when he studied a colonial economic scheme involving Azande cotton production in Sudan. In 1966, Reining returned to his study of British applied anthropology. In 1974, he traveled to Hungary to study the rural German minority there; and, in 1978, he carried out a related study in Rumania. His interest in Europe centered on the persistent ethnic identity of minorities and the interactive effects of economic organization and the values and social organization of such groups.

Reining became an assistant professor at the University of Minnesota in 1956 and an associate professor in the Foreign Area Studies Division at the American University in Washington in 1959, D.C. In 1960, he became the head of the Library of Congress African Division; and, in connection with his bibliographic work, he traveled extensively in Africa. In 1966, he joined the The Catholic University of America Department of Anthropology. In 1968, he served as president of the Anthropological Society of Washington; in 1969, secretary of the American Anthropological Association; and, in 1976, the first president of the Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists. In 1970, Reining was chairman of a workshop on anthropology and the media. In 1972-1974, he was coeditor of the newsletter Medical Anthropology.

DATES: 1950-1982

QUANTITY: ca. 3.2 linear meters (10.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence, 1950-1982; (2) subject file; (3) material concerning Africa generally; (4) material concerning the Azande; (5) material concerning eastern Europe; (6) teaching material; (7) photographs; (8) miscellany

FINDING AID: Folder list


Mainly the photographs show traditional Korean dress. Two black-and white snapshots show fortune tellers and one shows a woman with a pipe. Color polaroid prints show costumes on hangers, pipes, and a wooden pillow. The items relate to anthropology accession 360,970. Also included are two greeting cards and a color postcard showing men playing batuk.

DATE: some 1953

QUANTITY: 17 items

CALL NUMBER: Photograph lot 95-39


In 1952, Henry Lookout, an Osage, lent documents (NAA MS 4405 and 4406) and a Jefferson Peace Medal (formerly NAA MS 4407) to the Bureau of American Ethnology. Descendants requested their return; and, on September 27, 1993, all items except the peace medal were repatriated in the Director's office of the National Museum of Natural History. Electrostatic copies have replaced the original texts. The National Museum of American History purchased the medal for its numismatics collection.

The photographs include George Big Eagle, Olivia Mashunkashey Bristow (daughter of Henry Lookout), Tom E. Fugate, Michele Easley, and Anita West, all Osage Indians. Also included are Frank Talbot (NMNH director), Peggy Anderson (Talbot's assistant), Melinda Zeder (Deputy Chairman, Department of Anthropology), Cory Gilliland (National Numismatics Center, NMAH), Elvira Stefanelli (Director, National Numismatics Center), Bruce Smith (Acting Chairman, Department of Anthropology), and James R. Glenn (National Anthropological Archives).

DATE: September 27, 1990

QUANTITY: 33 proof prints from 35-mm film

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93-9


Allen Richards is a descendant of the Reverend Allen Wright, Choctaw chief from 1866 to 1870. His collection includes three groups of pictures: (1) portraits of Allen Wright, his wife Harriet Mitchell Wright, and a group portrait of Wright with Basil Le Flore, John Page, James Riley, and Alfred Wade; (2) photographs, largely of Mexican Kickapoos, made by Richards' uncle Edwin Ludlow in 1898-1911, when he was working in the Mexican state of Coahuila; and (3) photographs of Kickapoos by Richards when he was in Coahuila in 1936.

DATES: 1860s-1930s

QUANTITY: 15 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-34


The photographs are of Kickapoos who lived near Musquiz, Coahuila, Mexico. One subject was Chief Papiquino. Also included are dwellings and a wagon.

DATE: One dated 1936; others dated 1900

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-40


Frederick L.W. Richardson was education at Harvard University (B.S. in geology, 1931; Ph.D. in anthropology, 1941). During World War II, he served with the Board of Economic Warfare, Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, and Lend Lease Administration. His professional affiliations were with the Yale Labor-Management Center, Harvard School of Public Health, 1949-1954; University of Pittsburgh, 1962-1966; and the University of Virginia, 1966-1980. While at the two universities, he was on the faculty of their graduate business schools and also their departments of anthropology.

Richardson was originally interested in the geological and geographical influences that shaped ancient cultures. With this in mind, he worked in Iraq in 1931-1934 on expeditions to Ur of the British Museum and University of Pennsylvania University Museum and at an Assyrian site of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute. In 1933, he surveyed ancient irrigations systems in southern Iraq. In 1934, he joined a Harvard expedition to Ireland.

While at Harvard he studied with Elton Mayo, a psychologist, and Lloyd Warner. In 1938-1941, under their influence, he became involved in the Penncraft project in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, a project jointly sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Harvard Department of Anthropology. In this, he worked closely with Eliot Chapple and Conrad Arensberg, who were developing new and revolutionary theories concerning human interaction. Under Chapple's direction, Richardson's wrote his dissertation, "An Anthropological and Geographical Approach to a Resettlement Problem in the Pennsylvania Coal Region." This work also led Richardson to abandon his archeological interest and became an industrial consultant focusing on human interaction and an anthropology teacher in business schools.

Richardson worked on projects involving well-known corporations, including International Business Machines, the Ford Motor Company, Massachusetts General Hospital, New England Telephone Company, and the Raytheon Corporation.

Richardson was a founding member of the Society of Applied Anthropology. He was given that society's Malinowki Award in 1988.

Richardson's papers have not yet been arranged and analyzed. They appear to reflect school work and most of his professional activities.

DATES: 1930s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 100 linear feet



RIESENBERG, SAUL HERBERT (1911-1994), Papers

The papers are those of a Smithsonian curator of Oceanic ethnology. Included are correspondence, notes, questionnaires, writings, photographs, printed material, and other types. Most concern Riesenberg's research in acculturation in American Samoa in 1955-1956. Included are papers of Frank E. Midkiff and Riesenberg's students. In addition, there is material concerning the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology.

DATES: 1930s-1960s

QUANTITY: ca. 1.7 linear meters (ca. 5.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Unprocessed

FINDING AID: Draft register


The party took place in the Department of Anthropology chairman's office.

DATE: 1979

QUANTITY: 20 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-17


Rilliet wanted to become an artist but was forbidden by his father. Instead, the Frenchman became a merchant, selling silks and velvets throughout Europe and the Near East. He maintained a diary with watercolors of the sights he saw, and he made stereoscopic views on glass. The collection consists of his transparencies (mostly 3x12-centimeter [1.25x4.75-inch] positives), copies of his diaries for 1880 and 1891-1892, and a viewer for the transparencies. Most are unidentified. The diaries may, however, provide required information. They indicated that he visited Greece, Cyprus, Rumania, Egypt, Tunisia, Palestine, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Austria, Germany, Turkey, Syria, Malta, Lebanon, Iran, Albania, Switzerland, and England.

DATE: Probably 1880s-1890s

QUANTITY: ca. 500 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-38


Rinzler made the photographs at kilns in Seoul. He also provided explanatory labels. In addition to the subjects shown below, there are photographs showing pottery in use and in storage.

DATE: 1971

QUANTITY: 69 prints

ARRANGEMENT: In groups entitled: (1) introduction; (2) clay preparation; (3) turning process (tools, preparation, turning); (4) drying and glazing; (5) firing and shipping


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-17

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