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MACGREGOR, FRANCES COOKE (1906-2001), Papers

Frances Cooke Macgregor studied at the University of California (B.A. in economics, 1927) and the University of Missouri (M.A. in sociology, 1947). She carried out additional study at the University of Missouri and Columbia University.

As a young woman, Macgregor was a documentary photographer. In 1947-1948, she worked with Margaret Mead interpreting Balinese photograhs. With Mead, she coauthored Growth and Culture: A Photographic Study of Balinese Childhood, 1951. She was also a consultant to the Institute for Intercultural Studies.

Later, Macgregor became a pioneer in using the concepts of anthropology and sociology in dealing with medical patients. In particular, she became in this respect an authority on persons suffering facial disfigurements. In 1949-1952, she was a research associate in the New York University College of Medicine Department of Psychiatry. In 1952, she organized the New York City Medical Social Science Group. In 1954-1968, she was a visiting professor at the Cornell University-New York University Hospital School of Nursing. In 1968, she became an associate professor of the Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery at the New York University Medical Center.

Correspondents includes William A. Caudill, Margaret Mead, and Leo W. Simmons. The series of letters and printed materials exchanged between Juliene G. Lipson and Macgregor were donated by Lipson and have been placed in this collection for convenience.

DATE: ca. 1949-1968

QUANTITY: ca. .38 linear meter (ca. 15 linear inches)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Social science and medicine, 1952-1968; (2) Plastic Surgery Research Project, 1949-1951; (3) Margaret Mead and Balinese childhood, 1947-1984; (4) classes for New York University School of Nursing, 1954-1968; (5) Institute for Intercultural Studies; (6) letters received by Juliene G. Lipson, 1988-1990; (7) publications by Frances Cooke Macgregor


MACGREGOR, GORDON (1902-1984), Papers

Gordon Macgregor was trained at Yale (B.A., 1925) and Harvard (Ph.D., 1935). Although he worked in old world archeology and Oceanic ethnology, he devoted most of his career to applied anthropology in government service. From 1936 to 1945, he was an anthropologist with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). From 1945 to 1947, he served as superintendent of the Northern Cheyenne agency. In 1947-1949, as a social economist with the BIA Missouri River Basin Unit, he prepared for the removal of Fort Berthold Indians preceding federal dam construction.

In 1951, after two years as a Pacific specialist with the Department of Interior Office of Territories, Macgregor became an anthropologist with the Department of State Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA). This involved aspects of the Point IV program. In 1953-1956, Macgregor became a research associate of the Committee on International Exchange of Persons of the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils. Under the Fulbright-Hays Act, the committee administered exchanges of university lecturers and advanced researchers between the United States and other countries. In 1957-1966, Macgregor was the senior anthropologist with the United States Public Health Service. In that position, he was involved in a study of local public health practices.

The papers document Macgregor's career very unevenly. Most concerns his work with the Public Health Service, and most of that concerns a study carried out in Bristol, Vermont. There are also materials concerning a health survey in the Great Plains and a study involving junior high school students in Prince Georges County, Maryland.

The papers also include miscellaneous documents concerning Macgregor's TCA position. There are transcripts and other materials of anthropologists who gave Foreign Service Institute lectures to technicians chosen for Point IV work abroad. There is also a Point IV training manual prepared by the American Anthropological Association and reviewed by Macgregor for the TCA. In addition, there are Society for Applied Anthropology reports, written by Eliot D. Chapple, for film producers of the Department of State International Motion Pictures Division. A few items relate to Macgregor's work with the Committee on International Exchange of Persons.

There is little or no material relating to Macgregor's interest in old world archeology and none concerning his interest in Oceania. The American Indian file is largely a reference miscellany. The main exceptions are notes on the Navaho and material relating to American Indian Development, Inc. None of that material appears to concern Macgregor's BIA work, and none of it relates to his study of Dakota Indians.

Those interested in Macgregor's work for the BIA Missouri River Basin Unit may wish to consult NAA manuscript 4805, which consists of research and reference materials of the University of Chicago Fort Berthold Project. That material includes a few papers and reports, largely mimeographed, written by Macgregor.

DATES: Most 1951-1966 (some documents as early as 1935)

QUANTITY: 1.8 linear meters (ca. 6 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Papers concerning the Technical Cooperation Administration, including (1) Point IV manual material; (2) Point IV training materials; (3) Society for Applied Anthropology reports; (4) reference materials; papers concerning the Committee on International Exchange of Persons, including (5) papers concerning the Committee on International Exchange of Persons; papers concerning the Public Health Service projects, including general materials [(6) organizations file and (7) reference materials]; Great Plains survey materials, including [(8) organizations file and questionnaires]; Prince Georges County, Maryland, materials, including [(9) proposal and notes for a study of junior high school students]; and Bristol, Vermont, materials, including [(10) alphabetical file, (11) questionnaires, (12) reference materials]; other material, including (13) American Indian material; (14) miscellany.

FINDING AID: Folder list

RESTRICTION: Questionnaires collected during Public Health Service surveys are restricted.


The photographs were made by Marguerite Foute and Kent Roark, when they were on a trip sponsored by the Smithsonian Associates. The collection consists of color prints.

DATES: 1960s

QUANTITY: 45 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-17


The provenance of the items is yet to be determined.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 10 items

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 121


The gelatin prints show people and views in Panama around the time the Panama Canal was built.

DATE: Early 20th century

QUANTITY: 12 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-32

MAHER, ROBERT FRANCIS (1922-1987), Papers

Robert F. Maher attended the University of Wisconsin at Madison (B.S., 1948; M.S., 1950; Ph.D., 1958). He was an instructor at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee (UWM) in 1953-1955, and at DePauw University in 1956-1957. He joined the Department of Sociology at Western Michigan University in 1957 and became professor of anthropology in 1966. In 1967, he was appointed the first chairman of the UWM department of anthropology. He remained at UMW until he died.

Most of Maher's publications concern his work in Oceania. As a Ford Foundation fellow in 1954-1955, he began research on the Namau, of the Purari Delta, Papua New Guinea, concentrating on culture change and the modernist Tommy Kabu Movement. He returned to New Guinea in 1973 and again in 1983.

In 1960-1961, Maher began an ethnological and archeological study of Ifugao culture history in the Philippines. He returned to that area in 1973.

Maher also carried out ethnological and archeological work in the United States. He was a member of the University of Wisconsin Chippewa Reservation Research Project in 1951-1952, and he and his students worked with the Potawatomi of Michigan from 1959 forward. In 1952, for the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys, he was an assistant director of excavations at the Black Widow site, South Dakota. He also carried out archeological work in Wisconsin and at Aztalan in the southwest. Outside the United States, he surveyed villages in Okyama Prefecture in Japan in 1960.

The papers relate almost entirely to work in Papau New Guinea and the Philippines. The consist of diaries for his first expedition, photographs, and a few letters, including some from Tommy Kabu. The Philippines material includes census questionnaires and related material, genealogies, and notes concerning rituals. There are also photographs and other materials such as ethnological and archeological notebooks, notes, maps, and printed material. The correspondence relating to the Philippines includes letters from Connie C. Bodner, Harold C. Conklin, Alan Lomax, William Henry Scott, Richard Shulter, Jr., and Wilhelm G. Solheim II.

DATES: 1961-1986

QUANTITY: ca. 1.4 linear meters (ca. 4.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Material relating to Papau New Guinea; (2) material relating to the Philippines



The print was copied from a daguerreotype. There is no addition information.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-15


William M. Mann was an entomologist who worked for the United States Department of Agriculture and Bureau of Entomology. In 1919, he became an assistant custodian of the United States National Museum Section of Hymenoptera. From 1925 to 1956, he was director of the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

The photographs relate to a zoological expedition of Mann's early career when he held a Sheldon Traveling Fellowship at Harvard University. The work carried him to Fiji and the British Solomon Islands. The photographs are largely views, but some include ethnological subjects.

DATES: 1915-1916

QUANTITY: 650 items

ARRANGEMENT: By negative number


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 110

MARQUIS, THOMAS BAILEY (1869-1935), Papers

Thomas B. Marquis was a physician at the Crow Agency and the Cheyenne Agency at Lame Deer, Montana. Greatly interested in the Indians and their history, especially the battle, he wrote several books and pamphlets about them. His informants were often Indians who fought at the Little Big Horn. Marquis also collected many artifacts concerning the Battle of the Little Big Horn. He exhibited these, with photographs and maps he made, in a small museum in Hardin, Montana, his home during the last years of his life.

The collection is restricted to materials about American Indians and to Marquis's museum. Included are paper items from the museum--photographs, visitor's registers, certificates of authenticity, loan papers, and inventories. Some materials concern the disposition of the artifacts by Marquis's heirs. The photographs (snapshots), many in Marquis's publications, depict Indians he interviewed. Most subjects are Cheyenne, but there are also a few Arapahos and Whites. There are also views of structures at Lame Deer.

Materials concerning Marquis's medical practice are in the United States Army Medical Library.

DATES: 1922-1942

QUANTITY: ca .28 linear meter (ca. 11 linear inches)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Material relating to the Custer Battle Museum, Hardin, Montana; (2) drawings by Indians; (3) miscellany; (4) maps; (5) photographs

FINDING AID: List of photographs

MARSH, RICHARD O. (1883–1953), Papers.

Richard Oglesby Marsh was an engineer, American diplomat and amateur ethnologist who participated in several engineering and ethnological expeditions to Panama. The collection includes material relating to Marsh's experiences as leader of the Marsh Darien expedition to Panama in 1924-1925 and his contacts with the Kuna (also known as Tule). The collection also features materials on the negotiations that took place on the U.S.S. Cleveland with representatives of the U.S. and Panamanian governments and the Kuna Indians during the Kuna uprising of 1925, in which Marsh served as a mediator.

DATES: 1922-1997

QUANTITY: ca 4 linear feet.

ARRANGEMENT: (1) dairies; (2) correspondence; (3) manuscripts; (4) miscellaneous expedition notes; (5) maps; (6) newspaper articles; (7) photograph albums

FINDING AID: Robert S. Leopold, Register to the Papers of Richard O. Marsh, National Anthropological Archives, 2000.


The potter is depicted in a print and a postcard.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 2 items

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-14


In 1978, María Martínez, of San Ildefonso, and her family demonstrated pottery-making techniques at the Smithsonian's Renwick Gallery in Washington, D.C., as part of an exhibit of Pueblo pottery. The prints, negatives, and slides are of the demonstration.

Related videotapes and motion picture film are in the Human Studies Film Archives of the National Museum of Natural History. See also Photo Lot 80-4, below.

DATE: 1978

QUANTITY: 76 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-18


The collection consists of slides related to Photo Lot 79-18 (above).

DATE: 1978

QUANTITY: 8 slides

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-4


University of Texas geologist Michael Sabbagh made the head and bust portrait in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

DATE: ca. 1978

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-42


Eduardo Masferré, half-Spanish and half-Filipino, was born in the region of the Gran Cordillera Central of Luzon. His father, a soldier who turned to farming, converted to the Episcopal Church and became a missionary devoted to teaching and medical care. Between 1914 and 1921, Masferré's family lived in Spain, where Eduardo began his education. After further schooling in the Philippines, Masferré followed in his father's footsteps and became a missionary teacher and then a missionary administrator. After World War II, he opened a photographic studio in Bontok. He also took up farming.

Masferré's photographic art was essentially self-taught. He first learned to use a camera as a boy at the mission. Returning to photography in 1934, his artistic focus fell on the mountain people of Luzon with whom he shared part of his heritage. His concern was to document those people before the onrush of modernity changed them irrevocably.

The photographs are of the mountain, or Igorot, people and mainly include Bontok and Kalinga. There are also a few photographs of the Gaddang and Ifugao. Many are portraits and show traditional dress and ornamentation, including tattoos. Some depict pipes and tobacco use. Several show such subjects as basketry, weaving, rituals, dance, agriculture, irrigation, draught animals, and food preparation, including the milling of sugar cane and the fermentation of sugar cane juice. Yet other photographs depict family life, houses and villages, musical instruments, pottery and pottery making, and burden bearing. Many photographs appeared in Jill Gale de Villa's E. Masferré: People of the Philippine Cordillera, Photographs, 1934-1956.

DATES: ca. 1935-1980

QUANTITY: 152 black and white prints, mostly 20.3x25.4 centimeters (8x10 inches), some 27.9x35.6 centimeters (11x14 inches) and others 30.5x38.1 centimeters (12x15 inches)

FINDING AID: List with references to photographs published in Jill Gale de Villa's book on the Masferré photographs.

RESTRICTION: The photographs are for scholarly purposes only.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-30


The portrait is by Maria Theresa García-Farr. It is the one Masferré selected for an 1992 National Museum of Natural History exhibit featuring his photographs of the Philippines.

DATE: n.d.

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-43


Mrs. Mason was the wife of an army officer stationed at Fort Apache, Arizona. Included among the mounted snapshot prints and copy negatives are Apache and Pueblo subjects and military personnel. Most photographs lack captions.

DATE: ca. 1911-1912

QUANTITY: 62 items

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-6

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