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LEIGHTON, DOROTHEA CROSS (1908-1989), Papers

Social psychiatrist Dorothea Leighton (M.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1936) began work with Indians in 1939-1941 when she and her husband, Alexander Leighton, also a psychiatrist, studied the Navaho under a grant from the Social Science Research Council. In 1942-1945, Leighton was once again in the field as a special physician for the Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Project, a joint program of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the University of Chicago. The project's purpose was to study the development of personality among five Indian tribes and the effects of government policy. Leighton's part involved psychological studies of Navaho and Zuni children and a share in the preparation of resulting publications on those tribes. Throughout her field work with Indians, she was in close contact with Clyde Kluckhohn, an advisor for the Indian Education Project, whose own Ramah Project was under way.

The overwhelming bulk of the material concerns Leighton's work with the Indian Education Research project and resulting publications. There is, in addition, a small amount of material concerning the Japanese obtained for comparative purposes.

Correspondents include S.D. Aberle, John Adair, Grace Arthur, Willard W. Beatty, Richard Birnbaum, George A. Boyce, Helen Bradley, Oscar L. Chapman, John Collier, Malcolm Collier, Leonard S. Cottrell, Luther S. Cressman, Lambert Davis, Lisbeth Eubanks, Esther S. Goldfrank, Robert J. Havighurst, Bill Henry, Alice Joseph, Clyde Kluckhohn, F.W. Larouche, Nancy Wilhemina, Nancy Lorenzo, Wilhemina Lorenzo, Berthan Lorenzo, Gordon Macgregor, D'Arcy McNickle, Maria Sheet, J.M. Stewart, Ernest V. Sutton, Laura Thompson, and Lee Wymen.

DATES: 1937-1960

QUANTITY: .9 linear meter (3 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence, 1941-1960; (2) writings, n.d.; (3) "Tests and Instructions," 1942; (4) Navaho materials, 1941-1953 (most 1943); (5) Zuni material, 1942-1943; (6) material relating to several tribes, ca. 1943-1945; (7) miscellany, 1937-1950

FINDING AID: Draft register


The collection consists of black and white negatives made from material in an exhibit of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibit Service. These are of paintings 8, 42, 68, and 78 in Elsie Clews Parsons, Isleta Paintings, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 181. There is also a photographic negative of a letter from Lente to Parsons, September 16, 1938, with a small sketch of the artist. Related material is in the papers of Esther S. Goldfrank.

DATES: Originals, 1938-1939; copies, 1957

QUANTITY: 5 negatives

RESTRICTION: The originals are in the American Philosophical Society library. The negatives cannot be printed without permission of the library.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 12A


Eugene O. Leonard was the collector of these dry plate glass and film negatives and albumen, gelatin, and cyanotype prints. In 1893, he became a resident of Pocatello, Idaho. Trained as a pharmacist, he worked not only in that field but also as a high school chemistry teacher, teacher at Idaho State College, and Pocatello City Chemist, the latter position ending in 1945. Interested in the people of the nearby Fort Hall Reservation, Leonard formed a collection of Indian materials including artifacts and these photographs. The artifacts are at the Idaho Museum of Natural History. The photographs passed from Eugene Leonard to his son Robert M. Leonard, who, with his wife, donated them to the National Anthropological Archives. Some of Robert Leonard's work with the collection include copy prints among the photographs.

The locale of most photographs is the Pocatello-Fort Hall area. Included are portraits of Indians, agency employees, missionaries, Indian encampments, Sun Dance ceremonies, the Fort Hall Agency, Fort Hall Indian school and students, Fort Hall Mission School; run for Fort Hall lands, June 17, 1902; War Bonnett Roundup at Idaho Falls, Gibson Indian Presbyterian Church, and old Indian school near Mt. Putnam. Most Indians are not identified as to tribe; but presumably they are Shoshoni or Bannock. In addition, there are photographs that include Nez Perce, Hopi, San Juan, and Navaho Indians. There is a also a photograph of Lapps at Port Townsend, Washington.

Many photographs have nothing to do with American Indians and show white people and views of Pocatello (including aerial views), Shoshone Falls and nearby features, Soda Springs, and Yellowstone. Also included are photographs of railroads, wagons, stage coaches and other means of transportation.

There are many photographs by Benedicte Wrensted. Other photographers include Charles Weitfle, G.H. Rothrock, Hedum and Bishop of Silver City, Idaho, Stiles and Israel, William Henry Jackson, A. Clark Vroman, Rogers and Hood, W.A. Eng, Benjamin A. Gifford, Chancey Hover and Company, Charles R. Savage, McEvoy of Pocatello, F. Jay Haynes, J.H. Andrews, and George Russell.

DATES: Probably 1880-1920

QUANTITY: ca. 500 prints and negatives


FINDING AID: Inventory prepared by Robert Leonard

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-3

LESSA, WILLIAM ARMAND (1908-1997), Papers

William A. Lessa began work in anthropology when he was an undergraduate student at Harvard University. Under the influence of Earnest A. Hooton, Lessa independently studied Italian families to test Franz Boas's theory of the plasticity of racial characteristics under environmental influences. In time, Lessa became an assistant of Hooton, first studying Jews in the Boston area and then studying the correlation of physical characteristics and criminality. Lessa's work involved both observation and measurement of subjects and the compilation of statistics in Hooton's laboratory.

In 1928, Hooton helped place Lessa at the Constitution Clinic at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York. There Lessa was nominally under the supervision of Harry L. Shapiro; and, in 1930, Shapiro took Lessa to Hawaii as an assistant in a Rockefeller Foundation-University of Hawaii study of persons of mixed Chinese and Hawaiian descent. The work included anthropometry and collection of data on blood-type groups. Two years later, Lessa accompanied Shapiro to Guangdong Province in China to obtain comparative data for their study. Following his return to Hawaii, Lessa became involved in nonanthropological work, mainly in union activities among seamen and longshoremen. His anthropological field activity at the time was confined to--in Lessa's own words--amateur archeology on Maui in 1932 and on Oahu with Kenneth P. Emory in 1935.

In 1938, Lessa returned to the American mainland to begin graduate studies at the University of Chicago. His work there was a very broadening experience, for he studied in all areas of anthropology even to undertaking archeological field work in Illinois at the Kincaid site and at a site near Chicago. Especially significant was his training in ethnology, ethnohistory, and social anthropology, for he would later work intensively in these areas. Although in his master's thesis Lessa again returned to physical anthropology, it was to criticize the very types of constitutional studies with which he had formerly been engaged. In the future, he would return periodically to physical anthropology, preparing a history of constitutional studies, studying Chinese and Arab somatomancy and carrying out physical investigations along with his ethnographic and social studies.

Lessa spent the World War II years in teaching at Brooklyn College and then as an officer of the United States Army with the military government in Italy. After the war, he completed his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago, using his experiences in Italy for his dissertation. He then obtained a position at the University of California at Los Angeles, where he remained throughout the rest of his career.

In 1947, the same year he began teaching at UCLA, Lessa gained the sponsorship of the United States Navy Office of Naval Research to begin studies in Micronesia where he concentrated on the Carolina Islands and, especially, on Ulithi Atoll. This was work that would occupy him for several field trips and in long periods of library study for the rest of his career. His aim was to conduct a thorough ethnographic study of Ulithi, and his efforts led him into social anthropology, folklore, physical anthropology, ethnohistory, and the study of somatomancy. He also carried out an ethnobotanical study of the Carolines and an investigation of Ulithi's reaction to a devastating typhoon.

With Evon Z. Vogt, Lessa has edited a book of readings in comparative religion that has been through several editions. He has also been a technical advisor to Twentieth Century-Fox films, employed for motion pictures dealing with the South Sea including the film Down among the Sheltering Palms.

Included in Lessa's papers are correspondence, journals of expeditions, field notes, lecture notes, reading notes, physical anthropological forms, psychological tests materials, census data, movie scripts, genealogies, photographs, maps, charts, financial records, manuscripts for publication, and printed materials. They reflect mainly his research, publications, and classroom lectures. Lessa provided annotations to explain his material. Only photographs document some expeditions..

Most of Lessa's archeological material concerning Illinois is at the University of Chicago. Lessa collected material relating to his work in Italy during World War II. Those documents, however, are not in this collection.

Lessa's correspondents include George W. Baker, C.R. Boxer, Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., Harold J. Coolidge, John deYoung, Bailey Diffie, George Draper, Thomas Gladwin, Ward H. Goodenough, Earnest A. Hooton, Clement W. Meighan, Father J. Neyret, Leilani Pyle, Saul H. Riesenberg, Harry Lionel Shapiro, Gwladys Simon, William J. Walter, Raymond V. Whalen, and Pedro Yamalmai.

DATES: 1920s-1980s (most 1930-1970)

QUANTITY: 3.4 linear meters (11 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Forms relating to the study of Jewish immigrants in Boston, 1928; (2) materials relating to the Hooton study of American criminals (includes photographs and critique of the study that was Lessa's master's thesis), 1928 and 1943; (3) forms relating to the anthropometric study of Italian families in New Jersey and Massachusetts, 1927-1929; (4) correspondence relating to work at the Constitution Clinic, Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York, 1929-1930; (5) materials relating to the study of Hawaiian-Chinese and Chinese, 1930-1932; (6) photographs of archeological work, 1935-1940; (7) materials relating to Ulithi, 1940-1959; (8) scripts and clippings relating to Twentieth Century-Fox film projects, 1951; (9) materials concerning body divination (somatomancy), mostly 1950s; (10) materials concerning Mapia and the Carolines, mostly 1950s; (11) studies of ethnobotany and ethnozoology of the Carolines, 1940s-1960s; (12) material relating to Ulithi, 1960; (13) Ulithian folklore research, 1960; (14) material relating to Ulithi, 1960; (15) materials relating to Caroline martial arts (bwang); (16) materials relating to Samoa, 1962; (17) material relating to the Isles of Sequeiras, 1974-1979; (18) materials relating to Drake's Island, 1974-1975; (19) biographical and bibliographical file; (20) unpublished articles, papers, and lectures; (21) lecture notes ("Peoples of the Pacific" and "Comparative Religion").

FINDING AID: Karen Federing, Register to the Papers of William Armand Lessa. National Anthropological Archives, 2000.


Depicted are city views, buildings, paintings, artifacts, religious figures, and ceremonies.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 135 film and glass negatives



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-2


The collection consists mostly of mounted original albumen, collodion, and gelatin photographic prints. It includes photomechanical prints, copy prints made by the National Anthropological Archives, and a small amount of printed material.

Submissions to the Library of Congress for copyright purposes formed the collection. In 1949, the Bureau of American Ethnology arranged to copy it and made some negatives, largely of the Heyn and Matzen material. The BAE soon gave up the project as too great an undertaking. In 1957-1958, William C. Sturtevant arranged to transfer a second set of the photographs to the BAE archives. The copyright on almost all images had expired by that time.

Included are both studio and field photographs. A large number are individual or group portraits, and many subjects are identified by name. The other subjects are varied but recurring themes are artifacts, dress and body adornment, habitations and other structures--including ruins, buildings, and churches--agriculture, arts and crafts, burials, ceremonies, dances, games, food preparation, transportation and scenery. Some photographs illustrate literary works, especially Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's "Hiawatha." Some are photographs of paintings and other art work.

The vast majority of the images relate to North American Indians. Tribes represented are Achomawi, Ahtena, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboin, Bannock, Blackfoot, Cahita, Cahuilla, Cayuse, Chehalis, Chemehuevi, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chimakum, Chinook, Chippewa, Choctaw, Clatsop, Cocopa, Comanche, Cowichan, Cree, Creek, Crow, Dakota, Duwamish, Eskimo, Fox, Gros Ventre (Atsina), Gros Ventre (Hidatsa), Haida, Havasupai, Hoh, Hupa, Iroquois (including Mohawk, Onandaga, Seneca, and St. Regis), Kalispel, Karok, Kato, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Klamath, Klickitat, Kutenai, Kwakiutl, Maidu, Makah, Mandan, Maricopa, Menominee, Miwok, Mohave, Mono, Navaho, Nez Perce, Nootka, Omaha, Osage, Oto, Paiute, Paloos, Papago, Passamaquoddy, Pawnee, Peoria, Pima, Pomo, Ponca, Potawatomi, Pueblo (including Acoma, Cochiti, Hano, Hopi, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Sia, San Juan, Taos, Tesuque, and Zuni), Quahatika, Quapaw, Queets, Quileute, Quinault, Salish (including Flathead), Sarsi, Sauk and Fox, Seminole, Shawnee, Shoshoni, Sinkiuse, Skitswish, Spokan, Swinomish, Tenino, Tlingit, Tolowa, Tonkawa, Tsimshian, Twana, Umatilla, Ute, Wailaki, Walapai, Wallawalla, Wampanoag, Wappo, Waxco, Washo, Wichita, Winnebago, Wishram, Yakima, Yavapai, Yokuts, Yuki, Yuma, and Yurok.

List of artists and/or copyright claimants

DATES: 1860s-1930s (most 1890s-1920s)

QUANTITY: ca. 6000 items

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Small mounts (25.5x30.5 centimeters [10x12 inches] or less) identified by tribe; (2) large mounts (more than 25.5x30.5 centimeters [10x12 inches]) identified by tribe; (3) small mounts with mixed tribes; (4) small mounts with portraits identified by personal names only; (5) large mounts with portraits identified by personal name only; (6) small size series identified by area only; (7) large mounts identified by area only; (8) small mounts unidentified; (9) large mounts unidentified; and (10) large mounts with other than North American Indians

FINDING AID: Descriptions in SIRIS.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 59

LIPKIND, WILLIAM (1904-1974), Papers

After he had studied law, history, and English literature at Columbia University, William Lipkind became a student of Franz Boas and Ruth F. Benedict. In the summer of 1936, Boas sent him to Winnebago, Nebraska, to study the Winnebago language and review Paul Radin's work on Winnebago.The work provided data for his doctoral dissertation, published as Winnebago Grammar in 1945.

Lipkind's next field experience was in Brazil, where he spent 1937-1939 with the Carajaacute. During the same period, he investigated neighboring peoples, including the Cayapoacute. From this came his article on the Carajaacute for the Handbook of South American Indians, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, volume 3, 1948, and an article on Carajaacute cosmology in the Journal of American Folklore in 1940.

Following a brief teaching career at Ohio State University, Lipkind worked in Europe for the federal government in Europe. After returning to the United States in 1947, his activity in anthropology was largely teaching. His publications were mostly children's literature.

Lipkind's papers are largely limited to field material. They are, however, incomplete, for some remains in private hands, and his Carajaacute sound recordings (of which the archives has poor copies) are at Indiana University. A few pieces of correspondence relating to his article for the Handbook of South American Indians are with Julian H. Steward. The Winnebago material includes a vocabulary that may be by the nineteenth-century missionary William T. Findley.

DATES: Mostly 1936-1939

QUANTITY: ca. 1.5 linear meters (ca. 5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Carajaacute material (notebooks, correspondence and drafts for the article in the Handbook of South American Indians, photographs, sound recordings, 1937-1939; (2) Cayapoacute notebook; (3) Winnebago material (notebooks, dictionaries); (4) Mandan dictionary, n.d.; (5) miscellany

FINDING AID: Folder list

QUANTITY: 3 prints


Late in life, Janet (Mrs. Warfield T.) Longcope became a world traveler and an informal lecturer about her travels. Beginning around 1954, she visited Australia, Bhutan, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Ceylon, Chile, Colombia, Easter Island, Ethiopia, Fiji, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Kenya, Malaya, Mexico, Mongolia, New Zealand, Russia, Siberia, and Tanzania. She repeatedly visited places that she particularly liked and took many photographs. Her subjects included landscapes, structures, markets, dances, agriculture, arts and crafts, ceremonies, children, cooking, musicians, and transportation. She used the enlarged prints and slides in her lectures.

DATES: 1954-1971

QUANTITY: ca. 5000 items

ARRANGEMENT: By geographic area

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-26


The negatives show Mayan ruins and a necklace. Orator F. Cook collected the photographs.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 4 negatives

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-1

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