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The photographs were taken in what is modern Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Serbia, and Turkey. Some relate to World War I and show soldiers, trenches, artillery, and other aspects of the war. Other images show buildings, street scenes, markets, transportation, and peasants, tradesmen, and other inhabitants of the countries. A cobbler, bootblack, spinner, vendors, and Gypsy musicians are among the subjects.

The Otis Archives, National Museum of Health and Medicine, Armed Institute of Pathology donated the prints. The originals are in the Otis Archives.

DATE: Probably 1910s

QUANTITY: 254 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-40

LA BARRE, RAOUL WESTON (1911-1996), Papers

R. Weston La Barre studied at Princeton University (B.A., 1933) and Yale University (Ph.D., 1937. He was a researcher at the Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kansas, in 1938-1939; and instructor at Rutgers University in 1939-1943. He joined the faculty of Duke University in 1946 and remained there for the rest of his career. As a member of a Laboratory of Anthropology field school led by Alexander Lesser, La Barre worked on a general ethnography of Kiowas in southern Oklahoma. He followed that with work on the Native American Church and its members use of peyote and other drugs. He was a Sterling fellow in 1937-1938, and work with the Aymara, Uru, and Chipaya of Bolivia. In 1943-1945, he did field work in China and India.

The collection included documents relating to field work among the Kiowa carried out while he was a student working under Alexander Lesser and materials that concern the Native American Church and peyote. Those materials include notes of fellow students William Bascom, Donald Collier, Bernard Mishkin, and Jane Richardson. Added to these materials have been later papers relating to drug use. There are also many photographs.

The collection also includes papers relating to his work among the Aymara, Uru, and Chipaya. Some of this material was used for "The Uru-Chipaya," Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, volume 2, pp. 575-585, and in The Aymara Indians of the Lake Titicaca Plateau, Bolivia, Memoirs, no. 68, American Anthropological Association, 1948.

La Barre donated most of his correspondence to Duke University. Correspondents included in this collection are David F. Aberle, J. Lawrence Angel, William R. Bascom, Ralph H. Blum, John Collier, Hugh P. Culter, J. Merle Davis, Nat Finkelstein, Eugene Fugel, Paul Gebhardt, Allen Ginsberg, Paul Gross, E. Adamson Hoebel, Wayne Henry Hunt, Peter H. John, Volney H. Jones, F.H. Kahan, Dorothy Kamen-Kaye, Heinrich Kluver, Oliver La Farge, John T. Lanning, Timothy Leary, G. Legman, Jerrold E. Levy, Ralph Linton, Gordon Macgregor, Carling Malouf, J. Alden Mason, J. Gilbert McAllister, H. Scudder Mekeel, Alfred Métraux, Peter Miller, John Monro, George P. Murdock, Marshall T. Newman, Morris E. Opler, Humphrey Osmond, Elsie Clews Parsons, James Pettit, Robert Ravicz, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., Robert Redfield, A.P. Reko, Willard Rhodes, Karl P. Schmidt, Richard E. Schultes, Harry L. Shapiro, George G. Simpson, James S. Slotkin, Jacques Soustelle, Frank G. Speck, Leslie Spier, George D. Spindler, Julian H. Steward, Omer C. Stewart, Harry Tschopik, Paul A. Vestal, Charles F. Voegelin, Charles W. Wagley, Ruth S. Wallis, W.H. Wannamaker, Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, and Alfred Wilson. There are only a very few letters of any one correspondent.

DATES: 1935-1970

QUANTITY: ca. 2.8 linear meters (ca. 7 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Papers relating to the Kiowa, including (1) field notes, 1935; (2) note slips, probably 1935; (3) writings, ca. 1935-1937; (4) plant specimens, 1935; (5) genealogical chart, n.d.; papers relating to peyote, including (6) correspondence, 1936-1967; (7) note slips, ca. 1935-1970; (8) writings, n.d.; (9) "legal file," 1929-1968; (10) Smithsonian Drug Conference, 1970-1971; (11) printed and processed material; papers relating to Aymara, Uru, and Chipaya, including (12) correspondence, 1937-1952; (13) notebooks, 1937-1938; (14) note slips, ca. 1937-1938; (15) writings, ca. 1948-1949; (16) maps, 1910-1920; (17) miscellaneous notes, 1940s-1950s; (18) printed material, 1932-1955; (19) photographs, 1935-1938; (20) miscellany; (21) unprocessed material

FINDING AID: Anna K. Thompson, Register to the Papers of Raoul Weston La Barre. National Anthropological Archives, 1998.


The collection consists of prints and negatives. The photographs were made at St. Mary's Island and Seven Island. Robert A. Johnson was the donor.

DATE: 1934

QUANTITY: 10 items

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-124


The copy print shows the Chemehuevi informant for anthropologist John P. Harrington. Carobeth Laird, the subject's wife and Harrington's former wife, donated the print.

DATE: ca. 1923

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-9


This formal portrait of an Indian photographer was copied from an image owned by his granddaughter Mrs. Hemlata Jain.

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-19

LANDES, RUTH SCHLOSSBERG (1908-1991), Papers

Ruth Landes studied sociology at New York University (B.A., 1928); social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W., 1929); and anthropology under Franz Boas and, mainly, Ruth Benedict at Columbia University (Ph.D., 1935).

Landes was a self-described student and champion of minority groups. Her interest in African Americans of New York and her study of the Black Jews of Harlem, a remnant left from Garveyism, brought her into anthropology. Under Benedict's influence during and immediately following her student years, she focused on more traditional anthropological subjects. Between 1932 and 1936, she undertook field work with the Ojibwa of Ontario and Minnesota, the Santee Dakota in Minnesota, and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Social organization was her primary concern. With the Ojibwa, she was also interested in the Midewiwin and women's lives. In 1962, she returned to Kansas and resumed study of the Potawatomi. In 1938-1939, she worked in Brazil, mainly studying the women- and homosexual-led cults (candomblé) among African-Brazilians. She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro.

In 1939, back in the United States, Landes became a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. In 1941, she became research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs. In 1941-1945, she was the representative for African American and Mexican American Affairs on President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Committee on Fair Employment Practices. At the same time, she began to study the Acadians of Louisiana. In 1948-1951, she was study director of the American Jewish Commission in New York. She was a consultant on Jewish families of New York for Ruth Benedict's Research in Contemporary Cultures during 1949-1951. In 1950-1952, Landes studied problems of colored immigrants in the United Kingdom.

During 1946-1947 and again in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Landes lived in California and, through several consultantships, became involved with Latinos. At the same time, she became interested in education and the processes and effects of aging. In 1968, she began an investigation of bilingualism and biculturalism that developed from her interest in Quebec nationalism in Canada. The project took her to Spain and Nevada to study the Basques, to Switzerland to examine the four language groups there, and to South Africa to study the interaction of Africans, English-speakers, and Afrikaans-speakers. She resumed interest in the Acadians of Louisiana in 1963.

Until 1965, Landes's institutional affiliations consisted of fairly short-term appointments. Besides those already named, she was an instructor at Brooklyn College in 1937 and at Fisk University in 1937-1938. She was a lecturer at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York in 1953-1954 and at the New School for Social Research in New York in 1953-1955. She was a visiting professor at the University of Kansas in 1957 and at the University of Southern California in 1957-1965. In 1959-1962, she was visiting professor and director of the anthropology and education program at the Claremont Graduate School. She was an extension lecturer at Columbia University and at Los Angeles State College in 1963, a visiting professor at Tulane University during the early months of 1964, and a visiting professor at the University of Kansas in the summer of 1964. Her association with McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, began in 1965 and continued after 1977 with her appointment as professor emerita.

Most papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research; her work in Brazil; and her study of bilingualism. There is also material relating to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There are only small amounts of material related to her other interests. Her collection has material of and material relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth F. Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a very large amount of printed and processed materials, mainly newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.

Correspondents include Conrad Arensberg, Herbert Baldus, Victor Barnouw, Mary Catherine Bateson, Ruth Benedict, Mary B. Black [Rogers], Franz Boas, Stephen T. Boggs, Rina Borri, Harold E. Bruce, Pearl S. Buck, Ralph J. Bunche, Edison Carneiro, Richard Chilver, Sally Chilver, James A. Clifton, Elizabeth Colson, Alexander Daveron, Frances Densmore, James Domengeaux, William A. Douglas, William Dunning, Munro S. Edmondson, Fred Eggan, Vincent O. Erickson, John Canfield Ewers, V. Faitlovitch, Minna R. Falk, Norman Feder, Albert G. Feldman, John Hope Franklin, Ute Gacs, Kathleen Gough, Einar Haugen, Ellen Hellman, Jules Henry, Elmer C. Imes, Phillis Kaberry, Oscar Lewis, Kenneth Little, Salvador Lopez, Margaret Lowenfeld, Nancy O. Lurie, E.G. Malherbe, Eli S. Marks, Louise Masha, Joseph M. Masquat, Will Maslow, Kurt B. Mayer, Carey McWilliams, Margaret Mead, Hendrik W. van der Merwe, Simon D. Messing, Robert F. Murphy, Evelyn Stefansson Nef, Anita Neumann, Walter Neumann, Louise Nocktonick, Howard W. Odum, James E. Officer, Anthony Paredes, George and Alice Park, Alan Paton, Keewaydinoquay M. Peschel, Isabel do Prado, Richard J. Preston, Buell Quain, Arthur Ramos, Audrey Richards, Robert Ritzenthaler, Robert W. Roberts, David Rodnick, Edward S. Rogers, Joan Rubin, Vera Rubin, Ralph S. Solecki, Francisco Sparta, Leslie Spier, Vihljalmur Stefansson, Anna F. Steyn, William Duncan Strong, Helen H. Tanner, Beryl Taylor, Lynn Teskey, Joe Topash, Mary Topash, Heloise Alberto Torres, Thomas Vennum, Jr., Pierre Verger, Charles Wagley, Ruth Sawtell Wallis, Thomas St. Germain Whitecloud, and Maggie Wilson.

DATES: 1928-1991

QUANTITY: ca. 8.2 linear meters (ca. 27 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Biographical material; (2) letters sent; (3) letters received; (4) manuscripts of writings and lectures; (5) notebooks; (6) material concerning the Acadians of Louisiana; (7) material concerning Africa; (8) material concerning aging; (9) material concerning American Indians (general); (10) material concerning anthropology; (11) material concerning Research in Contemporary Cultures; (12) material concerning Basques; (13) material concerning British race relations; (14) material concerning the Chippewa; (15) material concerning culture and personality/women; (16) material concerning education; (17) material concerning Fisk University and African Americans; (18) material concerning Judaism and other religions; (19) material concerning literature and anthropology; (20) material concerning the Potawatomi; (21) material concerning Quebec and Canada in general; (22) material concerning South Africa; (23) material concerning Spain; (24) material concerning Spanish-speaking Americans; (25) material concerning Switzerland; (26) teaching material; (27) research grant applications; (28) publisher's notices and reviews of Ruth Landes's writings; (29) financial papers; (30) miscellany; (31) publications by Ruth Landes; (32) photographs and other pictorial material.

FINDING AID: Draft register


The lot consists of dry-plate-negative portraits of the third Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution taken rather late in his life. A Smithsonian photographer probably took them.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 5 negatives

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-26E

LANHAM, BETTY BAILEY (1922- ), Papers

Betty Lanham was a specialist in the socialization of children. Her collection consists of replies to a questionnaire that was part of a study of enforcing behavior in children. Data was collected in the United States, Guyana, and Japan.

DATE: 1967

QUANTITY: ca. 1.2 linear meters (3.8 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined



Probably a skilled tourist made the photographs. The person (or persons) remains unidentified except the possibilities of names on the slides--Mr. and Mrs. Howard, Mrs. Shofford, and Dorothy Martin.

Most images show scenes in Havana (1919), San José and Port Simon (1926), and Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (undated). There are also a very few items made in Barbados (1923), the Virgin Islands, and India. Shown are general views of cities; harbors; parks and gardens; streets and bridges; and government buildings, hotels, churches, and other structures. An agriculture station in Cuba, photographs of the coffee industry in Brazil, and a few slides of trees are also included.

Accompanying the travel photographs are slides of astronomical charts by an amateur and one image of the moon.

DATES: 1919-1926

QUANTITY: 150 slides

ARRANGEMENT: Roughly by country


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 142


The subjects are possibly South American. The slides were received from Smithsonian Department of Botany.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 75 slides



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 95


Robert Laughlin is a Smithsonian anthropologist who has specialized in Mesoamerica. The material relates to publications concerning the Tzotzil. It includes vocabulary slips, tape recordings with transcripts, punched tapes, and writings.

DATES: n.d. (based on material collected in the 1960s-1970s)

QUANTITY: 3.4 linear meters (11.25 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Material relating to Laughlin's compilation of The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zincantaacute;n, 1975; (2) material relating to Of Wonders Wild and New, 1976; (3) material relating to Of Cabbages and Kings, 1977.

FINDING AID: Draft register


The item is a copy print.

DATE: 1885

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 78-25

LEEDS, ANTHONY (1925-1989), Papers

Anthony Leeds studied anthropology at Columbia University (B.A., 1949; Ph.D., 1957). He taught at Hofstra University, 1956-1959, and the City University of New York, 1959-1961. In 1961-1963, he was an anthropology specialist with the Pan American Union and chief of its program of urban development. During 1963-1972, he taught at the University of Texas at Austin and, in 1972-1989, he was a professor of anthropology at Boston University.

Leeds' field work involved the economy and anthropology of the cacao area of the state of Bahia, Brazil, in 1951-1952; Brazilian careers and social structure in 1962; and squatter settlements in Rio de Janeiro and other Brazilian cities in 1965-1969. In 1958, Leeds undertook a general ethnographic study of the Yaruro Indians of Venezuela. In 1966-1967, he examined social patterns among the African-Americas, Mexican-Americans, and Whites settled in the eastern part of Austin, Texas. In 1969 and 1970, he carried out ethnographic work in the barriadas of Lima Peru. In 1962 and 1973, he surveyed Spain, Portugal, Ireland, and England in a study of labor migration from Portugal to other areas of Europe in 1977-1981.

Leeds' studies not involving field work included the ecology of pigs in Melanesia, Yaruro history, Chukchi ecology, education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States, Indian, Brazil, and Britain, and cultural evolutionism, and sociobiology. The latter was through a group organized in reaction against sociobiological ideas of E.O. Wilson. Leeds' work as a writer and a teacher reflects his strong interest in theory and philosophy.

Correspondents include Gregory Bateson, Margaret C. Blaker, David Bray, Arthur L. Caplan, T.M. Carroll, David Collier, Stephen Conn, Pat Crooke, Henry Dietz, Marc Edelman, Ricardo Falla, Teresa García Fernandez, Barbara Frankel, Paul Friedman, William John Hanna, Colin Henfrey, Robert Van Kemper, Murray Leaf, Kenneth Little, Richard A. Lobban, Lita Osmundsen, Ralph Pattisson, Leonard Plotnicov, Karl Polanyi, Iain Prattis, Gerard Reichel-Dolmatoff, Jack R. Rollwagen, Larry Salmen, William B. Schwab, John R. Silber, and Doug Uzzell.

DATES: 1940s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 4 linear meters (13 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Biographical material; (2) letters sent, 1950s-1980s; (3) letters received, 1951-1987; (4) letters regarding academic appointments and related matters, 1971-1988; (5) letters regarding work of Boston University graduate students; (6) calendars, 1966-1989; (7) alphabetical subject file; (8) material regarding the cacao zone of Brazil; (9) Leed's material as a student, 1940s-1950s; (10) miscellaneous notes; (11) material regarding Brazilian slavery; (12) material regarding urban anthropology; (13) material regarding the Yaruro; (14) critiques and criticism; (15) poetry; (16) teaching material


LEHMER, DONALD JAYNE (1918-1975), Papers

Donald J. Lehmer's early career was spent in the southwestern United States. While a University of New Mexico undergraduate, he was excavation supervisor on the La Junta de los Rios Expedition, a joint Work Projects Administration (WPA)-Museum of New Mexico-and Sul Ross College project. After receiving a bachelor's degree in 1940, he became a research archeologist and, then, an assistant curator for the branch museums at the Museum of New Mexico. In 1940-1941, he was as director of the Mesilla Valley Expedition in Dona Anna County, New Mexico, which the museum and the Arizona State Museum sponsored. After graduate studies at the University of Chicago (M.A., 1948), he became director of the Mexican (Sonora) Archeological Expedition of the Field Museum of Natural History, University of Chicago, and University of Arizona.

From 1949-1952, Lehmer attended Harvard University (Ph.D., 1952). While working toward the degree, he served on the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys staff and thus began his interest in the Missouri Basin. Except for excavating the Cookson site of Tenkiller Reservoir in Oklahoma, his RBS field work involved excavations of the Dodd and Philips Ranch sites of the Oahe Reservoir of South Dakota.

Between 1951 and 1961, Lehmer had several appointments. In the latter year, he joined the faculty of Dana College in Blair, Nebraska, and continued there until his death. During this period, he concentrated on Middle Missouri archeology and Mandan and Hidatsa ethnology. The Smithsonian contracted him for reports for the Buffalo Pasture site and the Leavitte site in the Oahe Reservoir, Nightwalker's Butte site and Rock Village site in the Garrison Reservoir of North Dakota, and the Fire Heart Creek site in North Dakota. In the mid-1960s, the National Park Service engaged him for a report on the progress of Middle Missouri salvage archeological work.

Lehmer was also a research archeologist at the State Historical Society of North Dakota, visiting professor at the University of Minnesota, and member of the Plains volume planning committee of the Smithsonian's new Handbook of North American Indians.

Lehmer's papers cover in detail only limited aspects of his career. The only field materials for the early years concern the Mesilla Valley Expedition. Material concerning his work with the RBS consists largely of correspondence and administrative materials. Much of his other work is documented through correspondence, contracts, and reports. Some notes concern Mandan and Hidatsa ecology.

Correspondents include Ernst V. Antevs, Bryant Bannister, Robert E. Bell, William E. Bittle, Elaine Bluhm, Wesley Bradfield, J.O. Brew, Thomas N. Campbell, John L. Champe, Earle A. Clark, Joan Clark, Donald Collier, Paul L. Cooper, John M. Corbett, Harriet S. Cosgrove, Herbert W. Dick, Henry F. Dobyns, Bertha P. Dutton, Fred R. Eggan, Gordon F. Ekholm, Florence Hawley Ellis, John C. Ewers, Paul H. Ezell, Fred C. Fagergren, Malcolm F. Farmer, George E. Fay, Franklin Fenenga, Harold S. Gladwin, John M. Goggin, James B. Griffin, Donald D. Hartle, Emil W. Haury, George B. Hertzog, Jr., John J. Hoffman, Earnest A. Hooton, Roman L. Hruska, Wesley R. Hurt, Jesse D. Jennings, Elden Johnson, Frederick Johnson, Richard B. Johnston, J. Charles Kelley, Alfred Kidder II, Marvin F. Kivett, Clyde Kluckhohn, Bert Kraus, Alex D. Krieger, Toimi E. Kyllonen, Wilfred D. Logan, Boas Long, Charles C. Madsen, Oscar L. Mallory, Paul S. Martin, John Y. McCollister, William Mulloy, Nelson Murdock, Douglas Osborne, Erik K. Reed, John B. Rinaldo, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., Hugo G. Rodeck, Edward B. Sayles, Anna O. Shepard, Allan H. Smith, Carlyle S. Smith, George H. Smith, Albert C. Spaulding, James E. Sperry, Leslie Spier, Robert L. Stephenson, Frank H. Stewart, Stanley A. Stubbs, Floyd V. Studer, William C. Sturtevant, Paul Tolstoy, James B. Watson, Waldo R. Wedel, Fred Wendorf, Jr., H.D. Weston, Richard P. Wheeler, Theodore E. White, Arnold M. Withers, W. Raymond Wood, Richard B. Woodbury, A.M. Woolsley, and H. Marie Wormington.

DATES: 1927-1977

QUANTITY: ca. .5 linear meter (ca. 1.7 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Applications, 1949-1956; (2) incoming letters, 1946-1974; (3) outgoing letters, 1946-1974; (4) papers relating to research grants and contracts, 1964-1973, 1977; (5) papers relating to the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys, 1950-1952, 1968; (6) papers relating to the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico, expeditions, 1927-1942; (7) notes, 1969-1972; (8) papers relating to the Handbook of North American Indians, 1967-1974; (9) papers relating to scientific meetings, 1959-1970; (10) teaching materials, 1968-1970

FINDING AID: Register by Nigel Elmore

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