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Sheldon Jackson was a Presbyterian minister and United States government official. He is best known for his missionary work. His first post, taken up during the late 1850s, was at a missionary school for Choctaw boys in what is now Spencer, Oklahoma. In 1870, after brief service in the Civil War and as a pastor in Minnesota, he became the superintendent for the Board of Home Missions for Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, and Utah. He was also editor of the Rocky Mountain Presbyterian in 1872-1882. In 1884, after duties as an administrator, he organized a superintendency in Alaska and served as its superintendent until his death.

Jackson's government service began in 1885 when he became the Alaska general agent for the United States Bureau of Education. His duties there included the spread of education among the people; and he was responsible for the establishment of many schools. In 1890, he began a special project in education. The natives suffered food shortages because commercial exploitation had depleted wild game and sea life the natives traditionally used. In contrast, Siberians, who depended on domesticated reindeer, were well fed. Jackson's idea was to import reindeer and train the Alaskans to herd them. A venture to obtain suitable reindeer is documented in Photo Lot 130.

The collection concerns Jackson's family and professional life. His involvement with many affairs of the Presbyterian Church and public speaking on behalf of Alaska and Alaskans are documented. Many items directly relate to Alaska.

DATE: Undetermined

QUANTITY: 1 roll

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined


RESTRICTION: The microfilm was obtained for reference purposes only. Copies of the images should be obtained from the Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-13


The copy prints show Dakota, Pawnee, and Apache scouts with the United States Army. One view includes Two Bears; another includes Lieutenant Maury Nichols, of Fort Grant, Arizona.

DATES: 1870; 1898 (some undated)

QUANTITY: 9 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-39


The collection consists of cyanotypes in a binder. The negatives (controlled by numbers on the prints) are part of a large collection begun by Thomas W. Smillie, the first official Smithsonian photographer who joined the Institution in 1870. His photographs and others acquired from various sources formed his collection.

Many of the Japanese subjects were photographed by Romyn Hitchcock (1851-1923), a Smithsonian curator of the 1880s who had studied chemistry and was concerned with foods and textiles. In 1887, Hitchcock went to Japan to become a professor of English at the Koto Chu Gakko in Osaka. A photographer of some accomplishment, he was given the photographic work of a United States solar eclipse expedition to Japan. In addition, Hitchcock undertook Ainu and Japanese studies and made the photographs during the work.

The images show tombs and mounds, ancient relics, and textile industries. The whereabouts of the photographs for the eclipse expedition have not been determined. As a historical figure, Hitchcock is worthy of some note apart from his work with the United States National Museum and activities in Japan. Publications, including several in Anthony's Photographic Bulletin, reflect his scientific interest in photography. In the early 1890s, he became a special agent for the World Columbian Exposition in China and, later, he served as an exposition official. He spent the remainder of his life as a university professor.

Hitchcock's images can be identified by their subject, field numbers on the collodion plates, and their use in several of publications. Some of his other images are in the negative collection of the Smithsonian's Office of Printing and Photographic Services. Prints from many negatives (some duplicated the prints of this lot) are in the Division of Ethnology collection of photographs and the photographic material described as part of the records of the Department of Anthropology.

The photographs made in Venezuela are mostly the work of R. M. Bartleman, of the United States legation in Caracas during the 1890s. Bartleman volunteered to make views for the Smithsonian and was accordingly furnished equipment in 1891-1892. Mainly, he took the photographs in or near Caracas. They show general views, roads, streets, military personnel, structures, and people. Additional images by Bartleman, some of which are Goajira subjects, are in the manuscript and pamphlet file in the records of the Division of Ethnology and the division's collection of photographs.

DATE: 1880-1890s

QUANTITY: 211 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-38


The photographic print is sandwiched between pieces of glass. It includes notes in Japanese about using junks for voyages, fishing, and cargo.

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-37


The collection is made up of cartes-de-visite by Okazaki Kazutada of Kyoto. The images include a stupa at the Toji temple ground; a bell at the Chion-in temple; and scroll paintings depicting the Buddha, Seisho-ko (General Kato Kiyomasa), Shinto gods that were transformations of Buddhist dieties, Buddhist disciples, and part of a text containing Buddha's last instructions.

DATE: 1894 or earlier

QUANTITY: 11 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 84-6


Included are prints. There is no further identification.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 7 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-21

JOHNSON, FREDERICK (1904- ), Papers

Frederick Johnson, of the Peabody Foundation at the Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, was a member of the Society for American Archaeology's Planning Committee when it began to evaluate Work Projects Administration (WPA) archeology. During this work, Johnson, with J.O. Brew, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., and William Duncan Strong, became concerned about archeological sites threatened by proposed dams and other public works on American rivers. Out of this concern came the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains (CRAR). The CRAR originally consisted of Brew, Johnson, Alfred V. Kidder, and William S. Webb. As liaison members, Roberts represented the Smithsonian and Strong the National Research Council. With Tennessee Valley Authority and Work Projects Administration archeology as precedence, the CRAR promoted a new government archeological program and, after it was organized, became its lobbying and support group. See the entry for the River Basin Surveys, the archeological program that resulted from CRAR activities.

The papers largely concern activities of the CRAR, for which Johnson served as secretary during the 1940s and 1950s. There are also a few documents concerning Johnson's other activities of the time.

Correspondents include John O. Brew, Fay-Cooper Cole, Paul L. Cooper, John M. Corbett, Stella L. Deignan, Fred R. Eggan, Gordon F. Ekholm, Paul Fejos, J.L. Giddings, James B. Griffin, John W. Griffin, Carl E. Guthe, A. Irving Hallowell, Henry W. Hamilton, Emil W. Haury, Jesse D. Jennings, Herbert E. Kahler, Alfred V. Kidder, Ronald F. Lee, Donald J. Lehmer, Thomas M.N. Lewis, W.F. Libby, Gordon MacGregor, J. Alden Mason, Will C. McKern, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., Reynold J. Ruppé, Frank M. Setzler, G. Hubert Smith, Robert L. Stephenson, Julian H. Steward, William Duncan Strong, Marvin E. Tong, Jr., William S. Webb, Waldo R. Wedel, Alexander Wetmore, Lloyd A. Wilford, George F. Will, and Gordon R. Willey.

DATES: 1938-1966

QUANTITY: ca. .7 linear meter (2.3 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: The material has not been formally arranged but appears to fall into the following series: (1) correspondence; (2) notes, minutes, and other material concerning meetings; (3) transcripts of meetings; (4) documents concerning the National Research Council's Committee on Basic Needs in American Archaeology, the Society for American Archaeology Planning Committee, and the SAA and Geological Society of America's Carbon 14 Committee.



See the following entry for a related set of photographs.

DATE: 1976

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-9


The collection consists of prints that show basket makers.

DATE: ca. 1976

QUANTITY: 19 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-126


Jopling trained as an anthropologist (Ph.D., University of Massachusetts) and a librarian. Mainly, she has worked as a librarian and was employed by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama.

The papers were mostly produced in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Jopling's work there involved a study of Indian weavers, the subject of her dissertation.

DATES: Late 1960s-early 1970s

QUANTITY: ca. .46 linear meter (ca. 1.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence; (2) notes; (3) miscellany; (4) sound recordings; (5) photographs

FINDING AID: James R. Glenn, Register to the Papers of Carol F. Jopling. National Anthropological Archives Smithsonian Institution, 2000.

JUDD, NEIL MERTON (1887-1976), Papers

Neil M. Judd was introduced to archeology while a student of Byron Cummings at the University of Utah. He joined his teacher's reconnaissance of White Canyon, Utah, in 1907 and Segi Valley, Arizona, and Montezuma Canyon, Utah, in 1908. In 1909, he was a member of the Cummings-William B. Douglass expedition to Rainbow Natural Bridge.

After graduating from the University of Utah in 1911, Judd joined the Smithsonian's United States National Museum as an aid in anthropology. He continued study at George Washington University and took an M.A. in 1913. In 1918, he became an assistant curator and, in 1930, curator of American archeology. He was as a meticulous curator and is remembered for his Southwest field work. Between 1915 and 1920, he carried out reconnaissance work in Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico with Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States National Museum sponsorship. In 1916 and 1917, he carried out excavations near Paragonah and in Willard County, Utah; and, later, in 1917, he directed partial restoration of Betatakin for the United States Department of the Interior.

In 1920, under National Geographic Society sponsorship, Judd began work at Pueblo Bonito and other Chaco Canyon sites that would involve him in excavations between 1921 and 1927 and further work until the 1950s. In 1923, 1928, and 1929, he dispatched expeditions to collect dendrochronological specimens to date phases of Chaco Canyon habitation. His work resulted in the publication of several articles and two volumes, The Material Culture of Pueblo Bonito, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 125, Number 1, 1954, and Pueblo Del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 138, Number 1, 1959.

For the Bureau of American Ethnology during 1929-1930, Judd surveyed by air the ancient canals of the Gila River and Salt River valleys. Sent further afield by the BAE, he investigated the "Spanish Diggings" quarry in Wyoming in 1915 and Indian burials on Wolf Creek, Russell County, Kentucky, in 1928. Later in his life, he carried on considerable correspondence with an archeological enthusiast William B. Marye, concerning Indian bridges and shell heaps in Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and North Carolina.

Judd's papers include diaries of expeditions, correspondence, field notes, notes, financial records, maps, drawings, and other documents. He also accumulated a large series of photographs mostly relating to Chaco Canyon. There is appreciable documentation relating to San Juan County, Utah; Paragonah and other sites in southern Utah; and the Walhalla Plateau in Arizona. His correspondence with Marye is also included. Photographs document many of his other activities, including expeditions under Byron Cummings. There is no material concerning Edgar L. Hweitt's 1910 expedition to Rito de los Frijoles, New Mexico, or the 1914 Fourth Quiriguaacute; Expedition to Guatemala for the Archaeological Institute of America. There is little concerning his personal life or participation in many meetings and organizations. Materials relating to his survey of canals in Arizona are separate from his papers. For documents relating to his curatorial duties, see the records of the Department of Anthropology, Division of Archeology.

Also included are field materials of some members of Judd's expeditions including Frans Blom, Karl Ruppert, and Oscar B. Walsh. A few copies of documents are by or concern Edward Palmer and relate to his archeological work in the Southwest between 1870 and 1881. Judd's collection of photographs includes images made on his own expeditions, many by himself or by National Geographic photographers O.C. Haven, Charles Martin, or E.L. Wisherd. There are also photographs made on expeditions of William Henry Jackson, Edgar A. Mearns, and Walter Hough. In addition, there is a set of prints of photographs relating to work in Chaco Canyon by the Hyde Exploring Expedition.

Correspondents include Glover M. Allen, Monroe Amsden, Bryant Bannister, James F. Breazeale, John O. Brew, Harold S. Colton, Kenneth J. Conant, Frederick V. Coville, Beatrice Danson, Richard E. Dodge, Gilbert Grosvenor, Edgar L. Hewett, Philip M. Hobler, Frederick W. Hodge, William Henry Jackson, Jean A. Jeançon, Merritt S. Johnson, John O. La Gorce, Frank McNitt, Sylvanus G. Morley, Earl H. Morris, Nels C. Nelson, Jesse L. Nusbaum, Deric O'Bryan, George H. Pepper, Frederick W. Popenoe, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., Karl Ruppert, Carl S. Scofield, Hugh L. Scott, Harry L. Shapiro, Anna O. Shepard, Watson Smith, Alfred M. Tozzer, Alexander Wetmore, and Clark Wissler.

DATES: 1870s-1970s (most 1907-1931)

QUANTITY: ca. 5.5 linear meters (18 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) "Pueblo Bonito file," 1920-1965; (2) Chaco Canyon

notebooks, and note cards, 1920s; (3) material relating to Judd's Bureau of American Ethnology expeditions between 1915 and 1920; (4) "Utah file," 1914-1936; (5) material concerning Edward Palmer, ca. 1916-1921; (6) correspondence with William B. Marye, 1932-1945; (7) miscellaneous correspondence, 1930-1975; (8) manuscripts of writings, 1923-1975; (9) miscellany, 1910-1966; (10) cartographic material; (11) artwork and photographic enlargements; (12) photographs, ca. 1874-1964 (most 1907-1931)

FINDING AID: James R. Glenn, Register to the Papers of Neil Merton Judd, National Anthropological Archives, 1982.

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