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Hoopes, a druggist of Media, Pennsylvania, apparently made the photographs on an excursion of a camera club that included A. Clark Vroman. Some of his photographs, platinum prints in this album, are similar or virtually identical to those of other club members.

Included are photographs made at Acoma, Hano, Isleta, Laguna, and the Hopi towns of Mishongnovi, Oraibi, and Sichomovi. There are also a few photographs of Navaho Indians and views of the Petrified Forest. Among the images are scenic views, portraits, scenes of domestic life, and views of ceremonies, particularly the Flute Dance at Mishongnovi and the Snake Dance at Oraibi.

DATES: August 1902.

QUANTITY: 74 prints in album

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined

FINDING AIDS: List compiled by Hoopes; descriptions in SIRIS.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 16

HOOPES, THOMAS TEMPLE (1898-1981), Papers

Thomas Temple Hoopes received his Ph.D. from New York University. During his early career, he was a curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and served as a lecturer on art at the University of Chicago. From 1936 to 1964, he was curator of the City Art Museum in St. Louis, Missouri.

Hoopes was a expert on arms and armor. His Ph.D. dissertation was on Japanese sword blades, and he published a catalog of the Japanese sword collection in the St. Louis City Art Museum. In the 1930s, he reinstalled the collection of arms and armor of the government of Austria.

The papers include writings, notes, and photographs. The great bulk concerns Japanese arms and armor, especially swords, but there are also a few photographs of arms and armor from India, Turkey, Persia, and Asia Minor.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: ca. .68 linear meter (ca. 2.25 linear feet)




The photograph shows the physical anthropologist examining the skull of a male gorilla.

DATE: ca. 1935

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-34

HOOVER, F. LOUIS (1913- ) AND LUCILLE, Cuna artwork

Hoover was an art educator, editor, and museum director with a special interest in Latin American Indians. This collection consists of photographs, maps, printed material, processed material, and pictographs of chants relating to the Cuna. Included is part of an art collection, most of which is in the Department of Anthropology specimen collection. Other material documents the artifacts.

DATES: ca. 1972

QUANTITY: .8 linear meter (ca. 2.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Published Cuna Indian material; (2) published Cuna monographs; (3) pictographic chants; (4) photographs of chants; (5) photographs of Cuna life; (6) San Blas Islands maps

FINDING AID: Draft register


The image shows a stage performance. The photographer was Jim Aycock, of the United States Department of the Interior.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81F


Hosmer was a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and taught astronomy, navigation, and geodesy there. In 1901, he was on a solar eclipse expedition in Malaya. The 10.1x12.7-centimeter (4x5-inch) dry plate negatives were made on that trip.

There appears to be two photographers. In addition to Hosmer, some photograph jackets have the name Harrison W. Smith (also of M.I.T.). The photographs are sufficiently different from the others to confirm that they are by a different person.

Except one negative made in Ceylon, all seem to have been taken in Sumatra. Included are houses and other structures, street scenes, views of mountains and vegetation; rickshaws, railraods, boats, and other transportation; markets; street scenes; musicians; a cooking pit, workmen, and "betel boys." There is also a photograph of the eclipse team.

DATE: 1902

QUANTITY: ca. 177 negatives

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-48


The album belonged to relatives of Walter Hough. Included are many photographs taken among the Hopi by A.A. Forbes. Some show a Snake Dance and Green Corn Dance. Two photographs show groups of Whites and Whites with Indians. One group includes Frederick W. Hodge and G. Wharton James. Yet another photographs shows Thomas V. Keam's house.

Mrs. Grace Carter lent the album for copying.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 21 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-15


The prints show houses of the Diomede and Marcus Lucretius.

DATE: 1872 or before

QUANTITY: 2 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-17

HOWARD, JAMES HENRI (1925-1982), Papers

James H. Howard studied at the University of Nebraska (B.A., 1949; M.A., 1950) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1957). In 1950-1953, he served as archeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum; and, in 1955-1957, he was on the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum staff. During the summer, 1957, he joined the Smithsonian's River Basin Survey. Between 1957 and 1968, he served in several capacities with the University of South Dakota, including assistant and associate professor, director of the Institute of Indian Studies (1963-1966), and director of the W.H. Over Museum (1963-1968). In 1968, he joined the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, where he achieved the rank of professor in 1970. In 1979, he was as a consultant for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

Howard's abiding interest were the peoples of North America, whom he studied both as an ethnologist and archeologist. Between 1949 and 1982, he worked with the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, Yamasee, Plains Ojibwa (or Bungi), Delaware, Seneca-Cayuga, Prairie Potawatomi of Kansas, Mississippi and Oklahoma Choctaw, Shawnee, Kickapoo, Oklahoma Seminole, and Pawnee. His interests varied from group to group. With some, he carried out general culture studies; with others, he focused on ceremonies, art, dance, or music. For some, he was interested in environmental adaptation and land use, the latter particularly for the Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Plains, Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and Ponca for which he served as consultant and expert witness in cases before the United States Indian Claims Commission. A long-time museum man, Howard was also interested in Indian dress, articles associated with ceremonies, and other items of material culture.

As an archeologist, Howard worked at Like-a-Fishhook Village, North Dakota; Spawn Mound and other sites, South Dakota; Gavin Point, Nebraska and South Dakota; Weston and Hogshooter sites, Oklahoma, and the Fortress of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. He also conducted surveys for the Lone Star Steel Company in Haskell, Latimer, LeFlore, and Pittsburg counties, Oklahoma.

To a considerable degree, the papers consist of manuscripts of articles, books, speeches, and reviews. Among these are a few unpublished items. The collection also has printed and processed copies of articles and books. Notes are generally scant, there being appreciable materials only for the Chippewa, Creek, Dakota, Seminole, and Shawnee. The chief field materials represented are sound recordings and photographs, but many of the latter are unidentified. A series of color photographs of Indian artifacts are mostly identified. Other documents include copies of papers and other research materials of colleagues. There is very little original archeological material, and that which is present concerns contract work for the Lone Star Steel Company.

Selected correspondents are Richard N. Adams, James H. Allen, Mary Lee Barksdale, Jack Battise, Leonard W. Blake, Ted J. Brasser, Gene Bunge, Richard Cavendish, James A. Clifton, Charlie Cree, Jr., E. Mott Davis, Nora Thompson Dean, Charles R. De Busk, Ray DeMallie, Sam J. Ervin, Jr., Norman Feder, Christian F. Feest, Stephen E. Feraca, Ray Fogelson, Louis Garcia, J. Heyink, William Hodge, Frances L. Horn, Angelo Iadarola, Michael G. Johnson, Herbert C. Kraft, Gertrude Kurath, Victoria Lindsey-Levine, Nancy O. Lurie, Claude W. Medford, Bruno Nettl, Morris Opler, J. Tony Paredes, John H. Peterson, Nelson A. Reed, Karl H. Schleisser, John L. Smith, Leslie Spier, William C. Sturtevant, John R. Swanton, James L. Swauger, Colin Turnbull, C.A. Weslager, John Witthoft, and Alan R. Woolworth.

DATES: ca. 1951-1982 (a few later items have been added)

QUANTITY: ca. 2.6 linear meters (ca. 8.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Letters sent, 1961-1982; (2) letters received, 1951-1982; (3) notes; (4) manuscripts of writings by Howard; (5) research proposals and related material, ca. 1965-1982; (6) printed and processed material: miscellany; (7) printed and processed material: publications bb Howard; (8) printed and process material: clippings regarding Indians; (9) printed and processed material: clipping about Howard; (10) printed and process material: reviews of books by Howard; (11) maps; (12) miscellany; (13) memorabilia; (14) sound recordings; (15) miscellaneous photographs; (16) photographs of artifacts; (17) drawings and other artwork

FINDING AID: Folder list

HRDLICKA, ALEŠ (1869-1943), Papers

Aleš Hrdlicka was born in Bohemia and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane in Middletown. There, besides other duties, he began to study the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has been called "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, preparing for a research appointment with the New York Pathological Institute, Hrdlicka went to Paris to study with Leon Manouvrier. After he returned to America, he worked with the Pathological Institute and met G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. Hrdlicka also came to the attention of Frederic W. Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumara, Huichol, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. At Putnam's requrest, Hrdlicka also examined controversial skeletal material from Trenton, New Jersey, and Lansing, Kansas. With this and the Mexican expedition, Hrdlicka came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he became the head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

In his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlicka's contributions to American physical anthropology were great. His travels and field studies alone were impressive and important in his becoming an authority on the migration of man, human evolution, and the variations of man's physical form. In 1905, he returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he investigated the incidence of tuberculosis among several Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinaielt, Hupa, and Mohave. In 1909, with a Metropolitan Museum of Art expedition, he was in Egypt to study living Egyptians and remains of past populations. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed other anthropologists in South and East Africa; St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; the Philippines; eastern Siberia; and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white Americans of longtime ancestral residence in the United States. In 1918, he surveyed ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he was in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

With much of the Army Medical Museum skeletal collection already transferred to the Smithsonian, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. His study of this material, field work, and study of specimens in other museums yielded over three hundred publications. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from forensic examinations to assistance needed to interpret immigration laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he advised government officials on postwar policies toward certain national groups.

In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force for founding the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and was its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthropological Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. In 1917, he was secretary of the National Research Council Committee on Anthropology; and, in 1918, he was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Hrdlicka's papers comprise a variety of materials but consist largely of correspondence, manuscripts of writings, physical anthropological tables and notes, and photographs. The material reflects his many professional interests and activities except the earliest, for which the documents burned. Since he apparently made little distinction between his official and private activities, the papers incorporate many official records of the Division of Physical Anthropology. This and other material show his wide-ranging contacts with anthropologists, other physical anthropologists, and those in related sciences. Yet other material is personal and includes such documents as those relating to Hrdlicka's private property and correspondence with members of his family. Notably present is correspondence with his first wife, Marie Strickler. There are also documents that concern Hrdlicka's continued ties with Czechoslovakia (much in Czech), including his interest in Czech-American organizations, the scientific development of Czechoslovakia, and concern for its political fate, especially during World War II. A few of Hrdlicka's papers are included in the series of numbered manuscripts. Much of his photographic collection is in the Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Photographs of Indians and the collection of the Division of Physical Anthropology.

List of correspondents

DATES: 1892-1943

QUANTITY: ca. 41 linear meters (ca. 133 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1889-1940; (2) early personal correspondence, 1883-1917; (3) correspondence, 1888-1966; (4) newsclippings and printed matter, 1893-1953; (5) financial papers, 1910-1943; (6) journeys to the southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1935; (7) anthropometric measurements on Indians, 1904-1905; (8) journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917; (9) Florida survey, 1918-1927; (10) Alaska archeological expeditions, 1907-1938; (11) bone studies, 1890s-1940s; (12) Panama-California Exposition expeditions, 1912-1914; (13) journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909; (14) journey to South American in 1910, 1910-1911; (15) journey to the Far East in 1920, 1915-1930; (16) journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe in 1925; (17) old Americans, 1914-1930; (18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1925-1935; (19) early man studies, 1906-1930; (20) European ethnic history, 1908-1938; (21) miscellaneous research notes, 1887-1942; (22) manuscripts of writings, 1901-1944; (23) writings by other authors, 1877-1942; (24) Anthropometry, 1882-1947; (25) From My Journeys, 1898-1938; (26) American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1917-1942; (27) American Assocation of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1930; (28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928; (29) Institute of Population, 1942; (30) Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, 1913-1943; (31) lecture notes, 1920-1932; (32) maps and charts, 1900-1932; (33) miscellany, 1890s-1970s; (34) index cards; (35) bibliographic index; (36) physical anthropology folios; (37) photographs, 1887-1944.

FINDING AID: Register by Robert Lynn Montgomery


Aleš Hrdlicka, a Smithsonian physical anthropologist, made many photographs during his frequent trips. In addition, Hrdlicka was an active collector of images by other photographers that he used for scientific purposes and to illustrate his publications. Those who worked under Hrdlicka also made many photographs. Most of the collection is part of his papers, or they are in the Division of Physical Anthropology and the BAE-USNM Photographs of American Indians and Other Subjects. This photographic lot was turned over to the Smithsonian's central photographic laboratory, possibly many decades ago, and was returned to the Department of Anthropology only in 1973. It has since been a separate collection.

The lot, mostly glass and film negatives, centers around the 1912-1914 work of Hrdlicka and his assistants for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego. Included are images of Oklahoma Apache, Dakota, Hopi, Navaho, Omaha, Osage, and Pueblo Indians. Many photographs were made in Urga in Mongolia. Mostly, the images are physical anthropological full-face and profile portraits ("mug shots"). There are views of exhibits in the United States National Museum and copies of the work of other photographers. The full-length Oklahoma Apaches are in native dress. The southwestern photographs show structures, a dance, and various activities of Pueblo Indians.

In addition, some negatives are of physical anthropological bone specimens. Some negatives show items from the collection of the Royal College of Surgeons in London. Hrdlicka made others in 1917, and they show specimens in the United States National Museum and the American Museum of Natural History.

DATES: Most 1912-1917 (some of uncertain date)

QUANTITY: Possibly 400 items

ARRANGEMENT: The photographs are arranged generally by place or tribe but, otherwise, they are unarranged.


CALL NUMBER: Photographic lot 73-26B


William E. Hughes was a Philadelphia physician who accompanied Robert E. Peary on his 1891 expedition to Greenland. A scrapbook and some lantern slides relate to that expedition. Other material includes motion picture films that show family activities in Philadelphia and motion picture films and lantern slides that show views made during tours of Argentina, Austria, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland, Fiji, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Manuchuria, Mexico, New Brunswick, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Russia, Samoa, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad, Turkey, Venezuela, the West Indies, Yugoslavia, and several locations in the United States including the Adirondacks; Washington, D.C.; the Grand Canyon, Maine; Montana; New Mexico; New Jersey; Virginia; and Yellowstone Park. The photographs include urban views, tradesmen, and landscapes. A few letters accompany the photographs.

The motion picture film is in the Human Studies Film Archives.

DATES: 1891-1931

QUANTITY: ca. 2800 items

ARRANGEMENT: By type and country

CALL NUMBER: Photographic lot 75-18


The pen-and-ink drawings are unidentified. They were apparently prepared for a publication. The dominant themes are human and animal figures. Some are apparently from petroglyphs. Other drawings are repetitive and may represent pottery designs.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 12 drawings

HUNT, WOLF ROBE (1905-1977), Papers

Wolf Robe (Wayne Henry) Hunt was an Acoma artist, craftsman, businessman, showman, and anthropological informant. Hunt also traveled abroad in programs sponsored by the United States Department of Commerce. Some material concerns Acoma culture. Drawings by Hunt are among the series of numbered manuscripts.

DATES: ca. 1930-1978

QUANTITY: ca. 3 linear meters (ca. 9.8 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Incoming letters, 1930-1978; (2) outgoing letters, n.d.; (3) clippings, n.d.; (4) biographical sketches, n.d.; (5) address books and business cards, n.d.; (6) manuscripts and notebooks, n.d.; (7) scrapbooks, n.d.; (8) travel and financial papers, n.d.; (9) printed materials, n.d.; (10) photographs

FINDING AID: Draft register

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 5

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