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Lora Hadley was a United States government health worker in the Southwest who developed an enthusiasm for Indians. The photographs show scenes at Taos and the Puye ruins. There is also a Christian grave in northern Mexico. There is much annotation on the backs.

DATES: 1910-1920

QUANTITY: 7 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 84


The photographs are not identified. Hall, however, was from Colorado Springs, and the images may be of that area.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 2 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-41

HALPERN, JOEL MARTIN (1929- ), Papers

Joel M. Halpern was educated at the University of Michigan (B.A. in history, 1950) and Columbia University (Ph.D. in anthropology, 1956). He was a field service officer with the International Cooperation Administration Community Development Division in Laos, 1956-1958, and a consultant to the RAND Corporation in Laos, 1959-1961. He was on the faculty of the University of California at Los Angeles, 1958-1963, Brandeis University, 1963-1965, and the Unversity of Massachusetts at Amherst, 1967-1993.

Halpern's field experience includes research on Swedish Laplanders, Alaska Eskimos, Serb villagers, Bosnians, Indian community development sites, Loatians, Bulgarians, and Jewish ethnic communities in western Massachusetts. Halpern is a highly skilled photographer, and the collection includes many photographs.

QUANTITY: ca. 100 feet

FINDING AID: Container list


Halstead was an artist and art critic. These photographs reflect his interest in so-called primitive art, including American Indian art, especially by Southwest tribes. Included are samples of pottery and pottery designs from several historic Pueblo groups and from prehistoric sites. Some are labeled as samples of Nampeyo's art, and one shows María Martínez, of San Ildefonso, and samples of her pottery. There are also several photographs of kachinas. Other American Indian subjects include an Arapaho camp; basketry plaque by the Hopi Doris Sekeva; Eskimo mask by Anthony Pushruk; Navaho sand painting; a group of Navahos at Gallup, New Mexico; Peruvian spinners; a Seneca cornhusk mask; and a Wichita grass hut. Non-American subjects include an Australian Aborigine peeling eucalyptus bark, Aborigine bark artwork, and Benin bronzes. Many images are of specimens or copies of photographs at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Many photographs are incompletely identified or not identified at all.

The photographs are from the Halstead papers at the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: ca. 79 prints, 3 thirty-five-millimeter proof sheets, and 25 negatives.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-43


The two prints provide a comparison of students in native costume upon arrival and the same students in school uniforms eighteen months later.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 2 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-9


The Handbook of South American Indians grew from efforts of the National Research Council Division of Anthropology and Psychology. In 1932, when Robert H. Lowie was committee chairman, Baron Erland Nordenskiöld agreed to edit the work. Shortly afterwards, Nordenskiöld died. In 1934, an NRC conference was held to discuss the project again, and the Smithsonian Institution was urged to sponsor the work. Efforts to secure funding followed, but they were unsuccessful. In 1938, Congress began to consider legislation to promote United States-Latin American cooperation, and the Handbook was included in the plans. Although funds were not finally approved until 1940, during 1938-1929 the Smithsonian went ahead with a program. When funds were available, they came through the Department of State's Interdepartmental Committee.

In 1939, Julian H. Steward was designated editor of the Handbook of South American Indians. Initially he worked directly under the Bureau of American Ethnology, whose staff he had joined in 1938. In 1943, he became the director of the Institute for Social Anthropology, an autonomous unit of the BAE, and from that time the Handbook was under the Institute. During 1940, Lowie and Alfred Métraux came to Washington to help with the handbook; and, in 1941, Métraux joined the staff as assistant editor, continuing in that position until 1945. Gordon R. Willey also temporarily joined the staff. In addition, the project gained cooperation from around a hundred experts from the United States, Latin American countries, and Europe to prepare chapters and provide advice.

In 1946, although some parts of the six-volume Handbook (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143) were yet to appear, most work was completed. Steward felt free to leave for a position at Columbia University.

The material consists mainly of administrative and reference documents, correspondence, reports, proposals, and manuscripts of writings. Some manuscripts are in a form different from that published. Most illustrations have not been located.

Correspondents include Erwin H. Ackerknecht, John E. Anelim, Ada d'Aloja, Radames A. Altieri, Francisco de Aparicío, Herbert Baldus, Andrés Barbero, Homer G. Barnett, Ralph L. Beals, Howard W. Beers, Ivan Belaieff, Ruth F. Benedict, Wendell C. Bennett, Guillermo Tell Bertoni, Junius B. Bird, John J. Buoncristiani, Douglas S. Byers, Salvador Canals Frau, Eduardo Casanova, Oscar L. Chapman, Charles W. Collier, Donald Collier, John Collier, John M. Cooper, Fred R. Eggan, J.M.B. Farfán, Paul Fejos, George M. Foster, Jr., Joaquin Frenguelli, Manuel Gamio, Pedro García Valdés, J. Eugenio Garro, Enrique de Gaudía, Edward W. Gifford, Raymond M. Gilmore, John P. Gillin, Irving Goldman, James B. Griffin, Alfred I. Hallowell, Robert F. Heizer, Karl O. Henckel, Gregorio Hernández de Alba, Melville J. Herskovits, Ernesto Herzog, George Herzog, Sister M. Inez Hilger, Harry Hoijer, Donald Horton, Adolfo de Hostos, George D. Howard, José Imbelloni, Frederick Johnson, Paul Kirchhoff, Alfred L. Kroeber, George Kubler, R. Weston La Barre, Rafael Larco Hoyle, Edwin H. Lauriault, M.L. Leap, Henri Lehmann, John Leighly, Claude Lévi-Strauss, William Lipkind, Samuel K. Lothrop, Robert H. Lowie, Ernest E. Maes, Fernando Marques Miranda, J. Alden Mason, Theodore D. McCown, Philip Ainsworth Means, Betty J. Meggers, Alfred Métraux, Bernard Mishkin, Henry A. Moe, George P. Murdock, John V. Murra, Curt Nimuendajú, Lila M. O'Neale, Sergio E. Ortiz, Cornelius Osgood, Willard Z. Park, John H. Provinse, Robert Redfield, Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Frederick Richardson, Paul Rivet, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Irving Rouse, John H. Rowe, Carl O. Sauer, Donald Scott, Leslie Spier, Elsie V. Steedman, Morris Steggerda, T. Dale Stewart, Matthew W. Stirling, Doris Stone, David B. Stout, William Duncan Strong, Julio C. Tello, Harry S. Tschopik, Jr., George C. Vaillant, Luis E. Valcárcel, Charles W. Wagley, Bella Weitzner, Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, and Leslie A. White.

DATES: 1934-1947

QUANTITY: ca. 4.1 meters (ca. 13.75 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Administrative and reference file, 1934-1947; (2) correspondence, 1939-1947; (3) manuscripts of writings, early 1940s

FINDING AID: Draft inventory


Hansen lived in Fort Myers, Florida, where his father had been a physician for the Seminoles. The younger Hansen continued close connections with the tribe, acting as benefactor and one-time government agent the Big Cypress Indian Reservation. Apparently after Hansen died in 1945, Mitchell, a supporter, acquired his photographs and added some of his own to the collection. In 1947-1948, the Bureau of American Ethnology arranged to copy the collection. The originals were returned to Mitchell.

Most images have little or no caption data. Many are portraits that show Seminole dress. There are also many views of camps and some show boats, hunting, gathering, food preparation, and sewing.

DATE: 1914 (?); 1930-1931 (some undated)

QUANTITY: 401 copy prints plus negatives and extra prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 62


The prints, negatives, and slides were made by a Smithsonian photographer. They are of a Turtle Mountain Chippewa in fancy dance costume. At the time he posed, Harding was a participant in the National Anthropological Archives' Native American Cultural Resources Training Program.

DATE: 1977

QUANTITY: 19 items

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 78-27


The prints, mainly of Kiowa subjects, are from the Bureau of American Ethnology collection. Notes in Harrington's hand indicate that they were probably used to collect information from informants. Most photographs by or collected by Harrington are in his collection of papers.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 86 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 26

HARRINGTON, JOHN PEABODY (1884-1961), Papers

John P. Harrington was educated at Stanford University (B.A., 1905), and the universities of California, Leipzig, and Berlin. Under the influence of Alfred L. Kroeber and Pliny E. Goddard, he became interested in American Indian languages during an undergraduate summer session at the University of California. Early in his career while teaching in high school, he devoted spare time to field work among the Chumash, Yuma, and Mojave. In 1909-1915, he was ethnologist at the School of American Archeology at Santa Fe and studied languages of Picuris, Jemez, and Zuni. In 1915, he joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology and continued there until he retired in 1954. Afterwards, he returned to California where he continued his research.

With the BAE, Harrington devoted his life to the preservation of American Indian languages. His continuing interest were the Indians of California, especially the Chumash and Costanoan groups. His study of Southwestern languages was almost as enduring. His interest in the relationship between Navaho and Northern Athapascan languages eventually directed his field work to the Northwest Coast and Alaska where he recorded Aleut and Indian languages. He investigated Latin American languages largely through travelers to North America. In addition, Harrington studied Plains Indian languages, especially Cheyenne and Kiowa, and he was familiar with many other languages of the American Indian as well as several of Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Harrington's papers include notes, copies of historical documents, correspondence, sound recordings, cartographic materials, writings, photographs, and botanical specimens. Mostly, they concern California, southwestern, and northwestern tribes and include linguistic, ethnological, archeological, and historical materials. Harrington was also concerned with general linguistics, sign language, writing systems, writing machines, and sound recording machines. In addition, his papers include material on New World Spanish and some Old World languages. Among the many writings that Harrington outlined, partially completed, or even completed but never published, are not only materials about anthropological subjects but also histories, ranging from a biography of Geronimo to material on the development of the typewriter.

Harrington seems sometimes to have worked within fairly firm formats, this especially being true when he was "rehearing" material, that is, using an informant to verify and correct the work of earlier researchers. Often, however, the interviews with informants (and this seems to have been the case even with some "rehearings") appear free form, with considerable intertwining of subjects. Nevertheless, certain themes frequently appear in Harrington's work, including annotated vocabularies concerning flora and fauna, topography, history and biography, kinship, cosmology (including tribal astronomy), religion, philosophy, and names and observations concerning neighboring tribes, sex and age divisions, material culture, legends, and songs. The fullness of such material seems to have been limited only by the time Harrington had to spend and the knowledge of his informants.

Noteworthy in the Harrington collection is a very large collection of photographs. Although some are by professional photographers, many are snapshots made by Harrington. Often these are closely related to his studies and include photographs of informants and their families and views of the areas where they lived. Also noteworthy is a collection of sound recordings made by Harrington and his field assistants. These include "rehearings," music, stories, and biographical and historical accounts.

List of correspondents

DATES: 1907-1959 (some earlier)

QUANTITY: ca. 208 linear meters (ca. 683 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Papers relating to Alaska/Northwest Coast, including (1) Aleut; (2) Tlingit/Eyak; (3) Northern Athapascan (Beaver, Carrier, Chipewyan, Sarsi, Sekani, Cree); (4) Nicola/Thompson; (5) Lummi /Nespelem; (6) Duwamish; (7) Chimakum/ Clallam/Makah/Quileute; (8) Quinault/ Chehalis/Cowlitz/Yakima/ Chinook; (9) Chinook Jargon; (10) "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai"; (11) Tillamook; (12) Alsea/ Siuslaw/Coos; (13) Southwest Oregon Athapascan (Chasta Costa, Chetco, Upper Coquille, "Gold Beach," Smith River, Tolowa, Tututni, Upper Umpqua), (14) Galice/Applegate; (15) Takelma; (16) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to northern and central California, including (17) Klamath; (18) Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; (19) Coast Yuki/Northern and Central Pomo/Wappo; (20) Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; (21) Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; (22) Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; (23) Chimariko/Hupa; (24) Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; (25) Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko; (26) Costanoan (Chocheño, Mutsun, Rumsen); (27) Esselen; (28) Salinan (Antoniano, Migueleño); (29) Yokuts (Chunut, Tachi, Wikchamni, Yawdanchi, Yawelmani, Koyeti); papers relating to southern California and the Basin area, including (30) Chumash (Barbareño, Cruzeño, Ineseño, Obispeño, Purisimeño, Ventureño); (31) Tubatulabal; (32) Kitanemuk; (33) Serrano; (34) Gabrielino; (35) Fernandeño; (36) Cahuilla; (37) Luiseño/Juaneño; (38) Cupeño; (39) Chemehuevi; (40) Mohave; (41) Diegueño (United States and Baja California); (42) Paipai/Kiliwi; (43) Ute/Paiute/Shoshoni; (44) general and miscellaneous materials; papers relating to the Southwest, including (45) Apache and Kiowa Apache; (46) Navaho; (47) Hopi; (48) Zuni; (49) Acoma/ Laguna/Santo Domingo; (50) Cochiti; (51) Jemez; (52) Isleta/Isleta del Sur/ Piro; (53) Picuris; (54) Taos; (55) Tewa; (56) general and miscellaneous materials; papers relating to the Plains, including (57) Kiowa; (58) Mandan/Hidatsa/ Crow; (59) Caddo/Pawnee/ Wichita/Comanche; (60) Siouan; papers relating to the Northeast and Southeast, including (61) Algonquian; (62) Shawnee/Peoria; (63) Western Abnaki/Eastern Abnaki/Passamaquoddy; (64) Massachusett; (65) Mahican/Stockbridge; (66) Northern Iroquoian; (67) Wyandot; (68) Delaware (Oklahoma and Ontario); (69) Powhatan; (70) Cherokee; (71) Creek/Seminole/Alibamu/Koasati/Choctaw; (72) general and miscellanous materials; papers relating to Mexico and Central and South America, including (73) Pimo/Papago/Seri/Opata; (74) Nahuatl; (75) Quiche; (76) Cakchiquel; (77) Yacatec; (78) Cuna; (79) papers relating to South American Indian languages (Awishira, Aymara, Campa, Cholon, Cocama, Guarani, Jivaro, Mataco, Miranya, Otomi, Quechua, Uru-Puquina; Witoto, Yagua, Yunka, and Zaparo); (80) general and miscellaneous materials; notes and writings on special linguistic studies, including (81) supplemental material on Alaska/Northwest Coast (Aleut, Tlingit/Eyak, Duwamish, Chimakum/ Clallam/Makah/Quileute, Alsea/Siuslaw/Coos/ Southwest Oregon Athabascan, general and miscellaneous material, writings, and notes and writing collected from others); (82) supplemental material on northern and central California (Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole, Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok, Southern (Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok, Plains Miwok, Karok/Shasta/Konomihu, Chimariko/Hupa, Wailaki, Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana, Yana/ Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko, Costanoan, Esselen, Salinan, Yokuts, general and miscellaneous materials, notes relating to collections of artifacts, notes relating to mission records, notes from conversations, notes from secondary sources, notes and writing collected from others); (83) supplemental material on Southern California/Basin (notes on collections of artifacts, notes on music, notes from conversations, notes on secondary sources); (84) supplemental material on the Southwest (Apache, Hopi, Zuni, Tewa, general and miscellaneous material); (85) supplemental material on the Plains (general and miscellaneous materials, notes and writings collected from others); (86) supplemental material on the Northeast/Southeast (Algonquian, Shawnee/ Peoria, Western Abnaki/Eastern Abnaki/Passamaquoddy, Massachusett, Northern Iroquoian, Delaware, Cree/Seminole/Alibamu/Koasati/Choctaw, general and miscellaneous materials); (87) supplemental material on Mexico/ Central America/South America (Pima/Papago/Seri/Opata, Nahuatl, Cakchiquel, Yucatec, Cuna, South American Languages [Arawak, Carib, Jivaro, Quechua], general and miscellaneous materials); (88) miscellaneous linguistic and ethnographic notes; (89) linguistic questionnaires; (90) bibliographic and library-related materials; (91) memoranda prepared in response to letters of inquiry; (92) papers relating to nonAmerican languages; (93) papers relating to Arabic origins of Spanish words; (94) papers relating to personal names; (95) papers relating to state names, province names, and other geographical names; (96) papers relating to the Siberian origin of the American Indians; (97) papers relating to lectures; (98) papers relating to phonetics; (99) miscellaneous writings on various linguistic topics; (100) major writings on linguistics; correspondence, including (101) incoming letters; (102) outgoing letters; material not microfilmed, including (103) financial records; (104) personal records; (105) poetry; (106) newspaper clippings; (107) printed material/reprints/photostats/microfilm; (108) maps; (109) photographs; (110) sound recordings; (111) botanical specimens; (112) items pulled from the microfilm series

FINDING AIDS: Elaine L. Mills et al., The Papers of John Peabody Harrington, 1907-1957, 9 volumes, Kraus International Publications, 1981-1991 (a guide to a microfilm issued by Kraus International Publications); Gerrianne Schaad, The Photographs of John P. Harrington in the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution (catalog accompanying the microfilm), National Anthropological Archives, 1994.

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