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GALLAGHER, ORVOELL ROGER (1916-1975), Papers

O. Roger Gallagher was educated at the University of California at Berkeley, London School of Economics (M.A., 1951), and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1955). He taught at New York University from 1954 to 1959 and at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, New York, from 1959 until his death.

The Gallagher papers consist mainly of materials relating to his major field work. In 1949-1950 and in 1951, he investigated social arrangements, especially kinship, in the rural village of Civaux in the Department of Vienne in central France. In 1953-1954, he joined the International Public Opinion Research, Inc., which was under contract with the United States Air Force Human Resources Research Institute. The company sent him back to France to study relations between the people of Châteauroux, a small city in the Department of Indre, and the personnel of a nearby American airbase. The great bulk of Gallagher's material relating to France resulted from the work at Civaux. Only a few writings, including his Ph.D. dissertation, reflect the work at Châteauroux.

In 1962-1963, Gallagher was at Ranchi University, in the state of Bihar, in central India, on a National Science Foundation Science Faculty Fellowship. From there, he carried out studies in the village of Makhmandro among the Oraon, a Dravidian group. Again, his focus was on social relations. For this, he mainly interviewed laborers.

In 1951, early in Gallagher's career, he worked for the Science Museum in St. Paul, Minnesota, attempting to establish criteria for identifying tribal origins and dates for American Indian beaded artwork. A very few materials from this study appear in the collection. Also represented by a few items, mostly manuscripts of writings, is Gallagher's interest in isolated communities of northern Saratoga County, New York.

DATES: 1951-1973

QUANTITY: .5 linear meter (1.75 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Material relating to the study of French communities, including (1) notebooks concerning Civaux, 1949-1951; (2) notes concerning Civaux, ca. 1949-1951; (3) manuscripts by O.R. Gallagher, 1950s; (4) miscellany, 1950-1973; (5) printed and processed material, 1951-1957; material relating to the study of an Indian community, including (6) notebooks, 1962-1963; (7) notes, 1962-1963; (8) maps; (9) articles by O.R. Gallagher, 1960s; (10) miscellany; material relating to the study of American Indian beaded art, including (11) papers, ca. 1951; other papers, including (12) writings.

FINDING AID: Folder list


Stephen Gambaro, a photographer, and his wife, a Cherokee sculptor, operated Via Gambaro, an Indian art gallery in Washington, D.C. The collection of copy prints consists of images Gambaro made before he took up photography as a profession. At the time, he was in military service and stationed in Alaska. Shown are people at Akhiok, Kodiak Island.

More recently, Gambaro takes photographs as he travels to Indian communities around the United States. He also makes photographs in Washington of Indian friends, artists, and craftsmen whom he represents. Such images make up Photo Lot 80-37 (see next entry).

DATE: 1940s

QUANTITY: 35 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-33


See preceding entry for information about Gambaro.

The collection includes prints, a poster, and a catalog. The photographs are mostly portraits of Indian artists, craftsmen, and political leaders. Included are Dwight Billedaux (Blackfoot), Earl Biss (Crow), Archie Blackowl, Sr. (Comanche), Ada E. Deer (Menominee), Larry Desjarlais (Chippewa), Brummet Echohawk (Pawnee), Stephen Gonyea (Onondaga), La Donna Harris (Comanche), Valjean Hessing (Choctaw), Allan C. Houser (Apache), John Kaskaske (Kickapoo), King Kuka (Blackfoot), Sarah MacRay (Navaho), Encarnación Peña (Cochiti), Elsie Peshlakai (Navaho), Victor Runnels (Dakota), Linda Russell (Apache/Pawnee), Bert D. Seaborn (Cherokee), Johnny Tiger, Jr. (Creek/Seminole), George Watchetaker ("Woogee"; Comanche), W. Richard West, Sr. (Cheyenne), and Marian Wolf (Kiowa).

DATE: 1970-1980

QUANTITY: 45 items

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-37


The photographs, 30.5x38.1 centimeters (11x14 inches) and 40.6x49.5 centimeters (16x19.5 inches), were for an exhibit. Included is a reproduction of an announcement, dated April 3, 1969, by the Cora governor concerning the observances. Notes on some photographs relate them to descriptions in Fernando Bernítez, Los indios de México, 1970. Also included is a booklet, Semana Santa entre los Mitos Indígenas Coras, which includes text from Bernítez's book.

DATE: 1969

QUANTITY: 80 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-6


Helen Hamilton Gardener was a writer, feminist, and member of the Civil Service Commission. The collection of prints, negatives, and lantern slides was probably formed while the newly married Gardener was on a world cruise. Some items were commercially produced. Other photographs may have been taken by the collector. Areas covered include Japan, Corsica, Egypt, Europe, Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Malaya (Singapore), and Africa. Included are views of cities, structures, portraits, and miscellaneous activities.

DATES: ca. 1906

QUANTITY: ca. 1500 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 98


The description of Garner's photographic collection, below, provides a brief summary of his career. John P. Harrington, planning to write a biography of Lynch, acquired the papers (and probably the photographs) from Garner's son. The papers, which include annotations and documents by Harrington, once formed part of Harrington's own papers. They were separated out when it was decided to omit them from the microfilm publication of the Harrington papers.

DATE: 1889-1921; 1941

QUANTITY: .9 linear meter (ca. 3 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Diary, January 1905-February 1906; (2) clippings, 1899-1920; (3) outgoing letters, 1892-1919; (4) incoming letters; (5) writings, 1889-1921; (6) chimpanzee mating records, n.d.; (7) financial papers, 1904-1908; (8) legal papers, 1892-1920; (9) maps; (10) miscellany; (11) biographer's papers, 1941; (12) photographs

FINDING AID: Draft register


Richard Lynch Garner was a pioneer student of primate behavior whose studies began in 1884, after he had pursued careers as a teacher and a businessman. An excursion to a zoo convinced him that monkeys communicate with one another through their vocalizations. Soon after he set about investigations on which he would spend the rest of his life. His initial studies were carried on in zoos. To pursue them scientifically, he employed recordings to study the sounds carefully and to test reactions of one group of monkeys to the sounds of other groups.

In 1892, he set out on the first of many trips to the Ogawai River area in central Africa to find apes in their natural habitat. After a time, he reversed the situation of zoos and placed himself in an elevated cage in wild areas where chimpanzees and gorillas lived and his studies expanded into observations of general primate behavior. He acquired chimpanzees and conducted experiments in educating them, including attempts to teach them to recognize English words. While in Africa, he also observed the people there and wrote articles about their customs and circumstances.

The lantern slides include a few charts comparing the mental capabilities of apes and man. Most photographs show apes, apparently those used by Garner in his experiments, and views made in Africa that include people and settlements. One image shows the cage in which Garner placed himself. None are captioned.

DATE: Probably between 1892 and ca. 1910

QUANTITY: 49 slides



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-58A


Albert S. Gatschet was educated in his native Switzerland and in Germany (University of Bern [Ph.D., 1892]); University of Berlin. Early in his career, he pursued antiquarian research in European museums and wrote scientific articles. Among his interests was the etymology of Swiss place names. After coming to the United States in 1869, he worked on the American Indian vocabularies collected by Oscar Loew, of the United States Geological Survey West of the 100th Meridian (Wheeler Survey). Eventually John Wesley Powell employed him as an ethnologist with the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. When it was founded in 1879, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology and continued there until he retired in 1905.

For the Powell Survey, Gatschet researched the ethnography of the Klamath in Oregon and the Modoc in Oklahoma. He also collected material and investigated special problems for Powell's classification of the American Indian languages north of Mexico, working on languages of the Southeast, including groups forcibly settled in the southern Plains. He not only visited well known tribes but also searched out small groups, including the Biloxi and Tunica. He also worked with the Natchez, Tonkawa, Chitimacha, and Atakapa in the United States and Comecrudo and several other small groups in northern Mexico. Through library research, he studied the Timucua, Karankara, and the Beothuk. During the later part of his career, Gatschet was assigned comparative work on all the Algonquian languages. Although the project was never completed, he collected much about many of the languages, especially Peoria, Miami, and Shawnee. In addition, he worked with members of diverse tribes of the eastern United States.

The collection is composed of corrected proofs of the dictionary and texts of Klamath Indians of Southwestern Oregon, 1890, and a corrected proof and copy of Ortsetymologische Forschungen als Beiträge zu einer Toponomastik der Schweiz, volume 1, 1867. Few of the corrections were incorporated in the final printings. In addition, there is a copy of Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages with Tuscarora, Wyandot, Seneca, and Caughnawaga words and a tapa-cloth-bound dictionary of Samoan, not in Gatschet's hand.

There are several certificates and other formal documents from Bern, visiting cards, and two letters. Most pertain to members of Gatschet's family in Switzerland. Most are in German script.

A photographic collection includes a portrait of Gatschet dated 1906. Most other images are of Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Dakota, Kiowa, and Navaho Indians by J.N. Choate and C.C. Stotz. There are also prints from negatives in the archive's Glass Negative Collection that include Mandan, Miami, Osage, and Shoshoni. Gatschet and James Mooney annotated some photographs.

Most of Gatschet's scientific papers are in the numbered manuscripts.

DATES: 1828-1906

QUANTITY: .3 linear meter (1 linear foot)




The copy prints were made from originals in the Dukes County Historical Society, Edgartown, Massachusetts. Most are portraits. Many are unidentified.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 77 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-51

GEARING, FREDERICK O. (1922- ), Notes

The material is limited to Gearing's research on eighteenth and early nineteenth century Cherokee Indians. Included is information about towns and individual Cherokees that comes from library sources.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: ca. 1 linear meter (ca. 3.25 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Notes; (2) microfilm; (3) bibliography



The album contains photographs of Genin's Mexican natural history collection. Included are (using titles from the

pages of the album) images of pipes and censers; a diorite yoke from Jalapa; a miscellany of arms, various tools, urns, vases, and idols, some Aztec and some Huichol and Tarhumara; Zapotec artifacts; Matlatlzinca objects; objects from different regions of Mexico (some Huichol and Tarahumara); objects of terra cotta, jade, and stone; statuettes from Zoatlaacuten and Ixtlaacuten; statuettes from a cave in Nayarit; various objects from Ixtlaacuten; statuettes of musicians and musical instruments; a drummer from the mountains of Nayarit; a pan pipes player from Nayarit; a wooden instrument from Hildalgo; ancient musical instruments; modern musical instruments; terra cotta portraits of Huichol; terra cotta Spanish objects; modern Mexican knick-knacks and other objects; coins and medals; and skulls from Guerrero and the Valley of Mexico.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 album of 37 photographs

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-25


Included are copy prints and thirty-five-millimeter copy negatives. Many images are stereoscopic views and both front and backs of the mounts have been copied.

Many photographs are individual or group portraits and show dress and body decoration. Others are camp scenes. Several were taken on T.O. Selfridge's Darien Expedition, 1870-1871. Others are Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, and Arapaho prisoners at Fort Marion, Florida, during the 1870s. Included are views of dances, dwellings, and other structures, Indian horses, domestic life, and transportation. The non-Indian subjects include officers and noncommissioned officers of Company F, New York State Volunteers; John A. Logan; and Frederick Douglass.

Tribes included are Apache, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Dakota, Hano, Kickapoo, Modoc, Navaho, Paiute, Sarcee, Taos, Tuscarora, Tusuque, Ute, Winnebago, Yuma, and Zuni.

Photographers and/or photographic publishers represented are Alvord, Kellogg and Campbell; George Barker; E.O. Beaman; G.C. Bennett; Henry H. Bennett; Charles Bierstadt; Boyd and Brass; Henry Brown; Caswell and Day; William Caswell; Central Pacific Railroad; D.B. Chase; Continent Stereoscopic Company; W.R. Cross; O.S. Goff; George H. Harris; Frank Jay Haynes; Truman W. Ingersoll; William Henry Jackson; W.H. Jacoby; James Jones; J.H. Kent; Keystone View Company; Liberty Brand Stereo Views; Littleton View Company; Stanley J. Morrow; Eadweard Muybridge; Timothy H. O'Sullivan; Frank A. Rinehart; Charles R. Savage; Henry L. Shepard; Thomas W. Smillie; Upton; Underwood and Underwood; Carleton E. Watkins; Whitney and Zimmerman; Wilson and Havens; Woodward Stereoscopic Company; and Charles A. Zimmerman.

DATE: Most undated (probably mid-nineteenth to early twentieth centuries)

QUANTITY: 201 prints plus negatives (around 248 separate images, some multiple copies on one piece of paper)



RESTRICTION: The images were acquired for reference purposes and cannot be reproduced.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79

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