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Daniel Folkmar was an anthropologist and lieutenant governor with the Philippine Civil Service in 1903-1907. His career also included teaching at several American universities and service with the United States Immigration Commission and the Census Bureau.

The Folkmar materials are also in photographic lot 108 and the manuscript and pamphlet file in the records of the Department of Anthropology.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: ca. 600 items

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 105


The photographs were illustrations for a manuscript concerning Folkmar's experiences in the Philippines. The manuscript is in the manuscript and pamphlet file in the records of the Department of Anthropology.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 102 items



RESTRICTION: The negatives will be made available only under special circumstances. Arrangements must be made well before a visit.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 108


Harry Fonseca, a Maidu artist, lectured at the Smithsonian on February 9, 1989. The occasion was an exhibition of his art at the National Museum of Natural History. In part, the thirty-five-millimeter color photographic slides of this collection are copies of the set used to illustrate his lecture. In part, they are photographs of items and general views of the exhibition.

Many exhibition items included Fonseca's representation of the mythical figure Coyote. Fonseca's slide presentation divides into the following: slides 1-7, Maidu and Nisenan museum pieces that served as inspiration; 8-10, early Fonseca works based on traditional material culture; 11-28, early Fonseca works representing features of Maidu culture such as creation myths and dances; Coyote paintings (29-35, early style; 37-64, 68-98, middle and new styles; 65-67, miscellany; 99-116, "rock art" representing Fonseca's style since 1989.

DATES: 1989 (many undated)

QUANTITY: 182 slides

RESTRICTION: The slides are for viewing only. They cannot be copied.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-25

FORD, JAMES ALFRED (1911-1968), Papers

James A. Ford was an archeologist, curator of archeology at the American Museum of Natural History (1946-1964) and at the Florida State Museum (1964-1968) and a professor of anthropology at the University of Florida. Early in his career he was also a field worker with the Smithsonian Institution and an archeologist with the Louisiana Geological Survey. After that, he interspersed his appointments with periods of formal study at Louisiana State University (B.A., 1936), the University of Michigan (M.A., 1938), and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1949). He was president of the Society for American Archaeology in 1963-1964.

Ford made several significant contributions to archeology. First, he carried out much field work in the southeastern United States and established the Lower Mississippi Valley as a distinct archeological province. With Gordon R. Willey, he provided outlines of culture sequences for the Southeast. Second, he worked in Alaska and, although in a secondary role, shared in work on the origins and development of Eskimo culture. Third, he carried out field work in Latin America--Mexico, Colombia, and Peru--and contributed to an understanding of culture sequences in that region. Ford is credited with working out original methods of pottery classification, pottery being the chief type of specimen with which he worked in his broad interpretations. Late in his life, he brought together his interests in the southeastern United States and Latin America in a theory concerning the relationships of Formative sites in those and neighboring regions.

As a boy, Ford collected archeological specimens around Jackson, Mississippi, work that Ford himself called pot hunting. His introduction to scientific methods came in 1927 when the Smithsonian Institution's Henry B. Collins engaged him as an assistant in excavations at the Deasonville site in Mississippi. In 1933, Ford secured a National Research Council grant to survey portions of Mississippi and adjacent parts of northern Louisiana. In 1933, he assisted Frank M. Setzler, of the Smithsonian, in excavations at the Marksville site in Louisiana and worked for Arthur R. Kelly at the present-day Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon, Georgia, both projects being financed by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. In 1934, Ford also worked for the Georgia State Park Service investigating a tabby ruin believed to be a Spanish fort at Elizafield Plantation near Brunswick. In that year, he also worked for the Southeastern Fair Association on an American Indian Exposition at Atlanta. In the following two years, Ford was archeological research associate with the Louisiana State Archeological Survey.

In 1937, Ford restored an earth lodge at Macon. Following this, as Louisiana state director of Work Project Administration (WPA) archeological projects, he worked at the Crooks site and Greenhouse site in Avoyelles Parrish in 1938-1940; with James B. Griffin organized the first Southeastern Archeological Conference in 1938; and, in 1939-1940, with Philip Phillips and Griffin surveyed the Lower Mississippi Valley (Arkansas and Mississippi) in search of the origins of Middle Mississippi culture. In 1951, with William G. Haag and Phillips, Ford worked at the Jakestown site in Mississippi; and, in 1952-1955, he worked at Poverty Point in Louisiana with C.H. Webb and R. Stuart Nietzel. He carried out excavations at the Menard site in Arkansas in 1958 and at a burial mound near Helena, Arkansas, in 1960-1961.

Ford's early work in Alaska was with Collins. His later archeological work in that state was an attempt to complete earlier labors. In 1930, he accompanied Collins to St. Lawrence Island. In 1931, he again worked for Collins at the Birknirk site and then surveyed the Point Barrow area. He wintered at Barrow, living with the Eskimos and carrying out physical anthropological studies as well as archeological work. In 1936, again for Collins, he surveyed the coast between Cape Prince of Wales and Point Barrow. During World War II, Ford was a senior design specialist with the United States Army Office of the Quartermaster General, which designed and tested military clothing and equipment. Some of this work involved travel to Alaska. In 1953, he returned to Point Barrow.

Ford's Latin American work began in 1941-1942 when he joined Wendell C. Bennett's archeological survey of the Cauca Valley in Colombia, an Institute of Andean Research project. In 1946, he participated in the Institute's Virú Valley project, working on chronology in conjunction with Gordon R. Willey's study of settlement patterns and land use. He was again in Peru in 1958-1959 and 1963, surveying and excavating in the Chira, Piura, and Lambayeque valleys. In 1963- 1966, he worked with Alfonso Medellín Zenil and Matthew Wallrath surveying the Veracruz coast of Mexico.

The papers include letters, notes, field notes, journals, archeological data forms, manuscripts, photographs, reports, charts, cartographic material, exhibit plans, drawings of specimens, and miscellaneous materials such as itineraries and expense accounts. The material has not been completely identified and analyzed. Preliminary work, however, indicates appreciable quantities of material concerning the 1931-1932 expedition to Alaska; work at the Marksville site; and 1942-1945 work for the United States Army in Alaska. There is a considerable amount of material relating to Ford's last publication on the American Formative, including drafts, notes, and comments by other scientists. There are also materials, often a journal or notebook but sometimes only a single drawing or map, relating to Ford's other archeological projects.

A few notes reflect his work at the University of Michigan and there are notes on classes taken under Ruth Benedict at Columbia University. Several miscellaneous items concern the history, exhibits, and anthropology collections of the American Museum of Natural History. Others include material relating to the Marksville Museum. There are also notes entitled "Methods and Theory of Archeology."

Yet to be located are documents relating to much of Ford's work, including that with the Mississippi Department of Archives and History; in Mississippi and Louisiana, 1933; at Macon, Georgia, 1933-1934; with the Southeastern Fair Association; at Chaco Canyon; in Columbia, 1941-1942 (except for correspondence); at the Jakestown site, 1951; at Point Barrow, 1953; and at the Menard site or the Hopewell mound near Helena, Arkansas. Except correspondence, no material relates to Ford's curatorial work at the Florida State Museum. Some missing documents may be at the institutions where Ford worked. There are pertinent materials in the Henry B. Collins papers.

Ford collected material of other persons who worked in his areas of interest. Included among the Marksville materials are notes, correspondence, and other documents of Frank Maryl Setzler; manuscripts by Walter Beecher, Edwin B. Doran, and Carlyle S. Smith; and letters and photographs by Dache M. Reeves. The papers also include materials concerning WPA work at sites AV-1, AV-22, and AV-25 in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana, one being a manuscript on AV-25 by Carlyle S. Smith. Inexplicable is the presence of Work Projects Administration material regarding sites (mounds) in Hillsborough County, Florida, with related correspondence

of J. Clarence Simpson, mainly with William G. Sutherland. The Ford collection also incorporates a few letters from John R. Swanton to William Henry Holmes.

Ford's correspondents include C. Alexander, M. Beckham, Wendell Clark Bennett, George W. Brainerd, Eliecer S. Cellis, Keith A. Dixon, Damon C. Dunn, Manning Durham, James B. Griffin, Carl E. Guthe, Robert King Harris, Harry J. Lemley, Joseph K. Long, R.S. MacNeish, Edward F. Neild, R.S. Nietzel, Philip C. Phillips, George I. Quimby, Dache M. Reeves, W.S. Robinson, Albert C. Spaulding, Morris Swadesh, W.A. Thompson, Colin Turnbull, Clarence H. Webb, William W. Wells, and Gordon R. Willey.

DATES: 1930-1968

QUANTITY: ca. 13 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1936-1966; (2) correspondence, 1931-1968; (3) southeast United States expeditions, 1933-1966; (4) Alaskan expeditions, 1930-1936; (5) South and Central American expeditions, 1941-1959; (6) work for the United States Army, 1941-1945; (7) writings by James A. Ford, 1935-1968; (8) writings by other authors, 1937-1967; (9) professional organizations and institutions, 1935-1967; (10) reference materials, 1933-1968; (11) miscellany, 1954-1957; (12) photographs, 1931-1947



L.F. Foster was a wild west showman, a "rough and fancy rider, rope and revolver expert." The two albums include clippings, bills, photographs, and other related material. Some material, particularly the photographs, concerns Foster's career, but most concern western shows and rodeos in general, including those of Buffalo Bill Cody, Pawnee Bill, and the 101 Ranch. There are also photographs of American Indians.

The albums indicate that Foster was skilled in photography, and some photographs may be by him. It is not clear whether he put the album together himself or whether it was the work of relatives.

DATES: 1884-1929 (mostly 1890-1910)

QUANTITY: ca. 200 items in 2 albums

ARRANGEMENT: Undetermined

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 74-19



The photographs, 30.5x38.1 centimeters (11x14 inches) and 40.6x49.5 centimeters (16x19.5 inches), were for an exhibit. Included is a reproduction of an announcement, dated April 3, 1969, by the Cora governor concerning the observances. Notes on some photographs relate them to descriptions in Fernando Bernítez, Los indios de México, 1970. Also included is a booklet, Semana Santa entre los Mitos Indígenas Coras, which includes text from Bernítez's book.

DATE: 1969

QUANTITY: 80 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-6


The views show an Indian encampment and surroundings. The captions may be by Frances Densmore.

DATE: 1912

QUANTITY: 9 prints and 7 negatives

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81L


Faring is an employee of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C. He has taken snapshots and polaroid photographs of Indians who visited the Bureau's offices.

DATES: 1967-1971

QUANTITY: Two albums with 135 prints plus 93 loose prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 85-21


The print is of a photograph made at Franks Landing by Rose Marie Roybal.

DATE: 1975

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-125

FREEMAN, ETHEL CUTLER (1886-1972), Papers

Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and a research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. In addition to the Seminole material, her papers relate to work among the Arapaho, Hopi, Kickapoo, Navaho, Pueblo, Shoshoni, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Masai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth F. Benedict, Margaret C. Blaker, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert C. Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank G. Speck, Charlton W. Tebeau, and Clark Wissler, as well as several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances in Florida, many organizations, and associates in the American Museum of Natural History.

DATES: ca. 1934-1970

QUANTITY: ca. 16.5 linear meters (ca. 54 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1944-1970; (2) correspondence, n.d.; (3) writings, 1941-1968; (4) miscellaneous research materials, 1934-1970; (5) material concerning Seminoles, 1939-1971; (6) material concerning other North American Indians, 1936-1963; (7) material concerning people other than North American Indians, 1946-1968; (8) papers concerning professional meetings, 1959-1968; (9) printed material, 1939-1970; (10) pamphlets, n.d.; (11) sound recordings, n.d.; (12) lists of photographs, n.d.; (13) unarranged photographs, n.d.

FINDING AID: Draft register


The main subjects are anthropologist Barbara Freire-Marreco Aitken and her husband Robert Aitken. Mr. and Mrs. Larry Blair were the donors.

DATES: Most ca. 1950-1962

QUANTITY: 5 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-5


The collector was Frank Frick, a merchant of Baltimore, Maryland, patron of the arts, and, during the last years of his life, traveler in Asia, Africa, and Europe.

The albumen prints are annotated with titles and dates that apparently relate to Frick's visits. The images, some by Lala Deen Dayal and Samuel Bourne, include structures and miscellaneous ethnological views. The collection also includes one loose photograph of the Budapest Opera House.

DATE: 19th century

QUANTITY: 151 prints

ARRANGEMENT: Apparently by date of visit to areas and sites by Frick.


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-44


The photographs include highly decorated clothing, pieces of fabric, people in native dress, a decorated butter churn, decorated spice grinder, and a series showing a man turning wood.

DATE: 1980s

QUANTITY: 32 photographs and 25-page exhibit catalog

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-5

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