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This prints of this reference file were drawn from many sources, including photographs accessioned by the United States National Museum. They include views of sites, artifacts, and natural scenery of Argentina, British Honduras, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, San Salvador, Venezuela, and the West Indies. Photographers and collectors of photographs include Lewis Anderson, Allison V. Armour, F.C. Baker, A.H. Blackiston, W.W. Blake, J.F. Bransford, Herbert J. Browne, T.M. Caluck, J.A. Chisholm, Grove K. Gilbert, Carlos Gonzaacute;lez, William Henry Holmes, William Henry Jackson, Neil M. Judd, E.R. Kelly, Henry R. Lemley, Jorge A. Lines, Isaac A. Manning, H.E. Mole, Luis Montane, William C. Moore, Jesús G. Ortega, Luigi Pigorino, Henri F. Pittier, E.R. Redden, Ernesto Regil, Adolf C. Reichard, Arthur P. Rice, Robert Ridgway, Marshall H. Saville, Charles Storrs, James G. Swan, Edward H. Thompson, and Francesco Valiente. Other photographers and collectors are represented.

DATES: ca. 1890s-1920s (much undated)

QUANTITY: ca. 2000 prints


FINDING AID: Partial list of folder titles

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93


The material consists mostly of photographic prints. Also included are a few negatives, photomechanical prints, tintypes, drawings, newspaper clippings, notes, and letters. Much is annotated. In part, the file was assembled from many accessions.

The material was received from professionals and amateurs, mostly working in North America. The images are of artifactual and skeletal specimens, fraudulent specimens, collections of specimens, sites, excavations, site features, ruins, petroglyphs, and field parties. A few are reproductions of maps and portraits of native peoples. Some specimens are in the Smithsonian's collections, but many are not.

Among the subjects are Dighton Rock in Massachusetts; many Southwest ruins; the 1931 Moundville, Alabama, excavation; Tlingit burial boxes; excavations, specimens, and Aleut portraits taken by Waldemar I. Jochelson's Ethnological Section of the Riaboushinsky Expedition, 1909-1912; Richard Wetherill's party in Mancos Canyon, Colorado, and F. S. Hempstead's "Archaeological and Topographic Map of Portsmouth," [Ohio].

Some material relates to the work of Charles L. Bernheimer in Utah, Burnham S. Colburn in Georgia and North Carolina, Thomas Featherstonehaugh in Florida, Otto William Geist in Alaska, A.T. Hill in Nebraska, Walter Hough in Arizona (for the Gates-United States National Museum Expedition, 1901), George Langford in Illinois, Henry Montgomery in North Dakota, Clarence B. Moore in Florida, Henri F. Pittier in Costa Rica, and F.B. Stebbins in Tennessee. Collections are those of Charles Artes (filed Indiana), Thomas Beckwith (filed Missouri), C.W. Branch (filed West Indies), Burham S. Colburn Cherokee relics (filed North Carolina), James Pillars (filed Ohio), Governor Price (frauds from New Mexico), and E.G. Squier and Edwin H. Davis (filed Ohio).

The material is from Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Costa Rica, British Columbia, Canada, New Zealand, Nova Scotia, South Pacific, and West Indies.

The works of many photographers are included. Among them are John K. Hillers, William Henry Jackson, Sumner W. Matteson, Edgar A. Mearns, Victor Mindeleff, and Timothy H. O'Sullivan.

DATES: 1870s-1930s

QUANTITY: ca. 1600 items

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Frauds; (2) petroglyphs; (3) general

FINDING AID: Folder list

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 40


Most material consists of prints, some in albums. There are also some negatives, photomechanical prints, artwork, and clippings. The material is mostly historical or ethnological and includes images of specimens, portraits, and scenes from life. Some scenic views are included. Coverage is worldwide outside North America.

List of photographers, artists, publishers, donors, and collectors

DATES: ca. 1860s-1960s

QUANTITY: ca. 14,500 items

ARRANGEMENT: By geographic area, tribe in general following George P. Murdock's Outline of World Cultures. See appendix H for the classification scheme.

FINDING AID: Descriptions in SIRIS. There are also special finding aids for portions of the collection.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 97


The prints are from several different collections. United States National Museum Accession 29,586 consists of items purchased for the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, 1895, from money of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The images are the Grand Mosque of Damascus, Fortress of Jabneh, synagogues in Arbel, and ruins at Amwas, Kefr Berim, and Tell-es-Safiye (Gath). Related material purchased with the same funds is in the Division of Ethnology collection.

Accession 40,922 shows Elephanta Cave in Bombay. These three prints are part of a larger collection of photographs of India (including the Bourne and Shepard photographs) and Australia. The rest of the collection is divided between the Division of Physical Anthropology and Division of Ethnology collections.

Accession 121,411 consists of prints purchased with money from the Old World Archeology Fund and relate to Smithsonian curator J. Townsend Russell's cooperative work with the University of Toulouse. The prints show interiors of the Cave du Tuc d'Audoubert and the Cave des Trois Frères.

Accession 124,071 consists of photographs furnished by Aleš Hrdlicka showing discovery sites of ancient man. Included are views in Java; Piltdown, England; Heidelberg, Germany; Le Moustier, La Chapelle aux Saints, La Quina, Laugerie, and La Madeleine in France; and Magharet-el Zuttiyet in Palestine. These images also appear in the papers of Aleš Hrdlicka. Accession 161,740 is a set of very large postcards with photomechanically reproduced views of Greek ruins at Girgenti in Sicily.

A miscellany includes sheets showing photographs of classical sculpture in Rome, a postcard from A.C. Haddon that shows the Matopos in Zimbabwe, an Egyptian papyrus, and unidentified sculpture, coins, and other items.

DATE: 1870s-1930s

QUANTITY: 80 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-38


The collection includes mostly photographic prints, but there are also negatives, printed illustrations, and other materials. In the past the archives identified the collection as that of Aleš Hrdlicka, and many images were indeed acquired by him. The total collection, however, is a composite of a Hrdlicka collection, materials donated to and accessioned by the United States National Museum, and a few materials of other curators.

Included are many physical anthropological subjects, but there are also many items of ethnological and archeological value. The coverage is world wide.

In the past, the Department of Anthropology did not hesitate to break up collections to serve the research needs of staff members. Hence, some photographs accessioned by the museum have become divided between collections like this one and the collections of the Division of Ethnology, Division of Archeology, and several individual curators. Especially, researchers should note that many photographs in the Division of Physical Anthropology's collection are related to images in the collection of the Division of Ethnology and they must sometimes examine both files to reconstruct a given donation.

Photographers and collectors represented are C.C. Abbott, William L. Abbott, H.M. Ani, Vasily Ivanovitch Anutchin, René Bache, O.W. Barrett, H. Basedon, Robert Bennett Bean, W.H. Bell, Roland Bonaparte, Bourne and Shepherd, Leo von Boxberger, Brennan Studio, Doeke Brouwer, Arthur E. Brown, Mrs. Giles G. Brown, Bernard Bull, Amos Burg, Burton Brothers, Cleary (of Jamaica), Henry B. Collins, W.A. Cook, H.J. Cordle, Father Crespi (Jivaro material), José M. Cruxent, W. Dammann, Mrs. Leiweg DeZwaan, C.G. Dittmer, Charles E. Doty, A. Duperly and Sons, William C. Farrabee, Henry C. Fassett, M.S. Fernandes, Foster Gallery (of Ohio), Clark M. Garber, Thomas Gann, Garo Fuknoko, James W. Gidley, F.W. Godding, David C. Graham, Ruth Gruber, I. Grugor, Alfred C. Haddon, Michael J. Harmer, Hartmann and Weinland, Romyn Hitchcock, A.M. Hocart, Carl von Hoffman, William Henry Holmes, Ernest G. Holt, W.T. Hornaday, J. van den Houdt, Walter G. Hough, Charles M. Hoy, Aleš Hrdlicka, I.H. Hutton, Herbert Hybennet, William Henry Jackson, Diamond Jenness, Charles Kerry, Emma Augusta Koch, Taku Komai, V. Kozlovski, Carl Kunne, André Laucon, Merle La Voy, Nicolas Leon, H. Lichtenerber, Axel Lindahl, John W. Lindt, Lomen Brothers, A.I. Ludlow, Carl Lumholtz, Carl K. MacFadden, Mansell and Company, Charles Martin, Edward Avery McHenny, Father Megauy (of Ponape), Garrit S. Miller, Jr., Isaac B. Millner, Abbott Low Moffat, Riley D. Moore, Buenoventura Moreno, F. Muller, David M. Newell, Nicholas Brothers, Dionysio J.H. Nyèssen, W.C. Orchard, Lawrence Oschinsky, P.E. Ostrovski, G.W. Pach, Marcos Palatnik, Leland W. Parr, Flores Penquistas, G.W. Perry, Vincenzo Petrullo (of India), Bronislaw Pilsudski, Willard Price, Nell Puccione, Henry C. Rassett, Henry C. Raven, H. Armstrong Roberts, W. Roberts, W.W. Rockhill, William E. Safford, M. Sain, James C. Sawders, Rudolf R. Schuller, Eliza R. Scidmore, Charles G. Seligmann, William M. Shanklin, Shepherd and Robertson, Mason A. Shufeldt, B. Simpson, Soule Photographic Company, Steadman y Trager, A. Stendler, T. Dale Stewart, E.C. Stirling, Matthew W. Stirling, Douglas M. Taylor, Griffith Taylor, Camille Terney, William Thalbitzer, Thomas Photos, S.C. Turner, Dr. Wainwright (photographs of Uganda), C.B. Waite, E.A. Wakefield, F. Kingdon Ward, Fanny B. Ward, F.W. Waters, Leuman M. Waugh, Josef Weninger, Westeneck (photographs of Nias), Dean C. Worchester, and Frederick R. Wulsin.

See also the collection of photographs, largely of bone specimens, which is Photo Lot 83-41.

DATES: ca. 1850s-1960s

QUANTITY: ca. 13,000 items

ARRANGEMENT: By tribe, geographic area, or subject

FINDING AID: Descriptions in SIRIS.

RESTRICTION: Some negatives are in special storage. Their use by researchers will require special arrangement.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 8


Aleš Hrdlicka appears to have begun the file, but T. Dale Stewart and other staff added to it. Included are prints and negatives and a few drawings, notes, and tables. The materials are arranged under the following terms: miscellaneous; Alaska; Arkansas; Argentina; Australian skulls, 1925; Calaveras skull; California excavation (Hicks Mound); Colombia; Cuba; Delaware (Townsend site and Fort Miles Station Hospital, Lewes); Florida; Georgia; Hopewell; Huron; Iceland; Illinois; Kentucky; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Mexico; Mississippi; Missouri; Nebraska; New Jersey; New Mexico; New York; North Dakota; Ohio; painted skulls; pathology (most from syphilis); Pennsylvania; Peru; Poland; primates; Pueblos; San Diego exhibits; Switzerland, Tonkawa; trephining; Utah; White; Wichita; Breasted; and Army Medical Museum.

Included are photographs used by Hrdlicka in publications and a few submitted for the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. There are also photographs acquired from researchers who were not affiliated with the Smithsonian, including some sent Otis T. Mason to report specimens taken from mounds. Also included are items from a series of photographs of skulls issued by the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. There are also drawings of skulls prepared for Emil Bessels to illustrate a proposed book on Eskimos. The latter include drawings of specimens now in the Smithsonian's collection. There are, in addition, photographs of a few bone specimens sent for examination by law enforcement officials. Additional sets of materials include 1934 photographs, notes, and annotated maps of Robert F. Heizer that reflect work at Hicks Mound #1 by Sacramento Junior College in California; photographs of bones recovered in Frank H. Cushing's work on the west coast of Florida; photographs of skeletal material recovered by James H. Breasted at Meggido; and photographs of skulls distributed by the United States Army Medical Museum.

DATE: ca. 1870s-1950s

QUANTITY: 4 linear feet

ARRANGEMENT: Generally by subject


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-41


Included are Owen Rye, an Australian member of the Smithsonian's Ancient Technology Project, and William Potts, a graduate student. They are conducting tests of ceramic firing. Also included is department conservator A. Joseph Andrews in his laboratory.

DATES: No date (probably late 1960s)

QUANTITY: Thirty-five thirty-five-millimeter negatives and six 20.3x25.4-centimeter (8x10-inch) prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-6


The prints were submitted but not used in Smithsonian Year, the annual report of the Smithsonian. Shown are members of the department in various laboratory activities. Included are Edgar Dodd, Clifford Evans, Bethune Gibson, Gordon D. Gibson, Betty J. Meggers, George Metcalf, Gus W. Van Beek, Richard B. Woodbury, and others.

DATES: 1965

QUANTITY: 16 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-15


The prints are group portraits. They show department members after the merger of the United States National Museum Department of Anthropology and the Bureau of American Ethnology.

DATES: 1965

QUANTITY: 3 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 136

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