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Included are copy prints, most showing members of the Cook and Bradby families of the Pamunkey Reservation in Virginia. There is also a photograph that includes James Miles, Governor of Virginia, and a group that participated in the Jamestown Exposition in 1907.

DATES: No date (includes images from the nineteenth century to recent years)

QUANTITY: 57 copy prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-6


The collection consists of prints that include mummies and artifacts of Luzon, Philippines.

DATE: 1974

QUANTITY: 12 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-37


The panoramic print shows a group of men, women, and children on the White House lawn. All Indians are in traditional dress. The photographer was Frank R. Scherer, of Washington, D.C.

Chaske Wicks, of Cannonball, North Dakota, donated the photograph.

DATE: September 17, 1927

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-42

COON, CARLETON STEVENS (1904-1981), Papers

Carleton S. Coon attended Harvard University (Ph.D., 1928) and taught there from 1934 to 1948. He then became a curator at the University of Pennsylvania University Museum. Coon was an advocate of holistic anthropology, and he carried out ethnographic, social anthropological, physical anthropological, and archeological studies. His region of specialization was North Africa and the Near East.

Coon worked in Morocco in 1925-1928, 1939, 1947, and 1962-1963. During the 1920s, he was primarily concerned with ethnographic, social anthropological, and physical anthropological studies of the Riffians, which was the subject of his Ph.D. dissertation and his early books. He also became involved in archeological studies of Stone Age cultures, especially through investigations of caves. During World War II, Coon was a member of the United States Office of Strategic Services and, in part, operated in Morocco.

In 1929-1930, Coon studied northern mountaineer Albanians to test several theses, including one that posited a Dinaric race and another that set forth a relationship between stature and calcium in agricultural lands. In 1933, Coon was in Ethiopia for research, but political complications forced him into physical anthropological studies in Yemen. In 1948-1951, Coon investigated the Iraqi and Iranian Stone Age. In 1954, he surveyed and excavated Stone Age caves in Afghanistan and, on his way home, visited Australia where he carried out work with the Tiwi. In 1955, he was in Syria and in Central Africa.

While working with the United States Air Force in 1956-1957, Coon photographed India, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Ceylon, Nepal, Sikkim, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the Philippines. His pictures provided information about areas where airmen might be forced down. In 1959, he was on a team to study Alakaluf physiology in southern Chile. In 1965, he was in Sierra Leone, carrying out archeological work in the cave of Yengema.

Coon has produced several general and sometimes quite controversial works in anthropology. With Eliot D. Chapple, he published Principles of Anthropology in 1942. Other works include The Races of Europe (1939), The Story of Man (1954), The Origin of Races (1962), and The Living Races of Man (1965). An account of his work during World War II is the subject of A North Africa Story (1980); and his life and career is the subject of Adventures and Discoveries (1981).

Coon became a member of the National Academy of Science in 1952 and served as president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1961-1962.

Absent from the papers are many diaries and most of Coon's photographs.

List of correspondents

DATES: 1925-1980

QUANTITY: ca. 14 linear meters (ca. 46 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Chronological correspondence, 1906-1979; (2) topical correspondence (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Seven Caves, Harvard resignation, Hotu Cave, India, Iran, Jebel Ighoud, Libya-Chad, Morocco, Origin of Races, Peking Man, Publication, Riffian, Russia, Space Study, Syrian Desert, United States Air Force, University of Pennsylvania, Veddas, and other subjects); (3) original anthropometric data (Arabs, Ethiopians, Somalis, Albanians, Riffians, Armenians, Iraqis, Toscs, Australian Aborigines, and others); (4) anthropometric data from published sources; (5) subject files; (6) index cards with teaching notes and bibliography; (7) Coon's publications; (8) photographs (Afghanistan, Ainu, Albania, Andamans, Arabia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Baluchi, China, Chukchi, Circassian, Congo, Eskimo, Ethiopia, Formosa, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Khorrassan, Khunik, Kirghizstan, Korea, Kurdistan, Lapps, Madagascar, Maldives, Melanesia, Morocco, New Guinea, Nicobars, Ostiaks, Philippines, Polynesia, Riffians, Samoa, Samoyed, Somalia, Tamtama, Tehuelche, Thailand, Tiwi, Tungus, and Yengema).

FINDING AID: Draft register

COOPER, JOHN MONTGOMERY (1881-1949), Papers

Father John M. Cooper was a student of the North and South American ethnology. Much of his material consists of a carbon set of reading notes concerning both continents. Generally the slips are focused on a given subject and are identified by author, title, subject, tribe, location, and page reference. A few papers are copies of Father Cooper's field notes and related materials collected between 1924 and 1937 among the Chippewa, Cree, and Montagnais. There are also a few notes on the Menominee, Navaho, Babine, Pueblo (Acoma, Hopi, Laguna, and Tesuque), and the Ifugao of the Philippines (from informants in the United States).

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: ca. 4.9 linear meters (ca. 16 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Two series of reading notes are both arranged alphabetically by author or repository.


COOPER, PAUL LEMEN, Papers (1909-1961)

Paul Cooper studied sociology and anthropology at the University of Wisconsin (B.A., 1931) and anthropology at the University of Nebraska (M.A., 1936). From 1941 to 1943, he attended Columbia University.

During his student years, Cooper had a succession of temporary and part-time archeological jobs. In 1931, he was a member of Paul Martin's Chicago Museum of Natural History expedition to Lawry Ruin in southwestern Colorado. In 1933, he was a member of the University of Chicago's field school session in central Illinois; and in 1934, the University of Nebraska's expedition to northeastern Nebraska. The following year, he managed the photographic record of Fay-Cooper Cole's University of Chicago expedition to the Kinkaid site in southern Illinois.

In 1936, Cooper was with the Work Projects Administration (WPA) in Tennessee; and, in 1936-1939, he was in northeastern Nebraska with the Nebraska Historical Society. He became the superintendent for WPA archeological projects in Nebraska in 1939. In 1945, he carried out archeological work for the Cranbrook Institution, of Bloomfield, Michigan. Then, for the Society for American Archaeology, he compiled information on artifacts from WPA work deposited in the United States National Museum.

Between 1946 and 1955, Cooper was an archeologist with the Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Smithsonian Institution River Basin Surveys (RBS). He set up many MBP laboratory and field practices, which other RBS offices adopted. Drawing on his WPA experience in Nebraska, he established the basics of the Smithsonian code for designating archeological sites. At the start of the RBS, Cooper served as acting field director in the MBP's Lincoln, Nebraska, office during the absence of field director Waldo Wedel. In 1950-1952, Cooper was MBP field director in his own right.

In addition to office and laboratory work, Cooper also conducted field work in the Fort Randall Reservoir area in South Dakota and the Heart Butte Reservoir area in North Dakota.

Cooper's papers largely concern his RBS field and office work and include notebooks and a limited amount of correspondence. Also included are materials relating to his work with the Cranbrook Institute and photographs concerning his early student work. One album includes photographs, many incompletely identified, concerning work at the Lowry Ruin and in Massac County (Kinkaid site) and Fulton County, Illinois. Some are of particular interest because they show expedition personnel.

DATES: ca. 1919-1962

QUANTITY: ca. .6 linear meter (ca. 2 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Personal papers; (2) notebooks; (3) miscellaneous archeological documents; (4) manuscripts of writings; (5) photographs (including loose prints, negatives, slides, and a photograph album)

FINDING AID: Folder list


The prints and color transparencies were made by a Smithsonian photographer. They depict the opening of an exhibit of the Donald Cordry collection that had just been donated to the Smithsonian. Included are several members of the Department of Anthropology. There are also laboratory transparencies of some masks.

DATES: 1979

QUANTITY: 32 items



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-3


The collection includes prints that depict masks, mask making, and the use of masks in various parts of Mexico. They are autographed and dated by the photographer, a collector of Mexican masks. See preceding entry for photographs of an exhibit of masks collected by Cordry.

DATES: 1941-1974

QUANTITY: 14 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-14


The Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology was founded in 1967 with the purpose "to stimulate and to encourage the collection, preservation, advancement, and dissemination of knowledge and information concerning the study and practice of historical archaeology" in Eastern Canada and the northeastern United States (Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Rhode Island, Vermont). Interest include land and underwater archeology from 1600 to the present.

The council's executive board manages the organization. Officers include a chairman, vice chairman, secretary, and treasurer (although the last two offices may be filled by the same person). Membership (informal until 1981) is open to all interested persons. Annual meeting consist of a business session and a symposium. Publications include Man in the Northeast and Northeastern Historical Archaeology.

The records are mainly those of the secretary-treasurer. Included are correspondence, financial records, membership lists, subscription lists, mailing records, and materials relating to meetings. Among the correspondents are Margaret L. Fields, Gil Hagerty, Edward J. Lenik, Ronn Michael, Robert L. Schuyler, and Wallace F. Workmaster.

DATES: 1973-1983

QUANTITY: ca. .39 linear meter (ca 1.25 linear feet)

FINDING AID: Folder list


Crediford is in the University of South Carolina Department of Media Arts. The photographs, some black and white and some color, were part of a project sponsored by the South Carolina Endowment for the Humanities. Most photographs are portraits; but some include pots by the Catawba Sara Ayers and others show the Indian church at Edisto. Tribes are Catawba, Cherokee, Edisto, Pee Dee, and Santee.

Besides the photographs, there is a booklet entitled Contemporary Native Americans in South Carolina: A Photo Documentation Covering the Years 1983-1985 with text by Leland Ferguson assisted by Wesley White. There is also a pamphlet about Sara Ayers.

DATES: 1984-1987

QUANTITY: 20 prints

RESTRICTION: The photographs are under copyright.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-31


The material is that of a Latin American specialist on the Smithsonian staff. It largely relates to ethnological research among the Canela Indians of Brazil and includes of diaries of Indians, notes, photographs, and sound recordings.

DATES: ca. 1959-1973

QUANTITY: ca. 1.5 linear meters (ca. 4.75 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Unprocessed


RESTRICTION: The diaries are not presently available to researchers.


The item is an enlarged print of a photograph by Charles Milton Bell. The original negative is in the Glass Negative Collection of Indian subjects.

DATE: 1880

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-44

CUMMING, ROBERT B. (b. 1915), Papers

Robert B. Cumming studied at Wesleyan University (A.B., 1938) and pursued graduate studies in anthropology under William Duncan Strong at Columbia University. In 1940, he became the supervisor of the archeology laboratory at the Nebraska State Historical Society; and in 1941-1942, he was a supervisor with the Nebraska Work Projects Administration archeology. Following several nonarcheological jobs, he became the laboratory supervisor of the River Basin Surveys Missouri Basin Project in Lincoln, Nebraska, 1946-1950. In 1950-1954, he was a Missouri Basin Project field archeologist.

The materials, something of a miscellany of Cumming's and other archeologists' materials relating to RBS work, were turned over to Waldo R. Wedel by Cumming, and Wedel placed them in the archives. Some duplicate records of the River Basin Surveys. Much is unidentified. There are two motion picture films, one concerning the Hidatsa Indians. The other shows River Basin Surveys work. Both are in the Human Studies Film Archives.

DATE: 1939-1941; 1946-1950 (much undated)

QUANTITY: .47 linear meters (1.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Diaries, 1939-1950; (2) photographs; (3) site forms and site maps; (4) manuscripts; (5) miscellany; (6) slip file

FINDING AID: Draft register


The prints are copies from those used in The Tache-Yokuts, Indians of the San Joaquin Valley, 1979. The author was the donor.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: ca. 40 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-75


The prints are by John Andrew and Son. They include the Oglala Dakota American Horse, Brule Dakota Hollow Horn Bear, and Atsina Assiniboin Boy. The prints were part of the estate of Margaret Mead.

DATE: Copyrighted 1908

QUANTITY: 3 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 84-8


Jointly sponsored by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the University of Pennsylvania University Museum, Smithsonian ethnologist Frank H. Cushing undertook archeological work on the western coast of Florida. A reconnaissance took place during May-June 1895 and large-scale exploration during December 1895-April 1896. Wells M. Sawyer served as photographer and artist for the expeditions.

The photographs, which include views of sites, excavations, a few objects in situ, and other objects after excavation and cleaning, relate to two sites--Key Marco and Tarpon Springs. Some were in Cushing's "Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, volume 35 (1896). Others were in William Henry Holmes' "Aboriginal Pottery of the Eastern United States," Twentieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1898-1899 (1903). The Smithsonian and University Museum divided the artifacts.

The original negatives for the prints and additional negatives not printed are in the BAE subject and geographic file.

DATES: 1895-1896

QUANTITY: 314 prints of 225 negatives and one drawing

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Key Marco, including views of the site, decorative and ceremonial objects, utilitarian objects of wood, canoes, fishing gear, tools and jewelry made of shell, and weapons; (2) Tarpon Springs, including archeological views, burial, pottery, and stone implements; (3) miscellany; (4) unidentified prints.

FINDING AID: Partial list of captions

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 2


The print is of a photograph of a Thomas Eakins painting executed around 1895.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

RESTRICTION: The photograph was furnished for reference purposes only and cannot be copied. Copies may be obtained from the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 78-15

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