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The print shows Joseph Snow, John Buck, and Isaac Hill (Onondagas); George H.M. Johnson and John Smoke Johnson (Mohawks); and Seneca Johnson (Seneca) explaining wampum to Hale. The print belonged to J.N.B. Hewitt.

DATE: September 14, 1871

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-58


This print shows United States National Museum accession 49,469. The catalog states the apparatus was "an endless chain of paddles moving over two axles and forcing water along a trough in the cuds of which the axles are placed. The power is by treadmill or crank moved by men."

DATE: 1900 or before

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-7


The prints are of bags and clothing in the Mesabi Community College collection.

DATE: ca. 1982

QUANTITY: 6 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-21


John N. Choate was a commercial photographer with a studio in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. At times, he served as the photographer for the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

Most glass negatives concern the school and include images of students, classrooms, buildings, and parents and others who visited the school. A few images are of other subjects, including students at Dickinson College. Some photographs were made by other photographers. A few copper plates prepared for publications are included.

The tribes are not always identified. Those that are include the Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Comanche, Creek, Crow, Dakota, Flathead, Kiowa, Laguna, Mandan, Navaho, Nez Perce, Omaha, Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Winnebago, and Wyandot. There are also photographs of Puerto Ricans.

DATES: ca. 1879-1902

QUANTITY: ca. 1200 negatives (copy prints have been made for most)

ARRANGEMENT: Numerical, using arbitrarily assigned numbers

FINDING AID: List, report by Lonna Malmsheimer

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-12


This collection consists of prints of Crow, Gros Ventre, Iowa, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, and San Felipe subjects.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 26 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-8


Nothing is known about Christie. His photographs show several groups in tribal dress before a tipi. Two of the subjects are on horses. The images are described in the NAA catalog to photographic negatives, and prints are in the reference print collection.

DATE: ca. 1900

QUANTITY: 8 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-26


The collection consists of stereographic film negatives of Chinese, Peruvian, and Philippine subjects. The subjects may to indicate that the photographer was a tourist or temporary resident of those countries.

DATES: ca. 1900-1930

QUANTITY: 217 negatives and 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-24


The Smithsonian Arctic anthropologists are before an Eskimo hunting and fishing exhibit in the National Museum of Natural History.

DATE: 1981

QUANTITY: 4 prints (one is a thirty-five-millimeter proof sheet that includes 16 pictures)

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-42


The photographs were for a Smithsonian National Associates' tour of Alaska led by Collins and William W. Fitzhugh. One set shows Collins on his 1936 expedition to Prince of Wales Island and another shows him at Southampton Island, Canada, in 1954 or 1955.

QUANTITY: 8 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-43


Shown is Collins on a ladder clearing loose surface material from a Kialegah, Alaska, midden.

DATE: 1929

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 86-59

COLLINS, HENRY BASCOM, JR. (1899-1987), Papers

Originally trained in geology (B.A., Millsaps College), Henry B. Collins came to anthropology as an assistant on Neil M. Judd's 1922-1924 expeditions to Pueblo Bonito in New Mexico. In 1924, he became an aid in the United States National Museum Division of Ethnology and, shortly afterwards, was promoted to assistant curator. Having studied anthropology at the George Washington University (M.A., 1925), he became associate curator in 1938. In 1939, he was made a senior ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology and became that organization's acting director in 1963. When the BAE and the Department of Anthropology were merged in 1965, Collins became a senior scientist in the new Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. He was appointed archeologist emeritus in 1967.

Collins' independent field work during the early part of

his career focused on his native American South, an interest developed during a short appointment with the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. His broad anthropological interests in the area were channeled into investigations, some physical anthropological, relating to the Choctaw and to areas whose cultural history was little known. He was particularly interested in the culture history and relationships among the peoples who had inhabited the Gulf Coast. Collins worked during the mid and late 1920s at village and mound sites in eastern and southern Mississippi, carried out archeological reconnaissance and excavations in southern Louisiana, and explored areas of southwestern Florida, becoming concerned with problems concerning the Calusa.

Collins is best known, however, for his efforts in Arctic archeology. In the northlands, he became involved in the puzzles of Eskimo origins and cultural development and devoted much of his career to solving them. Between 1927 and 1936, he and colleagues, including James A. Ford and T. Dale Steward, focused on the Bering Sea area and the Arctic coasts of Alaska, including St. Lawrence Island, Nunivak Island, the Diomedes, Punuk Island, Bristol Bay, Norton Sound, Point Hope, Cape Prince of Wales, the Aleutians, and the interior of the Seward Peninsula. They concerned themselves with the Asian affinities, western origins, culture sequences, and non-Eskimo influences of Eskimo culture. For his report on work on St. Lawrence Island, which represented a major and lasting revision of Eskimo culture history, Collins won a gold medal from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in 1936. The report was pusblished under the title Archeology of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 96, number 1. In 1948-1955, his field work expanded eastward to Baffin, Cornwallis, and Southampton islands and included further concerns with the development of Eskimo cultures, such as affinities with European Mesolithic and Siberian Neolithic cultures.

Collins was active with several anthropological organizations. He served in various capacities with the International Congress of Ethnological and Anthropological Sciences, including vice president of the second congress in Copenhagen in 1938, member of the permanent council in 1952, member of the organizing committee in charge of foreign delegations and president of the seventh congress in Moscow in 1965. For the International Congress of Americanists, which met in Copenhagen in 1956, he served as an honorary vice president.

Collins held several positions with the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA). A founding member in 1944, he was on its board of governors in 1944-1958, 1951-1957, and 1960-1965. He was the board's chairman in 1948. In 1946, he became chairman of the directing committee of the Arctic Bibliography, an AINA project. In 1960, he was chairman of the advisory committee and also became chairman of the advisory committee for AINA's Russian Translation Project.

Collins was president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1938-1939 and vice president of the Society for American Archaeology in 1952. For the Ethnogeographic Board, a World War II agency, he served as assistant director in 1943-1944 and director in 1944-1946. In 1945, he was a member of the National Research Council's Council on International Relations and Anthropology and had direct charge of delivering CARE packages to European anthropologists.

The Collins papers cover most aspects of his professional life. In addition, there is personal correspondence with his wife and other family members.

Collins collected many historical documents for reference and other purposes. Among these are manuscripts by Walter Hough, T.W.R. MacRae and C.T.R. Bohannan, Riley D. Moore, Regis du Roullet, and Thomas Wilson. Also included are numerous historical maps of Alaska and Canada. Collins also acquired copies of photographs taken by Moreau B.C. Chambers during the Smithsonian's 1931 expedition to Alaska, which Collins did not join.

Some of Collins' photographs are included in cataloged and uncataloged photographic collections. A few manuscripts relating to his anthropometric work among the Choctaw of Mississippi and Eskimos of western Alaska are among the series of numbered manuscripts.

Correspondents include H.D. Anderson, Robert G. Armstrong, M.F. Ashley-Montagu, Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., Patrick D. Baird, Wendell C. Bennett, Kaj Birket-Smith, Hugh S. Bostock, G. Herman Brandt, David I. Bushnell, Jr., John C. Case, Moreau B.C. Chambers, Ralph W. Chaney, Lee O. Colbert, Fay-Cooper Cole, Harold Cummins, Albert M. Day, Frederica de Laguna, Edwin W. Deming, Frances Densmore, Caroline Dorman, Max J. Dunbar, Arthur H. Eide, Edward E. Evans-Pritchard, Martha T. Everett, J. Walter Fewkes, Joseph T. Flakne, Richard F. Flint, James A. Ford, Robert Frothingham, Clark M. Garber, Otto W. Geist, Marcus S. Goldstein, Lawrence M. Gould, John E. Graf, Mortimer Graves, Carl E. Guthe, L.L. Hammerich, Melville J. Herskovits, Erik Holtved, Aleš Hrdlicka, Diamond Jenness, E.D. Jones, Neil M. Judd, A.P. Kashevaroff, Hermes Knoblock, Ralph Linton, J. Ross MacKay, C.J. MacKenzie, Harry E. Manca, T.H. Manning, J. Alden Mason, Thirkel Mathiassen, Henry N. Michael, Roy L. Moodie, Warren King Moorehead, John L. Myers, David C. Nutt, Deric O'Bryan, Masao Oka, John J. O'Neill, G. Raleigh Parkin, Helen Pope, Froelich G. Rainey, John C. Reed, Dunbar Rowland, Diana Rowley, Graham W. Rowley, Karl Ruppert, Gerhard Sander, A.G. Sanders, William Shanafeldt, Demitri B. Shimkin, Paul Silook, Ivar Skarland, Richard Slobodin, G. Dudley Smith, Marian W. Smith, Ralph S. Solecki, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, T. Dale Stewart, J. Magruder Sullivan, Marie Tremaine, Jean-Louis Tremblay, James S. Walker, Robert C. Wallace, H. Newell Wardle, A.L. Washburn, Leuman M. Waugh, Alexander Wetmore, J. Tuzo Wilson, and Walter A. Wood.

DATES: 1730-1977 (most 1922-1970)

QUANTITY: ca. 10 linear meters (ca. 34 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Papers relating to Collins and his personal research, including (1) articles on Collins or about his work, ca. 1932-1949; (2) documents about Collins, 1924-1981; (3) calendars; (4) incoming letters, 1922-1958; (5) outgoing letters, 1924-1958; (6) incoming letters from Collins' family, 1922-1932; (7) correspondence on specific subjects: (8) published papers, 1925-1976; (9) unpublished papers, 1924-1952; (10) reference information; (11) diaries; (12) material relating to Collins' archeological expeditions, 1922-1955; (13) material relating to travel; (14) manuscripts collected by Collins, 1730-1965; (15) cataloged reprints, 1840-1970; (16) uncataloged reprints, 1920-1975; (17) exhibits, ca. 1930-1973; (18) miscellany, 1930-1972; (19) drawings; (20) maps; (21) photographs, 1924-1965; (22) financial records; (23) sound recordings, 1977; papers relating to the Arctic Institute of North America, including (24) general papers, 1944-1970; (25) papers relating to the board of governors, 1945-1956; (26) papers relating to committees, 1947-1970; (27) papers relating to the Arctic Bibliography and roster projects, 1947-1967; (28) papers relating to the Russian translation project, 1959-1968; (29) papers relating to projects supported by the AINA and Office of Naval Research; papers relating to the Committee on International Relations in Anthropology, including (30) general papers, 1945-1955; (31) papers relating to the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, 1956; (32) papers relating to CARE package distribution, 1948; papers relating to other organizations, including (33) papers relating to the "Encyclopedia Arctica," 1947-1953; (34) papers relating to the Ethnogeographic Board, 1942-1950; (35) papers relating to the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1963-1965; (36) papers relating to the Smithsonian Office for Anthropological Research (SOAR), 1964; (37) papers relating to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (SOA), 1963-1966; (38) papers relating to the Center for the Study of Man, ca. 1968-1971; (39) papers relating to the Smithsonian Relief Association, 1924-1931; (40) papers relating to the council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1953-1961; (41) papers relating to the Society for American Archaeology, 1934, 1939, 1984; (42) papers relating to the Early Sites Foundation, 1965-1968; (43) papers relating to the Explorers' Club, 1929-1937, 1981; (44) papers relating to the Pacific Science Congress, 1979; (45) papers relating to the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1960-1973; (46) papers relating to the Alaskan Science Conference.

FINDING AIDS: Robert Lynn Montgomery and Nigel Elmore, Register to the Papers of Henry Bascom Collins, National Anthropological Archives, 1992.


The prints show work at Pueblo Bonito; Collins and Hermes Knoblock measuring Choctaws of Mississippi; James A. Ford and Paul Silook at Miyowagh, St. Lawrence Island; and Ford at Cape Prince of Wales. For related material, see entry above.

DATE: 1920s

QUANTITY: 22 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-23


The Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums (CARM) was established in 1965 by the executive board of the American Anthropological Association. Those behind the action were William N. Fenton and Donald Collier, who saw a need "to get museums back into the main stream of professional anthropology and . . . enlist the interest of a new generation of anthropologists to utilize museum collections for research purposes." Throughout its existence, CARM maintained interest in broad avenues to these goals. Hoping to make museum positions more attractive to young anthropologists, to assure adequate documentation and preservation of anthropological collections, and to promote the compilation of inventories of collections, its members organized and participated in conferences and published articles in professional journals. In time, however, CARM's main efforts became focused on two special activities. First, it promoted the establishment of a Museum Research Fellowship Program by the Wenner-Gren Foundation and then served the Foundation by screening applicants. The fellowships were primarily for pre- and postdoctoral research but they were also offered to promising undergraduates. Second, CARM served as an advisory group for several projects to inventory ethnological collections. Particularly it was involved in projects in Oklahoma and Missouri and in John E. Hunter's compilation Inventory of Ethnological Collections in Museums of the United States and Canada (1967).

When in 1971 the American Anthropological Association came to oppose standing committees of its type, CARM's affiliation was changed to the American Ethnological Society. By this time, most of its work had come to concern the fellowship program. When in the late in 1973 the Wenner-Gren Foundation ceased funding the program, CARM's main purpose came to an end. It was then reorganized into a much larger Council for Museum Anthropology, which took up CARM's original broad purposes.

Throughout most of CARM's existence, Fenton was its chairman. By his own wishes, Stanley A. Freed replaced him only a few months before the reorganization. CARM membership varied but little and included William R. Bascom, Stephan F. Borhegyi, Philip J.C. Dark, Ernest S. Dodge, Fred R. Eggan, Tom F.S. McFeat, Lita S. Osmundsen, Alex F. Ricciardelli, and William C. Sturtevant.

In addition to CARM's direct activities, its records reflect general problems and concerns of museums, contemporary research in material culture, and conflicts between differing anthropological interests. As well as the people already mentioned, the records include letters of George N. Appell, Frederick J. Dockstader, John C. Ewers, Norman Feder, George M. Foster, Jr., Edward J. Lehman, and Mary Jane Scheider.

DATES: 1956-1973

QUANTITY: ca. .9 linear meter (ca. 3 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Records relating to membership; (2) correspondence, 1962-1973; (3) records relating to the Wenner-Gren Museum Research Fellowship Program, 1964-1972; (4) reference file, 1956-1971

FINDING AID: Draft inventory


The photographs are by Lucile E. St. Hoyme, who attended the meeting. Included are sessions of the Congress and informal photographs of some who attended. Also included is a view of Aleš Hrdlicka Street in Humpolec.

QUANTITY: 12 prints



These copy prints and electrostatic copies show a variety of scenes. Included are views of Acoma and Walpi pueblos; cliff dwellings; petroglyphs; churches at Acoma, Zuni, and Fort Apache; an Apache camp; the Wood Yard in the Petrified Forest; a Hopi pottery collection; inscriptions on Pawnee Rock in Kansas; Zuni ceremonies; figures, symbols, and rattles used by the Hopi; and a Navaho weaver. One photograph shows Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking photographs at Zuni. Some images include Mexican soldiers.

Most photographs are by Ben Wittick. A few are by G. Steiner, of Juaacuterez. Some are unidentified as to photographer.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 30 photographs (several are stereographs) and 43 pages

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-19

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