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CABOT, WILLIAM BROOKS (1858-1949), Papers

Trained as a civil engineer at Yale University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, William B. Cabot operated an engineering and construction company in Boston. A sportsman, Cabot was drawn into the wilderness of northeastern Quebec and Labrador where he became intrigued with the natives. Between 1899 and 1924, he made many trips to the region to live and travel with Indian bands, taking notes and photographs while he did. The Indians with whom Cabot dealt included Nascapi, Cree, and Montagnais.

The papers consist mainly of notebooks, diaries, and photographs, both negative and prints. Cabot's notes on New England Indian place names are at the Peabody Museum at Salem, Massachusetts, and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University.

DATES: 1870-1925

QUANTITY: Undetermined

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Manuscripts, arranged by date; (2) photographs, arranged by date.

FINDING AID: "William Brooks Cabot: bibliography of manuscript materials" and photograph list, by Stephen G. Loring

RESTRICTIONS: Researchers should make arrangements for access prior to visiting the archives.


The photographs show Jose Granilla, his relatives, and other Tiguas. There are also photographs of houses and a woman using a washing machine near a traditional beehive oven. In one photograph, Granilla has a drum.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 9 prints (one is in color)

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-11A

CARTER, WILLIAM EARL (1927-1983), Papers

William E. Carter studied English at Muskigum College and theology at Boston University. His training in anthropology, which came after service as a minister and a teacher in Latin America, was at Columbia University (Ph.D., 1963). Carter's main affiliation after that time was with the University of Florida, where he was director of the Center for Latin American Studies. From 1979 to 1983, he was chief of the Library of Congress Hispanic Division in Washington, D.C.

Carter's main interest as an anthropologist was Latin America, particularly the people of Bolivia, their use of land, and their drugs. In 1960-1961, he studied the ethnography of Aymara communities in Igavi Province; and, in 1962-1963, he surveyed Protestant church activities in Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. In 1965-1967, he studied shifting agriculture in Guatemala, and, in 1970-1971, the effect of Bolivian land reform. In 1971-1972, his attention was directed toward Aymara symbolism and ritual. During the following two years, he examined the use of cannabis in San José, Costa Rica; and this was followed by his directing a team of Bolivian Indians in a study coca in the traditional culture.

The material is not yet completely analyzed. Most of it appears to concern the Aymara and the native Bolivian's use of coca.

DATES: Mostly 1960s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 12 linear feet

ARRANGEMENT: material relating to the coca study in Bolivia, including (1) correspondence, administrative documents, and miscellany; (2) "Coca in Bolivia" (final report in English and Spanish); (3) coding sheets and questionnaires; (4) miscellaneous research materials; (5) bio-medical examination forms; (6) punch cards, with notes; (7) plant specimens and photographs of plant specimens; material relating to the Aymara study, including (8) notes; miscellaneous materials, including (9) film (transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives); (10) computer tapes



The collection was part of The Catholic University of America's 1956 donation of John M. Cooper's material to the United States National Museum (accession 211,312). Father Cooper had collected artifacts and other items from many people, some known only by name. Casey is an instance. The museum never cataloged the lantern slides. They were set aside until they were transferred to the Bureau of American Ethnology archives in 1962.

There are hand-colored and black-and-white slides. They show ethnological material such as structures, schools, crafts, ceremonies, and daily life. They also show such archeological subjects as ruins, excavations, and field crews.

Tribes represented are Acoma, Apache, Hopi, Jemez, Pecos, Laguna, Navaho, Pima, Taos, Santa Clara, and Zuni. One set of slides shows Gallup [New Mexico] Intertribal Ceremonies, in August 1928. Ruins or excavations are those of Aztec, Casa Grande, Frijoles Canyon, Pecos Mission, Pueblo Bonito, Puye, and White House. Some field crews and other archeological subjects relate to the Neil M. Judd expeditions to Chaco Canyon for the National Geographic Society and Smithsonian Institution in the 1920s.

The slides were issued by the George W. Bond, Chicago Slide Company, Chicago Transparency Company (for the Santa Fe Railroad), Detroit Slide Company, Edward H. Kemp, National Geographic Society, and United States Bureau of Reclamation.

DATES: Almost all undated but some, and perhaps most, are of the 1920s.

QUANTITY: 81 slides

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Tribes; (2) prehistoric ruins; (3) New Mexico; (4) scenes; (5) miscellany


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 32


A man named Mole found the casket in Lawrence County, Arkansas. He purported it to be Hernando De Soto's. There is also an image of a medallion. The prints may have originally been part of the Alice C. Fletcher-Francis La Flesche papers (number 4558 in the series of numbered manuscripts).

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 3 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81H


Frank Micka and Joseph Andrews made the casts for Ales Hrdlicka's physical anthropology exhibit at the 1915 exposition in San Diego. Four photographs--each with both negative and print--were made of each item--front, back, and both sides. With the collection is a list by W.H. Egberts with names, ages, ethnicity, and measurements. White, Black, and American Indian (Sioux) males and females of varying ages from infants to the aged are represented. There is also a pygmy male.

DATE: ca. 1915

QUANTITY: 87 individuals

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 95-38.

CAUDILL, WILLIAM ABEL (1920-1972), Papers

William A. Caudill studied at the University of Chicago (Ph.D., 1950). His specialty was culture and personality, and he had much practical experience in human relations and work with mental patients. He was especially concerned with culturally determined aspects of mental illness and its treatment in Japan. His professional employment included positions with the Yale Department of Psychiatry (1950-1952), Harvard Department of Social Relations (1952-1960), Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry, and Personality and Environment Section, Laboratory of Socioenvironmental Studies, United States National Institute of Mental Health (1960-1962). For the latter, he was section chief.

Caudill's earliest research consisted of 1946 psychological studies of the Chippewa Indians of Lac du Flambeau. In 1947-1949, on a team of social scientists, he investigated the social and personal adjustment of formerly interned Japanese Americans who had moved to Chicago. In 1950-1952, again on a team, he studied the social structure and interaction among patients of a mental hospital and the relationship between emotional disorder and social class.

Beginning in 1954, Caudill made a series of research trips to Japan. In 1954-1955, he studied the relationship between American soldiers and Japanese communities. He also began a study of psychiatry as practiced in Japan. This included visits to Japanese hospitals and examination of changing Japanese values. In 1958-1959, he focused on three small psychiatric hospitals with contrasting theoretical orientations and methods of treatment. He investigated Japanese psychoanalysis, Morita therapy, and other aspects of Japanese treatments; patterns of emotion; and a general study of nurses at two different hospitals. In 1961, he began investigation of Japanese child-rearing practices.

The papers include reference materials and original notes relating to Caudill's research activities. They also include general reference materials. There is little or no material relating directly to his early studies of Japanese Americans nor materials concerning psychological tests of changing values and patterns of emotion. The material relating to research on Japanese child rearing appears significant but limited in quantity.

DATES: 1950s-early 1960s

QUANTITY: 7.1 linear meters (24.25 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Japanese material, including (1) general material on Japanese society and culture; (2) Japanese culture and personality studies; (3) Japanese medicine and psychiatry; (4) Japanese psychiatry; (5) family and child rearing; (6) hospital studies; (7) autobiography of a mental patient; (8) nurses study; other material, including (9) biographical material; (10) Chippewa material; (11) study of a mental hospital ward; (12) drafts of writings; (13) reprints and papers; (14) miscellaneous printed and processed material

FINDING AID: Folder list

RESTRICTION: Access to the material is restricted to trained researchers who have a need to see it and will agree to protect the identity of subjects of the research by Caudill and other scientists.


The collection consists of notes on Sudanese architecture. The material originated from a salvage archeological study of doorways and other decorative elements of Nubian houses in the Wadi Halfa District scheduled for flooding by the Aswan High Dam. The Sudan Unit, University of Khartoum, sponsored the work. There is also a collection of related photographic color slides.

DATES: 1964

QUANTITY: ca. .6 linear meter (2 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) East bank houses; (2) houses (two sets)



Pictured are Henri Breuil, Comte Begouen and sons, and Comte Cartailhac before the cave on Begouen's property. Marc Begouen took the photograph shortly after Comte Begouen explored the site and discovered paleolithic art.

J. Townsend Russell purchased the photograph with money from the Old World Archeology Fund. It is United States National Museum accession 121,411, catalog 365,251.

DATE: October 1912

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-78

CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF MAN (1968-1983), Records

The Center for the Study of Man came into being on July 1, 1968, as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution. Its beginning was preluded by the appointment in 1965 of the Chicago-based anthropologist Sol Tax as special advisor in anthropology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian. Tax was to assist with the reorientation of anthropology at the Smithsonian. His cooperation with Smithsonian Office of Anthropology staff (now the Department of Anthropology) created several special programs, some of which moved to the CSM upon its inception. Tax was the CSM's first director. Samuel L. Stanley, formerly project coordinator for the Office of Anthropology, became the CSM program coordinator and was in charge of day-to-day operations. Priscilla Reining was appointed coordinator for urgent anthropology. Besides such staff, the CSM consisted of an advisory board (sometimes called "members") drawn from the international community of anthropologists.

Essentially, the CSM's concern was to apply anthropological knowledge to phenomena conceived as problems confronting mankind as a whole. It aimed to promote and coordinate study of these, mainly through special programs for meetings of established anthropological organizations and by bringing interested researchers together in special task forces.

The CSM also included several special programs. Although each had considerable independence, all can be subsumed under its broad and ultimate purposes. Thus, the compilation of a computer-based directory of anthropologists and the compilation of bibliographies of anthropological literature were facilitative efforts. The Urgent Anthropology Program, originating in the Office of Anthropology after a 1966 international conference in Washington, supported data collection for works of general anthropological interest. Its method was to provide small grants for field work in cultures undergoing rapid modernization. Similarly, Roy S. Bryce-LaPorte's Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies, added to the CSM in 1974, collected data and carried out special studies. The National Anthropological Film Center, in planning since the 1970s, was established in 1974 with funds from the National Endowment for the Humanities and incorporated into the CSM in 1975. An American Indian Program consisted of two parts. One was the compilation of a new multivolume Handbook of North American Indians under the general editorship of William C. Sturtevant. This was another project taken over from the Office of Anthropology. The other consisted of action anthropology projects undertaken with several Indian groups.

The CSM was one of several Smithsonian efforts to create research units to deal with broad problems of contemporary interest. Their success depended on two contingencies: first, funding would become available once the units were launched and, second, the traditional individualistic research of the Smithsonian staff could be continued or redirected but somehow incorporated under the broad goals of the new units. When both assumptions proved difficult to realize, the new programs ended or were restricted. Thus, beginning in 1976, the CSM was slowly phased out. In that year, Stanley joined the staff of the director of the National Museum of Natural History. Tax's services ended, and the director of the National Museum of Natural History became the CSM director. Shortly afterwards, the CSM became identified as part of (and, for a time, the only part of) the National Museum of Man. Subsequently, the Handbook rejoined the National Museum of Natural History and ultimately to its Department of Anthropology. The Urgent Anthropology Program also returned to the Department of Anthropology.

Thus the CSM came to consist of the Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies and the National Research Film Center. In 1982, the Film Center was divided. Research was placed under one director; and the archives, designated the Human Studies Film Archives, was placed under Director Herman J. Viola, who was at the same time the director of the National Anthropological Archives. In 1983, the CSM and its two remaining programs--the film center and the Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies--came to an end.

The records are mainly those of by Program Coordinator Stanley, the CSM administrative officer, and the Institute for Immigration and Ethnic Studies. Especially well documented are several international CSM-sponsored conferences, including a planning meeting in Cairo in 1972, several presession conferences (on cannabis, alcohol, population, and the transmission of culture) at the Ninth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences at Chicago in 1973, and a 1974 meeting at Bucharest on the cultural implications of population change. Other records relating to cross-cultural studies include those concerning an abortive attempt to issue a series of monographs and the organization of special task forces concerned with questions of human fertility and the environment. The records also include material about the action anthropology projects with Indians with which Stanley was directly concerned. These focused on economic development and include material relating to the coordination of studies of specific tribes carried out with funds from the Economic Development Administration and on Stanley's economic development consulting for the American Indian Policy Review Commission. In addition, there are a few files that Stanley created for general information and material relating to his earlier teaching career.

Although some materials concerning these programs are housekeeping records, many letters, notes, and statements concern policy and procedure. For some conferences, there are scholarly papers and transcripts. Many files, especially those of an informational nature, include considerable amounts of printed and processed material.

With some CSM programs, Stanley's relationship was apparently formal instead of directly active. There is, for example, little documentation among his records that relates to the CSM's film center and less about the immigration and ethnic studies among his materials. Most material pertinent to these units are among the administrative officer's records.

DATES: 1966-1982 (a few earlier)

QUANTITY: ca. 34 linear meters (ca. 78 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: Program coordinator's records, including (1) records relating to the Ninth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; (2) records relating to the cannabis project, 1973; (3) papers and transcripts of the cannabis conference; (4) records relating to the International Congress on Cultural Transmission, Oshkosh, Wisconsin; (5) records relating to the alcohol conference, Chicago, 1973; (6) records relating to the cross-cultural monograph project; (7) information file on American Indians; (8) records relating to the Cairo, Egypt, conference; (9) information file on folklife festivals; (10) general correspondence; (11) records relating to the American Indian Policy Review commission; (12) material relating to Indians in the census; (13) records relating to the Economic Development Agency grant; (14) records relating to the Panajachel, Guatemala, conference; (15) Wes White's papers relating to the Lumbee; (16) documents concerning national study of American draft register; (17) Indian education file; (18) teaching cooperative file; (19) records relating to the Washington conference, 1966 (urgent anthropology); (20) files concerning electronic data processing; (21) records relating to Indian Voices; (22) records relating to Current Anthropology; (23) information file concerning general anthropology; (24) records relating to action anthropology; (25) records relating to urgent anthropology; (26) miscellany; records of the administrative officer, including (27) administrative officer's file; records of the Research Institute for Immigration and Ethnic Studies, including (28) administrative records

FINDING AID: Draft inventory


The Central States Anthropological Society was established as the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), and it has informally been called the Central States Branch. Samuel A. Barrett led the creation of the new organization. The motivation was the difficulty for anthropologists of the central United States to attend AAA meetings, for the AAA had come to convene only in large northeastern or Middle Atlantic cities. The section's stated purpose was to promote "the cause of anthropology by means of a closer fraternization of the central states." "Central states" meant the entire region lying between the Appalachian and Rocky mountains. In fact, however, CSAS has been most successful and influential in the midwestern states.

The AAA approved the organization of the Central Section through a constitutional amendment adopted in December 1921. The section's constitution was adopted at its first meeting in 1922. It provided for two categories of membership--members who belonged to the AAA and associates who belonged only the section. Both could vote and hold office. The constitution vested governance in an executive council made up of members elected to an executive committee together with the society's officers. The members of the executive committee itself were originally elected by a larger council, but the council was abolished in 1947. Since then the committee has been elected directly by the membership.

The original constitution provided for officers including a president, two vice presidents, a secretary-treasurer, and a corresponding secretary. The section failed to fill the latter office until 1952; and three years later the position was abolished as was the position of secretary-treasurer. Replacing them were two offices, a secretary and a treasurer. In 1957, the two offices were again combined as secretary-treasurer. In 1967, the officers came to include a newsletter editor and, in 1975, a proceedings editor. Both editors sat on the council as nonvoting members. The CSAS created other officers in 1975, including an immediate past president and a "student-liaison person," both of whom took places on the council. Also in 1975, the first vice president was designated to become the next president and the second vice president was designated to succeed the first vice president.

The main function of the Central Section has been the annual meeting. During the first few decades, these featured papers by many outstanding midwestern anthropologists. In keeping with the strong regional interest in archeology, the content was heavily archeological. This strong bent continued even after 1935 when many Central Section members joined the newly formed Society for American Archaeology. Until the 1950s, there was a strong connection between these two organizations, and they held joint meetings for many years. So strong was the connection, in fact, that the Central Section came to doubt its ability to hold a successful meeting on its own and feared that reduction of the archeological content of its programs would lead the archeologists to go off on their own and pull many section members along with them. Not until the Society for American Archaeology began to hold meetings outside the Middle West and the Central Section joined in meetings with other organizations did the Central Section strengthen its sociocultural interest, which has since become dominate.

A condition of the special relationship with the AAA was support for the American Anthropologist. In return, the AAA provided a service in collecting the regular AAA dues from section members and turning a portion over to the section. This arrangement continued until 1959, when the AAA began to keep its entire dues and collected an additional amount for the section. In 1967, the AAA announced that it could no longer continue to offer such services without compensation. At that point, the CSAS broke the relationship. By 1972, the AAA was again providing the society billing services for a fee. In the 1980s, the CSAS became a constituent society in the AAA reorganization.

The Central States Branch established its own publication program when, in 1946-1952, it issued a mimeographed newsletter called the Central States Bulletin. In 1966, CSAS began to issue the Central States Anthropological Society Newsletter. In 1973, it also began to publish the Central States Anthropological Society Proceedings, which, in 1978, became Central Issues in Anthropology. Other than for these publications, most reports of and announcements about the organization have appeared in the AAA publications.

During the 1950s and 1960s, the CSAS began efforts to promote improved graduate training. In 1953, it began to sponsor a Prize Paper Contest for students. In the 1960s, it surveyed regional graduate education and also explored possibilities for assisting with field training, lectures by visiting foreign anthropologists, and several other programs. In additon, special programs at annual meetings concerned education and teaching.

In 1985, with the AAA reorganization, the CSAS became a unit of the AAA.

The records represent an effort by officers to gather dispersed materials. The records, however, are still far from complete. In spite of the appearance of continuous dates, much material is missing from all series. Besides to records in a formal sense, there are manuscript histories of the CSAS.

Correspondents include David F. Aberle, Ethel G. Aginsky, J. Lawrence Angel, Raymond S. Baby, David A. Baerreis, Victor Barnouw, William R. Bascom, Marston Bates, J. Joseph Bauxar, Richard K. Beardsley, Robert L. Bee, John W. Bennett, William E. Bittle, Robert A. Black, Stephen T. Boggs, Stephan F. Borhegyi, Erika E. Bourguignon, Gustav G. Carlson, Joseph B. Casagrande, John L. Champe, James B. Christensen, W. Montague Cobb, Fay-Cooper Cole, Donald Collier, Dwight W. Culver, Joan F. de Pena, Leo A. Despres, Thorne Deuel, Frederick H. Douglas, Don W. Dragoo, Harold E. Driver, Fred R. Eggan, Leo Estel, Henry Field, Roland W. Force, Melvin L. Fowler, George R. Fox, Charles Frantz, Art Gallaher, William S. Godfrey, Jr., Walter R. Goldschmidt, James B. Griffin, Charles H. Griswold, Alfred K. Guthe, Carl E. Guthe, William G. Haag, Katherine Hanna, Charles Harding, Charles W.M. Hart, June Helm, William E. Henry, Melville J. Herskovits, Harry Hoijer, Lowell D. Holmes, Paul Honigsheim, Barry L. Isaac, Carl R. Jantzen, Frederick Johnson, Volney H. Jones, Bernice A. Kaplan, J. Charles Kelley, Charles F. Keyes, Madeline D. Kneberg, Ronald J. Kurtz, R. Weston LaBarre, Charles H. Lange, Gabriel W. Lasker, William S. Laughlin, Edward J. Lehman, William A. Lessa, Oscar Lewis, Thomas M.N. Lewis, Eli Lilly, Nancy O. Lurie, David G. Mandelbaum, McKim Marriott, Paul S. Martin, John C. McGregor, Will C. McKern, Betty J. Meggers, Mary Melin, Alan P. Merriam, Horace M. Miner, Richard G. Morgan, Leonard W. Moss, Manning Nash, Philleo Nash, Paul H. Nesbitt, Georg Neumann, John A. Noon, Lita S. Osmundsen, Jane Philips, Arnold R. Pilling, George I. Quimby, Robert E. Ritzenthaler, J.T. Robinson, Chandler W. Rowe, Marshall D. Sahlins, Harold K. Schneider, Iva Schnitt, Douglas W. Schwartz, Thomas A. Sebeok, Mary Sellers, James M. Silverberg, Marian W. Smith, Edward H. Spicer, Robert F.G. Spier, James N. Spuhler, David B. Stout, Sol Tax, Mischa Titiev, P.F. Titterington, John Useem, James Herbert Vaughan, Jr., Anthony F.C. Wallace, Wilson D. Wallis, William Lloyd Warner, James B. Watson, Joseph E. Weckler, Jr., Waldo R. Wedel, Paul Weer, Bella Weitzner, Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, Leslie A. White, Andrew H. Whiteford, Norman E. Whitten, Jr., Warren L. Wittry, Alvin W. Wolfe, and Lorraine M. Zimmerman.

DATES: 1922-1976

QUANTITY: ca. .9 linear meter (ca. 3 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Secretaries' correspondence and related papers, 1940-1975; (2) Leslie A. White letters, 1942, 1943, 1946; (3) CSAS publications and annual meeting programs, 1926-1976; (4) minutes of business meetings and meetings of the executive council, 1922-1976; (5) secretaries' and treasurers' reports, 1929-1976; (6) membership records, 1929-1971; (7) miscellaneous organizing, historical, and financial records, 1922-1967; (8) history of the CSAS by Barry L. Isaac, ca. 1979-1980; (9) calendar of secretaries' correspondence and letters of Leslie A. White, ca. 1977-1980; (10) correspondence, 1975 (with calendar); (11) correspondence, 1976 (with calendar)

FINDING AID: Calendar of correspondence by Barry LaMont Isaac included with the records


Includes exhibits and individual items at the Museo de Arqueología. Most items are Mochica.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 7 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93-15D


The material consists of copy prints made from photographs furnished by Duane King, of the Cherokee National Museum. Most subjects are Cherokee and include informal portraits, group portraits, and views. Of note are views of Cherokee, North Carolina, and images that show persons engaged in agriculture, food preparation, crafts, and games. There are also photographs that show the Thomas Legion of Confederate Cherokee veterans; the statue of Sequoyah in the Capitol in Washington, D. C., and its sculptor; and a view of the Cherokee National Museum. There are also several photographs made at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, including one made at the ceremony in 1918 at which the school was turned over to the United States Army. The Carlisle photographs also include pictures of Nez Perce Indians and members of other tribes. There are, in addition, photographs showing Fort Thompson, North Dakota and Fort Yates, South Dakota. One is of the Indian boarding school at Fort Yates, and another is of tipis erected during the 1902 Fort Yates Fourth of July celebration.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 80 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-1


This limited edition (6/25) black-and-white print of the Mayan structure is by Cynthia MacAdams, a fine arts photographer.

DATE: 1988

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-38


The tintype is from a photomechanical copy of an image by Samuel Latham. An embossed paper mat is included. It is a modern tintype made to look like an old one.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 tintype

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 89-9


The print is of a Michigan Chippewa. His portrait is on a mount of C.C. Lester, of the Courtney Studio in Canton, Ohio.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-41

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