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Bache, a journalist and popular writer on many subjects, donated several photographs to the Smithsonian anthropology collections. This lot of three photographs show (1) people in Sumatra and (2) an Apache woman. The reason for Bache's interest in the photographs has not been determined.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 106B


The photographs are on imprinted cabinet mounts. Included are portraits of the Shoshoni chief Washakie and the Arapahos Black Coal, Mollie (with a baby in a carrier), and Sharp Nose. There are also two unidentified Arapaho boys with bows and arrows.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 5 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-12


BARNETT, HOMER GARNER (1906-1985), Papers

Homer G. Barnett attended the University of California (Ph.D., 1938). His specialization was culture change and applied anthropology.

As a student, Barnett did field work among American Indians of Oregon, Washington, and northwestern California--particularly the Yurok, Hupa, Yakima, and several small groups of the Oregon coast. Some research concerned diverse ethnological matters but focused primarily on the Indian Shaker religion and the potlatch. The latter was the subject of his doctoral dissertation.

In 1939, at the University of New Mexico, Barnett served as field director of the Jemez Archeological Field School and directed a project in the Santa Fe National Forest. Later that year, he moved to the University of Oregon. In the summer of 1943, he participated in a World War II Far Eastern Language and Area Training Program of the University of California at Berkeley. There he helped train volunteer service men in techniques of eliciting cultural information from native informants and used a Thai to demonstrate techniques.

In the following year, Barnett joined the Bureau of American Ethnology staff and became a researcher with the Ethnogeographic Board, the World War II agency to provide scientific information about human and natural resources of world areas. He served as the executive secretary of the Board's abortive Pacific Survey Project and, later, undertook a War Document Survey concerning the Pacific to advise on the disposition of documents accumulated by the government.

Returning to the University of Oregon after the war, Barnett continued his interest in Pacific cultures. He worked on Palau under the sponsorship of the National Research Council, served as staff anthropologist for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and was a consultant for the government of the Netherlands New Guinea. During the 1960s, he directed a program of research among Pacific communities displaced because of natural disasters or atomic bomb tests.

Particularly noteworthy among the papers are notebooks relating to Barnett's field work among American Indians, Palauans, and the people of the Netherlands New Guinea. There are also notes collected from Barnett's Thai informant in 1943. In addition, there are two manuscripts, one a copy of Barnett's dissertation and the other a processed paper entitled "The Yakima Indians in 1943." Some photographs are Barnett's own and relate to his field work, but many were collected for teaching purposes. In addition, there are a few administrative papers relating to the displaced communities study.

The collection also includes much printed material relating to various areas of the Pacific. Some items are government documents, and others are copies of articles that appeared in journals. Some entire newspapers are present. Other printed items concern the languages of Palau and Dutch New Guinea.

There is little that relates to Barnett's career in the classroom except slides collected for lectures. There is nothing concerning his archeological work or his work with the Ethnogeographic Board. A report concerning the former is, however, in the series of numbered manuscripts. Material concerning the work with the Ethnogeographic Board is in the records of the board in the Smithsonian Institutionn Archives. Most of Barnett's papers are in the archives of the University of Oregon at Eugene.

DATES: Mostly 1934-1973

QUANTITY: ca. 2.3 linear meters (ca. 7.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Material relating to the displaced communities study, 1962-1970; (2) papers written by Homer G. Barnett, 1938, 1942, 1955, 1961; (3) field notebooks, 1934-1955; (4) dissertation notebooks (reading notes), n.d.; (5) printed linguistic material, 1942-1965 (largely Palau and Irian Jaya); (6) scholarly serials and periodicals, ca. 1950-1973; (7) other processed and printed material, 1942-1974; (8) photographs (Yakima, Coast Salish, Palau, Yap, Ponape, Irian Jaya), ca. 1895-1955; (9) Micronesian Monthly/ Reporter, 1951-1963; (10) Quarterly Bulletin of the South Pacific Commission, 1953-1966; (11) photographic slides (Palau, Hawaii, Micronesia, teaching materials), n.d.; (12) maps (United States and Oceania), n.d.

FINDING AIDS: Draft register

RESTRICTION: Many slides cannot be reproduced because of copyright.

BARRETT, ROBERT LEMOYNE (1871-1969), Papers

Robert L. Barrett was a traveler, popular writer, and geographer. The material relates largely to expeditions to Norway, Russia, Siberia (with Roland B. Dixon), Baja California, Inner Asia, Ethiopia, Morocco, the American Southwest, and the Canadian Rockies. Included is correspondence between Dixon and W.M. Davis and a manuscript by Ghulan Rasul Galwan, Barrett's Ladaki caravan leader.

DATES: 1892-1909

QUANTITY: ca. 2.1 linear meters (ca. 6.8 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Letters of Robert LeMoyne Barrett, 1892-1909 (most written for publication); (2) manuscripts of writings and publications, 1890s-1920s; (3) materials relating to expeditions, 1897-1923; (4) note slips, 1903-1909; (5) miscellany, n.d.; (6) photographs, 1897-1906

FINDING AID: Draft register


The lot consists of copy prints made from originals belonging to J. A. Bruder, Alexandria, Virginia. Many images are of

people involved in the Battle of the Little Big Horn and include Crows, Dakotas, and Gros Ventres. There are also photographs of whites, including one of Barry.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 24 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-71


Gordon was an army comrade of Barthlemess and received the album from him. The images are mostly of American Indians--Cheyenne, Crow, Navaho, and Zuni. There are also photographs of a singing club and other subjects made in Barthelmess's native Germany. Yet other photographs show the United States 22d Infantry Band (of which Barthelmess was a member); other military units, including Indian scouts; the Custer Battlefield in Montana; and views of Santa Fe, Fort Keogh in Montana, the Lame Deer Agency, Fort Bayard in New Mexico, and Fort Lewis in Colorado.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 118 copy prints

ARRANGEMENT: None discernible


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-1


The collection is made up of copy prints received from the United States Army Armament Readiness Command in Rock Island, Illinois. Shown are images of the wife of Chief Montana, a group of Oglala Sioux Indians who were captured after the surrender of Sitting Bull, and a view showing the gathering of the dead after the Battle of Wounded Knee. There are also copies of illustrations that appeared in the Davenport Academy of Science Official Book of the Fort Armstrong Centennial Celebration: 1816-1916, 1916, including a Fox memorial post placed on the grave of Colonel George Davenport; portraits of Black Hawk, Seuskuk, Keokuk and his son, Logan Kakaque, Mary Kakaque, and Jesse Kakaque; and Fox dwellings.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 8 prints (12 images)

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-57

BEALS, RALPH LEON (1901-1985), Papers

Ralph L. Beals trained in anthropology at the University of California (Ph.D., 1930) under Robert Lowie, Edward W. Gifford, and Alfred L. Kroeber. After a brief period with the National Park Service, he became an instructor at Berkeley and, in 1936, as an anthropologist, joined the Department of Psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles. He eventually organized the UCLA Department of Anthropology and Sociology and served as its chairman in 1941-1948. He was chairman of the UCLA Department of Anthropology in 1964-1965. In 1969, he became a professor emeritus of the university.

Beals' research focused on California, the American Southwest, and Latin America, especially Mexico. During the summer of 1929, he carried out an ethnological survey of the Southern Maidu (Nisenan), working under Kroeber and partly supported by Bureau of American Ethnology Cooperative Ethnological Research funds. In 1937-1938, he was on the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition under the direction of Ansel F. Hall and excavated an archeological site in Cobra Head Wash in Arizona. In 1948-1949, he investigated conditions at Hicks Camp, a Mexican settlement in southern California; and, in 1945-1955, he headed a project for the United States Department of Justice to study traditional land utilization by California Indians. The study related to Indian land claims cases.

Beals' involvement in Mexico goes back to a youthful tramp through Sonora and Sinaloa in 1918-1919 that included a long sojourn with a Mexican family. In 1930-1932, Beals worked with the Yaqui and Mayo; in 1932, with Elsie Clews Parsons, he worked with the Cora and Huichol found at Tepic, Nayarit; and, in 1933, with the western Mixe of Oaxaca. With these groups and with the tribes of northern Mexico in general, he concerned himself with both the ethnography of exiting cultures and the reconstruction of the cultures at the time of contact with Europeans. Given the currents of anthropology, a family background of social concern, his historical interest in cultures long influenced by Europeans, and his observation of rapid change and strong modern economic influences among Indian tribes, Beals came to treat largely with social anthropology, problems of acculturation, and studies useful in applied aspects of anthropology.

In 1938, with Daniel F. Rubín de la Borbolla, Alfonso Caso, John M. Cooper, and Alfred L. Kroeber, Beals took part in a comprehensive multidiscipline study of the Tarascans to help formulate government policies and programs. Beals and several collaborators and assistants carried out ethnographic and social anthropological studies at Cheraacute;n. In 1948-1949, Beals studied the economic systems of Nayoacute;n, Ecuador, a Quechua village, and cultural and social changes accompanying the shift from a subsistence to a marketplace economy. In Buenos Aires in 1963, he collected kinship data from students at the Institute of Sociology. In 1965, he began a detailed study of the large traditional market system of eastern Oaxaca in Mexico. Over a five-year period, many scholars and students assisted Beals.

Beals had active ties with many organizations and gave some extraordinary service. During 1942-1943, he directed a cooperative social science program between Latin American institutions and the Smithsonian Institution, establishing the InterAmerican Society for Anthropology and Geography. From 1943-1948, he edited the Society's journal Acta Americana, initially fulfilling official obligations but, after 1944 and his return to teaching, donating his time for the work. In 1944-1951, he was a collaborator with the Smithsonian's Institute for Social Anthropology.

As a member of the Social Science Research Council from 1946-1962, Beals undertook to study conditions in Latin American social science. In 1952, for the Council's Committee on Cross-Cultural Education, he and Norman D. Humphrey investigated the experiences of Mexican students in the United States. He also served the American Anthropological Association as a member of its executive council from 1947-1949, vice president in 1949, and president in 1950. In 1965, the AAA, concerned with the use of anthropologists by government security agencies, asked Beals to study the ethics involved. Prepared in cooperation with many research scholars, Beals report became the basis for the work of the AAA's ethics committee.

Beals had many other organizational ties and responsibilities. He served as American technical advisor at the First Inter-American Indianists Conference at Paacute;tzcuaro, Mexico, in 1939; chairman of the Social Science Research Council Cross-Cultural Education Committee from 1953 to 1960; member of the Society for American Archaeology executive committee from 1954 to 1957; and president of the Southwest Anthropological Association in 1958. He was an editor with the Handbook of Latin American Studies, American Anthropologist, and Notes on Latin American Studies.

The Beals papers include field notes, correspondence, printed materials, copies of historical documents, drafts and final manuscripts of writings, photographs, and cartographic materials. Sometimes, they include materials of colleagues and assistants. Especially notable is abundant material regarding Oaxaca markets. Materials that relate to other aspects of his career are distributed through the papers, often interfiled with contemporary research material. There are also personal materials.

Conspicuously missing from the papers are notes on Beals' archeological work, which he retained at the time of the donation, explaining that the material would be placed at UCLA. There are relatively few materials relating to his teaching career, although some letters exchanged with Kroeber concern the establishment of anthropology at UCLA. Correspondence with students in the field often concerns teaching as well as research activities.

Correspondents include Elizabeth Bacon, R.A. Barney, Stephen T. Boggs, Donald D. Brand, Leonard Broom, Alfonso Caso y Andrade, Ralph C. Cassady, Jr., Frederica de Laguna, Walter Depouy, Keith A. Dixon, Cora DuBois, Carl Epling, Charles Frantz, Walter R. Goldschmidt, Abraham Halpern, Peter B. Hammond, Peter Hare, Joseph A. Hester, Jr., Harry Hoijer, Irving L. Horowitz, Lee Hugg, Norman D. Humphrey, Virginia R. Johnson, George Kennedy, Clark Kerr, Paul Kirchhoff, Alfred L. Kroeber, William A. Lessa, Robert H. Lowie, T.D. McCown, Perry W. Morton, George P. Murdock, Hugo G. Nutini, Marvin K. Opler, Daniel F. Rubín de la Borbolla, Eshrev Shevky, M. Brewster Smith, Leslie Spier, Robert G. Sproul, Julian H. Steward, Louise Strauss, William Duncan Strong, William Lloyd Warner, Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, Richard B. Woodbury, Donald R. Young, and Jacob Zeitlin. Some letters concern Elsie Clews Parsons and Carlos Castenada.

DATES: 1919-1970

QUANTITY: ca. 16 meters (ca. 52 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Correspondence, 1928-1980; (2) research proposals, 1936-1977; (3) material relating to Acta Americana, 1942-1963; (4) early Mexican and California studies, 1930-1932, 1936; (5) material relating to the Tarascan project, 1939-1941; (6) material relating to social science in Latin America, 1948-1949; (7) material relating to the Nayoacute;n Project, Ecuador, 1948-1949; (8) material relating to the cross-cultural education study, 1952-1957; (9) material relating to California Indians, 1945-1955; (10) material relating to the study of markets in Oaxaca, 1938-1973 (most 1960s); (11) material relating to research and ethics, 1965-1968; (12) miscellaneous field materials (Hicks Camp and Argentine kinship), 1946-1952, 1963; (13) manuscripts of writings and lectures, 1919-1977; (14) miscellany, 1929-1970; (15) photographs, card files, notebooks, and oversized material, 1930s-1960s.

FINDING AID: Draft register

RESTRICTION: Some personal materials have been restricted. Beals has provided edited copies for the use of current researchers. In addition, some diaries and correspondence of field assistants have been restricted for the lifetime of the creators.


All were prepared by Charles Martin (1877-1957), a photographer with the Philippine government around 1901-1915 and, in 19l5-1940, a staff photographer with the National Geographic Magazine. Some are from negatives by Martin but others are possibly by researchers with whom he worked, including the Philippine Secretary of the Interior Dean C. Worcester. Many images were published in Worcester's books and articles on the Philippines and others appear in such works as Albert E. Jenk's The Bontoc Igorot, 1905. All images are ethnographic and probably all relate to the so-called nonchristian tribes. Many are "mugshots" showing full face and profile views. Others are group portraits or images showing clothing, body decoration, and various activities. The slides are not captioned.

The collection was sent to the Smithsonian by Robert Bennett Bean, an anatomist who was employed in the Philippines between 1907 and 1910. Related photographs are in the Division of Ethnology collection (see especially the Dean C. Worchester collection) and the Division of Physical Anthropology collection (see especially the Robert Bennett Bean collection).

DATE: Early 20th century

QUANTITY: 162 slides

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-58B.


The copy prints of this lot show Nick Jenise and Leon Palliday. They were obtained from the Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas. For remarks on Bell, see Boyce Collection of Charles Milton Bell Photographs and George Eastman House, Reference Prints of Selected Photographs of Indian Subjects and Other People.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 2 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-10


The photographs of this lot are copy prints. One shows the 1881 Oto delegation and the other is a portrait of White Thunder, a Brule Dakota. For remarks on Bell, see Boyce Collection of Charles Milton Bell Photographs and George Eastman House, Reference Prints of Selected Photographs of Indian Subjects and Other People.

DATE: 1880-1881

QUANTITY: 2 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81-56


Ellsworth Price Bertholf began his career as a United States Revenue Cutter Service ship's officer. Later, he became commandant of the service and figured in the creation of the United States Coast Guard.

Bertholf's Siberian photographs come from the period of his assignment to the U.S.S. Bear. They concern an early twentieth-century effort of the United States government to help the Eskimos of the Alaskan coast. With traditional food sources depleted, the Eskimos were underfed. As the government agent, Sheldon Jackson was responsible for a government program to introduce reindeer and train the Eskimos to herd them.

By 1901, Jackson had imported domesticated reindeer from Siberia and Lapland. He then learned of particularly large specimens herded by the Tunguse of the Okhotsk Sea region. To investigate and obtain some, Jackson got the Department of the Treasury to detail Bertholf to the Department of the Interior. Bertholf then traveled to Siberia by way of St. Petersburg and Moscow. The images concern the sledge journey from Irkutsk to Yakutsk, Okhotsk, and Ola. At Ola, he obtained a herd and transported them to Alaska. The entire journey, from St. Petersburg to Alaska, took place between January and July 1901.

The photographs show Bertholf's sledge and other means of transportation, reindeer herds, the slaughter of reindeer, people, dress, dwellings, other structures, settlements, games, markets, and agriculture. The people involved are Cossack, Russian, Tunguse, and Yakut. There are also photographs of Chukchi at Anadyr. Some photographs appear in Sheldon Jackson's Annual Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, 1901, Washington, 1902. Also included is a Chukchi photograph that does not seem to relate to Bertholf's work.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 114 prints



CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 130


The material consists of photomechanical prints that include a depiction of a buffalo cow from Francisco Lopez de Gomara's Historia General de las Indias, Sargossa, 1553, folio CXVII; a photographic view of "Rath and Wright's Buffalo Hide Yard in 1878, Showing 40,000 Buffalo Hides, Dodge City, Kansas" and a photographic view illustrating the caption "In 1875 the bones of countless thousands of buffalo lay scattered in disjointed, wolf-gnawd fragments all over the Great Plains of the West."

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-68


Blair was a historical researcher who, with his wife, had a special interest in the Southwest. He took some photographs and collected others.

There are photographs relating to Thomas V. Keam and show the church graveyard at Truro, England, where he is buried; the house in Truro where he died; and a copy of a published portrait, perhaps the last likeness of him. Another photograph shows the birthplace of Alexander MacGregor Stephen in Edinburgh, and another shows Stephen's grave in Keams Canyon, Arizona. Two images show pottery by Nampeyo in the Dartmouth College Hodd Museum of Art. The remaining photograph shows the Tom Polacca Memorial on the Hopi Indian Reservation and includes Elsie, Vinton, Fannie, Elva, Thomas, Harold, Tonita, Leah Polacca and a son and daughter of Starlie Polacca and Nampeyo.

DATES: 1904-1986 (most 1986)

QUANTITY: 13 photographs, including black and white prints, color prints, and color slides.

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-35


In 1942-1944, U.S. Army Signal Corps Lieutenant Blaisdell was at a radar installation in Assam. His photographs are show Naga, their villages, and activities, including work for the United States Army. Also shown are Gurkha soldiers.

DATE: 1942-1944

QUANTITY: 56 snapshots

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-39


The photographs, made on the Valiente Peninsula in Panama, show a termite harvest, coconut harvest, medicine preparation, housing and house construction, boat building, and a fishing trip. They relate to NMNH accession 364,391.

DATE: 1983

QUANTITY: 73 prints (some duplicates)



CALL NUMBER: Photograph lot 89-11

BLOOMFIELD, LEONARD (1887-1949), Papers

Leonard Bloomfield was one of America's foremost scientific linguists, concerned with theoretical, descriptive, and applied aspects of his field. A teacher of German and an accomplished Indo-European scholar, he also carried out research on the languages of non-literate peoples. Although the material is of a broad nature, much concerns Bloomfield's own work and the work of students and colleagues--Charles F. Voegelin, Morris Swadesh, and Bernard Bloch--on Algonquian languages, particularly Menominee, Chippewa, Shawnee, Delaware, Fox, Mahican, and Cree. Included are manuscript word lists, grammar notes, and texts together with related printed and processed materials.

There are also a few letters of colleagues and informants (Ruth Landes, Joe Satterlee, Amos Striker, and Voegelin); an early draft of the 1946 publication Algonquian, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology Number 6, pages 85-129; and other writings. Also included, sometimes as waste materials on the backs of newer manuscripts, are materials relating to Bloomfield's work on European languages and on Turkish.

DATES: 1920s-1940s

QUANTITY: ca. 3.7 linear meters (ca. 12 linear feet)



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