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American Indian Public Programs was part of the Department of Education in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. Throughout its existence between 1989 and 1993, Aleta Ringlero was its director. As shown in these photographs, its main concerns were demonstrations by American Indian artists in the museum's exhibit areas.

Included are photographs of performances by Thelene Albert and Annie Bourke (White Mountain Apache), leather workers; Rose Anderson (Pomo), basket maker; Annie Antone (Papago), basket maker; Sally and Lorraine Black (Navaho), basket makers; Molly Blankenship (Eastern Cherokee), weaver; Gregg Bourland (Minneconjou Dakota), hide shirt designer; Sadie Buck, Jan Martin, Charlene Bomberry, and other members of the Seneca Six Nations Women's Singing Society; Candy and Claudia Cellicion (Zuni), bead workers; Greg Colfax (Makah), sculptor and wood worker; Elizabeth Cordero-Suina (Cochiti), potter; Bill Crouse (Seneca) and Kevin Johnny-John (Onondaga), story tellers; Jennie Eder (Assiniboin), needle worker; Cecelia Fire Thunder (Oglala), dollmaker; Joyce Growing Thunder Fogarty and Juanita Fogarty (Assiniboine/Dakota), traditional artist; Rikki Francisco (Pima), basket maker; Lisa Fritzler (Crow), bead worker; Jhon Goes-In-Center (Oglala Dakota), metal worker; Delores Lewis Garcia (Acoma), potter; Guillermo Gómez-Peña (Chicano), performance artist; Marty Good Bear (Mandan), bead worker, flute maker (includes peyote fans); Marian Hanssen (Kiowa), dress designer, bead worker; Tom Haukaas (Sicangu Dakota), quill worker; Katie Henio and Sarah Adeky (Navaho), spinner and weaver; Peter B. Jones (Iroquois), potter; Maynard Lavadour (Cayuse/Nez Perce), dress designer; Lisa Little Chief (Dakota), quilter, needle worker; Alice Little Man (Kiowa), dress designer; Robert Little Man (Southern Cheyenne), bead worker (include peyote rattle and staff); Geneva Lofton, Chris Devers, and Lee Dixon (Luiseño), hand game players; James Luna (Luiseño/Diegueño), performance artist; Joyce McFarland (Nez Perce), corn husk basket weaver; Jay McGirt (Creek), weaver; Ina McNeil (Hunkpapa Dakota), quill worker; Emma Lewis Mitchell (Acoma), potter; D. Montour (Delaware and Mohawk), sculptor; Vanessa Morgan (Kiowa and Pima), doll maker, dress designer, and bead worker; Kalley and Jennifer Keams Musial (Navaho), weavers; Nora Navanjo-Morse (Santa Clara), lecturer, potter; Angie Reano Owen (Santo Domingo), bead worker; Julia Parker (Miwok and Pomo), basket maker; Melissa Peterson (Makah), basket maker; Ellen and Faye Quandelancy (Zuni) carvers; Carmen Quinto-Plunkett (Tlingit), sculptor; Katherine Ramsey (Nez Perce), corn husk basket weaver; Martin Red Bear (Oglala Dakota), painter on hides; Mervin Ringlero (Pima), saddlemaker; Alta Rogers (Yurok/Paiute), clothing designer; Michael Rogers (Paiute), jewelry maker; Martha Ross (Eastern Cherokee), basket maker; Danny Seaboy, Sr., Danny Seaboy, Jr., and Londel Seaboy (Dakota), singers (at Renwick Gallery); Francys Sherman and Margaret Hill (Mono), basket makers; Marie Smith (Mandan), quilter; Dorothy Stanley (Miwok), weaver; Evangeline Talohaftewa (Hopi), basket maker; Don Tenoso (Hunkpapa Dakota), doll maker; Carol Vigil (Jemez), sgraffitoist and potter; and Lydia Whirlwind-Soldier (Sicangu Dakota), bead worker. Many photographs show examples of the artist's work.

Others shown are Jimmy Abeyeta (Navaho), JoAllyn Archambault (Standing Rock Dakota), Lou Ann Reed (Acoma); Aleta Ringlero (Pima); Robert Tenequer (Laguna), and Lisa Watts (Seneca). There is also a photograph of Mervin Ringlero with his wife Rose and their daughter Aleta. In addition, there are slides of the American Indian Theater Company and Allegheny River Singers; slides that document the work of dollmaker Don Tenoso, especially his Eagle Boy doll now in the Smithsonian collections; and proof sheets, mostly of the performance by James Luna and Guillermo Gómez-Peña.

DATES: 1989-1990

QUANTITY: ca. 500 prints and ca. 2000 color slides

ARRANGEMENT: The slides are arranged by year; the prints are unarranged.


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 91-26


The collection includes posters, flyers, booklets, pamphlets, invitations, bumper stickers, programs, announcements, pins, greeting cards, school year books, and other types of items. They concern such matters as elections, legislation, legal matters, education, health (including AIDS), sports, pow wows, dances, art shows, child care, conferences, and rodeos. Some are decorative items. Much material concerns the Dakota, but there are also items concerning the Cherokee, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Omaha, Paiute, Pueblo, Sac and Fox, Tonkawa, Ute, Yakima, Yavapai, and several intertribal groups. Among the many creators and distributors are the Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization, Akwesasne Notes, American Indian Dance Theatre, American Indian Heritage Foundation, American Indian Higher Education Consortium, American Indian Resources Institute, Arthur Amiotte, Bacone College, Black Hills and Northern Plains Indian Pow-wow and Arts Expo (1988), Black Hills State University, Chadron State College, Cherokee National Historical Society, Colorado State University, Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, Coos County Indian Education Coordination Program, DQ University, Dallas-Ft. Worth Intertribal Association, David Dancer, Dream Catcher's Artist Guild Exhibition, Eight Northern Indian Pueblo Council, Great Plains Indian Rodeo Association, R.V. Greeves, Stan Herd, Idyllwild School and Museum for the Arts, Institute of American Indian Art, Lakota Archives and Historical Research Center, Lakota Nation Invitational (1990 and 1992), Las Vegas Paiute Tribe, Donald Montileaux, Miss Arizona Indian Pageant, National Indian Health Board, Native American Rights Fund, Native American Women's Health Education Resource Center, Daryl No Heart, Delbert No Neck, Northwest Indian Child Welfare Association, Oglala Lakota College, Oglala Sioux Black Hills Steering Committee, Pine Ridge Child Protection Team, Plains Indian Cultural Center, Martin Red Bear, Oscar Howe Art Center, Red Cloud Indian School, Indian High School Basketball Tournament (Rapid City, 1983-1984), Red Cloud Indian Art Show, Vic Runnels, Sinte Gleska College, St. Francis Indian School, St. Mary's Mission School at Red Lake, Suquamish Museum, Glen Tarnowksi, H. Tsinhnahjinnie, Tulsa Indian Arts Festival, Susan Turnbull, United Southern and Eastern Tribes, Richard Under Baggage, and Wyoming Indian High School. Also included are greeting cards by Jean Ferrier, R.C. Gorman, Brummett Echohawk, Charles Edenshaw, Ron Kills Warrior, Daniel Long Soldier, Nadene Marler, Don Montileaux, Tim Paul, Jim Prindiville, Robert Redbird, and Cindy Swallow.

Mike Her-Many-Horses and Brother Simon, American Indian Heritage Center, Red Cloud Indian School, donated most items.

DATE: 1970s-1990s

QUANTITY: ca. 1000 items

ARRANGEMENT: Numerical (most unarranged)

FINDING AID: Some items are described in SIRIS.


The American Society for Conservation Archaeology (ASCA) was founded in 1974 at a Cultural Resource Management Conference in Denver. It has functioned largely for communication among and joint action by archeologists and others involved in contract archeology and the management of cultural resources. The chief means of accomplishing its ends has been to issue a newsletter and hold annual meetings. ASCA efforts have usually been in close cooperation with other archeological organizations. Its annual meetings have been held in conjunction with the annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology, and it is represented on the Cooperating Council of National Archeological Societies. It has also worked with the Society of Professional Archeologists to establish ways to identify professional archeologists.

The ASCA constitution and bylaws were framed in 1976. In the same year, the ASCA was incorporated in the state of Nevada. Its officers include a president, president-elect (originally vice president), secretary-treasurer, and editor.

The records consist largely of files of the secretary-treasurer and concerns finance and membership. Other material includes programs of meetings, newsletters, and copies of correspondence of the ASCA president.

DATES: 1974-1981

QUANTITY: ca. 10.7 linear meters (ca. 3.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) General file, 1974-1981; (2) membership lists, 1980-1981; (3) financial journal, 1975-1980; (4) newsletter, 1975-1978



The American Society for Ethnohistory (ASE) was founded in 1953 as the Ohio Valley Historic Indian Conference, a permanent interdisciplinary organization of ethnologists, archeologists, historians, and linguists. Its purpose was to promote the study of historic Indians of the Ohio Valley. All interested persons were eligible for membership. Its earliest officers were a chairman, executive secretary, and five elected members of an executive council.

In 1955, the conference became the American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference, and its purpose broadened to "encourage the study of the American Indians." Under a new constitution, the officers became a president, secretary-treasurer, editor, and five elected members of the executive council.

The ASE adopted its present name in 1966. Purpose broadened again, and today the ASE promotes and encourages "the study of ethnohistory." Under a revised constitution, officers include a president, president-elect, immediate past president (who is a member of the executive council), secretary-treasurer, editors, and elected members of the executive council.

Throughout its existence, ASE has had two major functions--meetings and publications. The main publication is the journal Ethnohistory. At times, ASE has also issued a newsletter.

The records are those of the editor and the secretary-treasurer. It appears that materials accumulated by some presidents and other officers have been interfiled with the secretary-treasurer's materials, and materials of subordinate editors have been added to the records of the editor of Ethnohistory. Although documentation is relatively full, it is still incomplete. There are missing, for example, such items as minutes of certain meetings, programs of meetings, and issues of the newsletter.

Correspondents include James E. Ayres, Raymond S. Baby, David A. Baerreis, John W. Bennett, Charles A. Bishop, Glenn A. Black, David M. Brugge, Bruce Bryan, Russell L. Caldwell, John L. Cotter, Gordon M. Day, Henry F. Dobyns, Frederick J. Dockstader, Ernest S. Dodge, Florence Hawley Ellis, Robert C. Euler, Emory Evans, John C. Ewers, Paul H. Ezell, Charles H. Fairbanks, William N. Fenton, Edwin N. Ferdon, Jr., Bernard L. Fontana, Jack D. Forbes, Don D. Fowler, John F. Freeman, William T. Hagan, Alfred I. Hallowell, Dwight Braley Heath, Harold Hickerson, Thomas B. Hinton, Francis Jennings, Kenneth E. Kidd, Richard C. Knopf, Eleanor B. Leacock, Dorothy Libby, August C. Mahr, Alice Marriott, Clement W. Meighan, John Victor Murra, James H. Rodabaugh, Karl H. Schwerin, Floyd W. Sharrock, Dwight L. Smith, Dean R. Snow, Ronald Spores, Robert L. Stephenson, William C. Sturtevant, John R. Swanton, Bruce G. Trigger, James Van Stone, Jan Vansina, Wilcomb E. Washburn, William S. Webb, Erminie Wheeler Voegelin, and John Witthoft.

DATES: 1953-1979

QUANTITY: 3.2 linear meters (10.5 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Minutes of meetings, bylaws, and related documents, 1953-1966; (2) chronological correspondence file, 1953-1964; (3) Bernard L. Fontana's correspondence, 1967-1970; (4) letters sent by Bernard L. Fontana, 1964-1965; (5) letters received by Bernard L. Fontana, 1963-1970; (6) Ethnohistory subscriptions and finances, 1953-1962; (7) Ethnohistory subscriptions, 1953-1962; (8) Ethnohistory editorial correspondence regarding unused manuscripts, 1964-1968; (9) Ethnohistory editorial correspondence regarding published manuscripts, 1964-1968; (10) Ethnohistory book review correspondence, 1964-1967; (11) American Indian Ethnohistory Conference newsletter information, 1960-1963; (12) miscellany, n.d.; (13) correspondence of Harold Hickerson and Bernard L. Fontana as editors of Ethnohistory, 1968-1973; (14) records of James E. Ayres, 1971-1979; (15) correspondence and other records of Harold Hickerson about ASE business, 1965-1968; (16) correspondence and other records of William C. Sturtevant, 1965-1967; (17) correspondence and other records of Mary Wallace Helms, 1977-1979; (18) correspondence of Thomas B. Hinton, 1973-1976; (19) correspondence of James E. Ayres, 1977-1979

FINDING AID: Draft register for part

RESTRICTION: Before certain records can be made available, they must be reviewed to remove material that might violate confidentiality extended to those who review manuscripts.


Shown are paintings and crafts by a Dakota Indian artist.

QUANTITY: 314 slides

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 88-1


The lot consists of photographic enlargements of selected illustrations that appeared in E.G. Squier and E.H. Davis's "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, volume 1, 1849, and I.A. Lapham's "The Antiquities of Wisconsin," Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, volume 7, 1855.

DATES: No date

QUANTITY: 33 prints




CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-45


Anderson was an Englishman who converted to the Mormon religion. He had studios in Salt Lake City and Springville, Utah. Much of his time was spent traveling through central Utah documenting the life of the people there. The prints show Adam Warren and Basin Indians.

DATES: No date

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 75-25


Susanne Anderson is a Washington, D.C., photographer whose images of Indians have been on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution. The photographs show Dennis Banks, a Chippewa leader of the American Indian Movement (AIM); a Zuni; and unidentified Northwest Coast Indians, one engaged in carving.

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 4 prints

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-19


Depicted is a skull with filed teeth from grave 14, Labna, Yucatan. Accompanying the photograph is an article "Prehistoric Crania from Central America."

DATE: No date

QUANTITY: 1 print

CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 87-26

ANGEL, JOHN LAWRENCE (1915-1986), Papers

J. Lawrence Angel was educated in the classics in his native England and at The Choate School in Connecticut. He studied anthropology at Harvard University (A.B., 1936; Ph.D., 1942). He was an instructor at the University of California at Berkeley in 1941-1942 and at the University of Minnesota in 1942-1943. In 1943-1962, he was at the Jefferson Medical College Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy in Philadelphia, starting as an assistant professor and rising to a full professor. In 1962, he became curator for physical anthropology in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology and continued there until he died. Angel was also a research associate with the University of Pennsylvania University Museum, 1946-1962; civil consultant in surgical anatomy of the United States Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, 1957-1962; visiting professor of anatomy, Howard University, 1962-1986; and professorial lecturer at the George Washington University, 1962-1986. He was also a lecturer in forensic pathology in the Johns Hopkins University Department of Public Health and visiting professor at the University of California at Berkeley in 1962.

Angel summarized his research interests as: (1) human social biology, involving the "interrelations of health, diseases, body build, longevity, genetic mixture and variability with each other, with climate and ecology, and with level of culture, nutrition, and achievement as seen in history, in evolution, or clinically"; (2) "palaeodemography as related to the rise and decline of disease (falciparum malaria)"; and (3) "relation of structure to function and to genetic determinants as seen in form of joints and in density, mineral historology and muscularity of bones, or in process of `arthritic' change in relation to aging."

The most enduring of Angel's interests was the pre- and protohistory of the population of Greece and nearby areas of the eastern Mediterranean. Beginning in 1937, Angel made repeated trips to the region. In 1938, he studied skeletal material from Troy deposited by W.T. Semple in the Archaeological Museum at Istanbul. During the same year, he studied skeletal material mostly excavated in the area of Corinth. He worked at the Cyprus Museum in 1949, studying skulls from Vasa and skeletal material from Bamboula. During that year, he also studied living Cypriote villagers. In 1952, he worked with Carleton S. Coon on skeletal material from Hotu Cave. In 1954, he studied materials from Agora excavations and Eleusis. During the same year, he also visited the British Museum and many sites in Greece studying Myceanean skeletons excavated by George E. Mylonas, John Papadimitriou, and A.J.B. Wace. In 1954, he again studied skeletal material excavated at Bamboula and, in 1957, skeletons from Eleusis. In 1965, he studied human bones from twenty-two Greek and Turkish sites dated from the paleolithic to modern times, including material from a Bryn Mawr College excavation at Elmali, an excavation at Karatas-Semeyuk, Lycia, and collections in the Archaeological Museum of Ankara and in the museum at Verroia, Macedonia. In 1969, he worked on material from Kephala and, in 1972, skeletons from Asine, Greece. In 1984, he studied upper paleolithic skeletons from Wadi Kubbaniya, Egypt.

Angel also worked on prehistoric, historic, and contemporary American populations. In 1944, he studied skeletal remains from Tranquillity, California, in the University of Pennsylvania University Museum and the University of California, Berkeley, [Hearst] Museum of Anthropology. In the same year, he was one of several researchers involved in an endocrinological, anthropological, and psychological study of obesity initiated by the Jefferson School of Medicine. The first phase lasted until 1948 and was followed by restudy of the subjects in 1954-1957. Around 1959-1961, with Carl Seltzer, he investigated the relation between constitution and health of Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University students, Angel primarily working at the latter. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, he studied skeletal material from colonial Furnace, Maryland, and free African Americans from the First African Baptist Church in Philadelphia.

Angel was highly regarded for use of his keen senses. Frequently he was sought as a consultant, and he regularly did forensic examinations for the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and for other law enforcement authorities. In addition, military authorities, archeologists, and museum people sought examinations of and reports on specimens from him. At the Smithsonian, he used and improved the excellent skeletal collection in the Department of Anthropology. He examined the bones of Smithsonian benefactor James Smithson and was involved in early studies connected with the repatriation of American Indian skeletal materials to appropriate recipients.

Active with several professional organizations, Angel was president of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society in 1956-1958. In 1952-1956, he was the secretary-treasurer of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and, in 1959-1960 vice president of that organization. In 1952-1956 and 1960-1963, he was an associate editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. He was president of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1980-1985. For his active professional life, he received the Pomerance Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America in 1983 and the Distinguished Service Medal of the American Anthropological Association in 1986.

The papers appear to cover most of Angel's professional life. Included is a broad range of documents such as manuscripts, physical anthropological forms, official forms, manuscripts of writings, charts, illustrations, photographs, and printed and processed material.

List of correspondents and subjects

DATES: 1930s-1980s

QUANTITY: ca. 26 linear meters (ca. 85 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1933-1986; (2) correspondence, 1936-1986; (3) research in the eastern Mediterranean, 1936-1986; (4) anthropology of chronic disease, 1943-1965; (5) Harvard University-Johns Hopkins Hospital anthropology study, 1959-1964; (6) five-generation study, 1962-1985; (7) skull-thickness project, 1968-1969; (8) biological and cultural microdifferentiation among rural populations of Yugoslavia, 1981-1986; (9) First African Baptist Church, Philadelphia, 1983-1987; (10) other research projects, 1945-1986; (11) teaching, 1940-1986; (12) forensic cases, 1962-1986; (13) reference materials, 1930-1986; (14) writings of J. Lawrence Angel, 1932-1988; (15) Department of Anthropology and Division of Physical Anthropology, 1961-1986; (16) professional organizations and meetings, 1943-1987; (17) writings by other authors, 1950-1985; (18) grants, 1951-1962; (19) miscellany, 1937-1985; (20) photographs, 1936-1986.

FINDING AID: Robert Lynn Montgomery, Register to the Papers of John Lawrence Angel. National Anthropological Archives, 1994.


The images include exhibits of African material at Herbert Ward's studio in Paris; the PanAmerican Exposition in Buffalo, 1901; the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; the United States National Museum in the present Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building, some 1891; the American Museum of Natural History; and Piney Branch, Rock Creek Park, in Washington, D.C., 1895. The exhibits concern general archeology and ethnology; an Indian rock quarry; fire-making devices; narcotic utensils; bows and arrows; Ainu; African artifacts and statuary of Africans; Apaches, Paiutes, and other North American Indians; Samoan tapa cloth; Polynesian idols; and Zulu weapons. Some photographs taken at the United States National Museum were made by Paul E. Beckwith and some taken at the Chicago World's Fair are by Henry E. Sorgersen and Company.

DATES: ca. 1890-1910

QUANTITY: 30 prints


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 4

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