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Included are informal portraits made at the National Museum of Natural History on thirty-five-millimeter film. Prints, 10.2x12.7 centimeters (4x5 inches), are available. There are duplicates of many images.

DATE: March 21-25, 1960

QUANTITY: ca. 396 prints and 178 negatives


FINDING AID: List of captions



The impetus for founding the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) came from Aleš Hrdlicka, who was interested in promoting physical anthropology as a distinct academic discipline and securing support for his American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Hrdlicka was successful in 1928, and at a meeting of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science a committee of organization was formed. In the following year, a constitution and bylaws were adopted, and in 1930 the first meeting of the AAPA took place.

The constitution was a twelve-point statement of objectives. It advocated contact among the several disciplines furnishing the corps of physical anthropologists; research and publication; teaching and the creation of teaching materials; standardization of techniques and instruments; dissemination of information about discoveries; physical anthropological exhibits; and the "eventual establishment of an American Institute of Physical Anthropology." These purposes have been summarized in the bylaws as simply "the advancement of the science of physical anthropology."

At the beginning, there were active (professional) members, whose membership applications the executive committee and active members approved, and associate (nonprofessional) members, whose applications only the executive committee approved. There was also a class of honorary members. In 1953, both honorary and inactive memberships were eliminated, and membership was limited to professional physical anthropologists or others who demonstrated a professional interest in physical anthropology.

The original bylaws provided for only two officers: president and secretary-treasurer. In 1940, a vice-president was added; and, in 1943, an editor, assisted by an editorial board, was added.

A major AAPA function is its annual meeting for scholarly presentations and business. At times, meetings have been concurrent or consecutive with those of such organizations as the AAAS (with which the AAPA was an affiliate), American Anthropological Association, and American Association of Anatomists. The main AAPA organ has been the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA). Hrdlicka founded it in 1918 as a proprietary venture; and, for eight years, he maintained editorial and managerial control. It was a financial burden, however; and Hrdlicka arranged in 1926 to maintain editorial control but give management to the Wister Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia. In 1930, the AAPA annual meeting made the AJPA its official organ.

In 1953, the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, established with the sponsorship of the Wenner-Gren Foundation in 1945, became an AAPA publication. There was a series of only two issues entitled Studies in Physical Anthropology in 1949-1951. During the 1950s, a P.A. Newsletter was also issued in mimeograph, but it had no official relationship to the AAPA. The more recent PAN was established in 1982 as an AAPA publication.

The records consist of three accessions. One was found among the papers of T. Dale Stewart and consists of records accumulated by the secretary-treasurers J. Lawrence Angel, 1952-1956; James N. Spuhler, 1956-1958; Edward E. Hunt, 1958-1960; and Steward, 1960-1964. Incorporated in these are early programs, proceedings, and financial accounts. The second accession consists of records accumulated by Eugene Giles while he was president, 1981-1982, and the third are papers of Michael Little, who was vice president, program chair, and president during 1988-1994.

Additional materials relating to the AAPA and the AJPA are in the papers of Aleš Hrdlicka.

DATES: 1930-1983

QUANTITY: 1.37 linear meters (4.5 linear feet)

FINDING AID: Calendar for the Giles material prepared by Frank Spencer.


In 1973 and 1974, following dermatoglyphics symposia at meetings of the American Society of Human Genetics, plans were laid to organize the American Dermatoglyphics Association (ADA). Its first meeting was in October 1975 when bylaws were adopted. In 1981, the ADA was incorporated in Maryland. In 1982, the membership adopted a detailed constitution.

The constitution declares that the ADA's purpose is "to advance the science and application of dermatoglyphics particularly in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean and to facilitate cooperation with other association that have similar aims." To this end, the ADA holds annual meetings that include a symposium, usually with a larger scientific organization such as the International Dermatoglyphics Association, American Association of Physical Anthropologists, American Society of Human Genetics, and Human Biology Council. It also publishes a newsletter.

ADA membership is open to all interested persons, but there is a class of fellows for which there are academic and other requirements. Officers include a president, vice president, and secretary-treasurer. These, the immediate past president, and four elected persons make up an executive committee that manages ADA affairs.

The ADA collects dermatoglyphic impressions and accompanying documentation, often publications. The collections include prints relating to American Indians (Amazon); polyposis (with controls); British population sample, Downs Syndrome, and Waito tribe of Ethiopia; Marfan syndrome, twins, sudden infant death sydrome, mental retardation (including Downs sydnrome and XXYY chomosomes), South Pacific (Guam and other Chamorros, Elato, Fais, Kapingamarangi, Lamotrek, Loyalty Islands, Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hebrides, Rennell, Solomon Islands, Tobi, Truk), Cyprus, Nepal, Peru (Quechua and Aymara), Love Canal. Contributors to the collection include Kathleen M. Fox, D.C. Gajdusek, R.M. Garruto, Lynn R. Goldman, Sarah B. Holt, R.W. Hornabeck, Ann J. Krush, James W. Larrik, R. MacLennan, James V. Neel, Karin Nelson, Beverly Paigen, Chris C. Plato, J.T. Schwartz, and W. Wertelecki.

(Much of this entry was based on material in the Newsletter of the American D0ermatoglyphics Association, vol. 4, no. 1 and 2, 1985, including an outline of ADA history by Ralph Garruto.)

DATES: 1974-1994 (business records and newsletters only)

QUANTITY: ca. 7.4 linear meters

ARRANGEMENT: (1) business records; (2) newsletters; (3) dermatoglyphics collection



The American Ethnological Society (AES) was founded to foster "inquiries into the origin, progress, and characteristics of the various races of men." For around one hundred years, its activities arose from resident members living in the city of New York, although contributions were also made by other members living outside the city. Its membership has included some of the outstanding workers in American anthropology. Two of these--Albert Gallatin and Franz Boas--were particularly influential on the AES.

Gallatin was the AES's president during its first years and provided strong scholarly leadership. Under him the organization promoted original research, especially in linguistics and archeology; and, in 1845, it began to publish the results--often Gallatin's own work--in its series of Transactions. Apparently so important was Gallatin's influence that his death in 1849 brought a protracted decline in the AES scientific efforts. Its publication series--a Bulletin--reflects meetings largely concerned with reports from published literature and the recitation of letters from correspondents. Furthermore, the members became so embroiled in the controversy over slavery that objective discussion of certain questions, especially those concerning race, was virtually impossible. Thus weakened, the AES became little more than a social organization.

Around 1870, Ephraim G. Squier, impatient with things as they were, organized the Anthropological Institute of New York. It is unclear whether this represented a transformation of the older organization or a secession from it. In either case, the Institute was short-lived, and the AES reemerged a few years later to continue its old ways for over two more decades.

Reform remained for a later generation under the leadership of Franz Boas. Following Boas's affiliation with the American Museum of Natural History and Columbia University, young anthropologists in New York joined him in 1897 in the Anthropological Club. In 1900, the club merged with the AES, and this provided the base necessary for important changes. Regular meetings, conspicuously lacking, were instituted. The AES continued the Anthropological Club's affiliation with the Anthropology Section of the New York Academy of Science, and periodically the two societies held joint meetings.

In 1902, the AES affiliated with the newly organized American Anthropological Association so that, with the AES transferring a portion of membership fees, its members automatically belonged to the national organization. With the AAA and the Anthropological Society of Washington, the AES sponsored the American Anthropologist and the Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. In 1906, the AES also began its own series of Publications under the editorship of Franz Boas. Mostly, the series was limited to linguistic texts with translations.

The capstone of reorganization came in 1916 with incorporation under the laws of the State of New York and the adoption of a new constitution and bylaws. AES purposes became the promotion of "inquiries into the origin, progress, and characteristics of the races of man, by publishing and distributing documents; by arranging scientific meetings and public lectures, and by other means." The constitution established methods of election to membership, classes of members, prescribed duties for elected officers, and a board of councilors (later directors).

The constitution of 1916 reaffirmed the AES as an essentially local organization, specifying that it was of the borough of Manhattan in the city of New York and meetings would be held there. Furthermore, it stated purposes broadly anthropological. With the passage of time, facts clearly contradicted the constitution. The AES was not merely a local organization. It was of national importance. This was due to the prominence of the New York anthropologists and the importance of the AES publications program. Moreover, the AES was in the process of growing into a truly national organization. Several members and officers already lived outside New York. As years passed, more and more members affiliated with the AES while living in New York; then, retaining membership, they moved elsewhere American anthropology expanded. By the 1930s the AES added to membership outside the city by actively seeking them in order to finance publications.

The AES also developed into a group specialized in ethnology and social anthropology. By 1938, its activities were so linguistically and ethnologically focused that the periodic joint meetings with the Anthropology Section of the New York Academy of Science were discontinued so that the section could concentrate on archeology and physical anthropology. When in 1941 a series of Monographs appeared, it was almost exclusively ethnological.

By the 1930s, the AES-AAA relationship presented problems. The AES drive for new members, for example, drew persons already affiliated with the AAA and arrangements were such that this diverted funds from the latter organization. Serious consideration of the problems waited until 1946, when the AAA reorganized to create a more strongly professional association to represent general anthropology in the United States. Quite committed to the AAA as well as the AES, the officers could no longer set the problems aside. In 1948, President Esther S. Goldfrank candidly addressed them, and the AES board began discussions of new directions. In the 1950s and 1960s came changes in practices, constitutional provisions, and bylaws that brought them into line with actual trends. The AES thus became a specialist's organization broadly concerned with anthropology but focused on ethnology and social anthropology. The AAA began to collect dues for both organizations; but membership in the AES no longer automatically brought membership in the AAA.

The nationwide nature of AES membership was also recognized. Although legal requirements continued the necessity of holding business meetings in New York State, the introduction of a mail ballot meant that members no longer had to be present to have a voice in policies and operations. Moreover, meetings purely for scientific discussion took place in various cities of the United States and Canada.

Excepting a small group of records from the secretary, developments since 1965 fall beyond the scope of the AES records now in the archives. However, it should be noted that 1984 constitutional changes made the AES an AAA unit.

Mainly, the records consist of administrative materials that reflect many activities and organizational changes described above. Included are correspondence, minutes and reports of meetings, membership records, financial papers, programs, newsletters, and a few other types of documents. Although imperfectly, the records are in two groups: one series of early records dated before 1900; and more recent records that make up several series. There are no records for the 1840s when Albert Gallatin was the major force behind the organization. The most substantive early records concern the 1850s and, especially, the 1860s when Theodore Dwight, Jr., was the recording secretary. They are scant, discontinuous, and mixed with some of Dwight's personal papers and possibly papers of other men. A very few documents concern Squier's Anthropological Institute of New York, but these are formal (e.g., certificates) rather than substantive items.

The later records mostly reflect the period from the late 1910s to the early 1960s, the earlier of these being quite scant. To a large degree they are the records of the secretaries (or secretary-treasurers) and the editors who succeeded Franz Boas. They generally concern such matters as the organization of meetings, financial affairs, and the AES publications program. There are also materials concerning affiliation with the AAA, New York Academy of Sciences, and the Inter-American Society of Anthropology and Geography.

A very few documents are of a substantive anthropological nature. They are generally incompletely identified. They may have been documents submitted at meetings, but generally such documents and papers are missing. There are several indications to suggest that such material have been lost or discarded. As early as the 1860s, Theodore Dwight was queried about the records in connection with plans to publish them. He admitted ignorance of their whereabouts. In 1900, the AES library and papers were reportedly deposited in the American Museum of Natural History library. The library has reported that it has no such material. In the early 1960s, the AES secretary culled the records, discarding items not believed to be of continuing usefulness.

Twentieth-century financial records, when Nels C. Nelson was treasurer, are among the AAA records.

Main correspondents include Bernard W. Aginsky, Ralph L. Beals, Ruth F. Benedict, Franz Boas, S.B. Buckley, F.H. Bunnell, Helen Codere, Donald Collier, Gertrude E. Dole, Harold E. Driver, Theodore Dwight, Jr., Fred R. Eggan, Thomas Ewbank, William N. Fenton, A. Fischell, Kathrine S. French, Morton H. Fried, Ernestine Friedl, Viola E. Garfield, Esther S. Goldfrank, Ward H. Goodenough, Charles N. Gould, William H. Gulick, E. Adamson Hoebel, Alice G. James, Dorothy L. Keur, Alfred L. Kroeber, Louise Lamphere, Alexander Lesser, D.I. Macgowan, Catharine McClellan, George P. Murdock, Benajamin D. Paul, Verne F. Ray, Joyce F. Riegelhaupt, Willard Rhodes, Irving Rouse, Elman R. Service, Marian W. Smith, Ephraim G. Squier, Julian H. Steward, Morris Swadesh, W.W. Turner, Alvin Wolfe, and Nathalie F.S. Woodbury.

DATES: 1834-1965; 1982-1986

QUANTITY: ca. 2.5 linear meters (8 linear feet)

ARRANGEMENT: (The material is imperfectly arranged.) (1) Early records, 1834-1886; (2) meetings, 1910-1964; (3) reports of officers, 1925-1964; (4) election records (and organizational records), 1917-1959; (5) membership records, 1862-1960; (6) records relating to publications 1934-1962; (7) financial records, 1902-1962; (8) miscellany (including material regarding AES history, notes, and its relationship with other organizations), 1860-1957; (9) records of secretary, 1982-1986.

FINDING AIDS: Draft register


The Albertype Company, of Brooklyn, New York, produced views and postcards for national distribution. Its agents took original photographs and arranged to copy photographs from other companies or individuals. Its collection of prints and negatives was donated to the Library of Congress in the 1950s. The Library turned the negatives over to the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, which in turn divided them among several repositories. Many negatives of Indians came to the National Anthropological Archives.

Most negatives are portraits, scenic views, and camps, but other subjects are included. A special file includes views of Indian schools. Hawaiian photographs include Polynesians and Japanese. Some photographs are of paintings or are heavily retouched photographs of living subjects. Some are copies of postcards. Others are composite photographs such as would be suitable for postcards.

Tribes represented include Acoma, Apache, Arapaho, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Caddo, Catawba, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Coast Salish, Colville, Comanche, Cree, Dakota, Dogrib, Eskimo, Flathead, Fox, Gros Ventre, Haida (and Bellacoola), Havasupai, Hopi, Isleta, Kiowa, Laguna, Maricopa, Mohave, Navaho, Nez Perce, Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Sandia, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Sarsi, Seminole, Shawnee, Shoshoni, Taos, Tesuque, and Zuni. There are also photographs of unspecified Northwest Coast, Plains, Plateau, and Pueblo groups. The geographically arranged material includes rock drawings in Maine; a statue in Kansas City, Missouri; Standing Rock Monument in North Dakota; Indians in Atlin, British Columbia; Carib rock drawings in the Virgin Islands; and totem poles in Vancouver.

Included are works of Charles M. Bell, E.A. Benson, C.R. Bourne, H.E. Brown, Brandon of Manitoba, William Bull, H.H. Clarke, George B. Cornish, Frank Bennett Fiske, H. Lee Flood, N.W. Halsey, Fred Harvey, H.R. Hazeltine, Kiser Photograph Company, W.H. Martin, C.W. Mathers, Frank Matsura, W.H. Matthewson, Charles E. Morris, Ernest Moses, J.S. Myers, M. O'Connor, G.W. Parsons, Roland W. Reed, C.B. Robinson, J.E. Stimson, W.M. Stoltz, and H.H. Watkins. Except those of Clarke and Fiske, there are but few photographs by any one photographer. Many photographers are unidentified.

DATES: ca. 1890-1910 (most undated)

QUANTITY: 518 negatives, many with copy prints

ARRANGEMENT: (1) Material arranged by geographical area and thereunder by tribe; (2) material arranged by state or province or by subject


CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 25

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