Archaeology (Greek: archae=beginnings) is the study of past human cultures, based on the material remains they left behind. Archaeological research reveals the ways in which cultures have changed through time. Archaeology has the following objectives: construction of a cultural chronology, reconstruction of past lifeways, and discovery of the processes which underlie and condition human behavior.


Ethnology (Greek: ethnos=a people), or cultural anthropology, is the comparative and analytical study of cultures – the customs, behavior and beliefs of living peoples. This study includes material culture – the variety of objects that people make and use in all aspects of life.