Crocker, William H. The Canela (Eastern Timbira),

I: An Ethnographic Introduction.

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology,

Number 33, 487 pages, 11 tables, 51 figures, 78 plates, 1990.
<<back  table of contents  next>>
<<return to literature



Table of Contents




FOREWORD, by Charles Wagley




(Parts I - V, Epilogue and Appendices link to a detailed Reference Outline, which links to specific locations within the book)

PART I: The Field Situation: experiences techniques, equipment, language learning, and research assistant relationships          
PART II: Ethnographic Background: ecological and diachronic contexts, natural and cultural cycles, expressive and material culture

PART III: Social Organization: socialization, psychological polarities, and social and ceremonial units; political structure, terminological relationships, and marriage

PART IV: Ceremonial and Belief Systems: tribal festivals and individual rites; cosmology, shamanism, and pollution

PART V: Canela Structural Patterns     


EPILOGUE: The Canela in the 1980s


    1. Ten Field Trips to the Canela over 22 Years           

    2. Canela and Apanyekra Collections at the Smithsonian Institution

    3. Primary Materials for Future Studies

    4. Linguistic Notes

    5. Concept of “today”

    6. Sources of Data






  1. Meteorological averages of data from principal meteorological and climatological station of Barra do Corda, Maranhão, Brazil, 1971
  2. Canela sayings and common expressions referring to the annual cycle
  3. Annual cycle of economic activities
  4. Annual festival cycle
  5. Life cycles of women and men (part 1) (part 2)
  6. Canela expressions for times of day
  7. Daily cycle of events of Canela
  8. Canela artifacts and field numbers of donations to museums from 1960 onward (part 1) (part 2)
  9. Social developmental stages of the individual as described in currently used Canela expressions      
  10. Some kintypes of the consanguineal and affinal kinship categories    
  11. Canela kinship terms          



  1. Gê-speaking Indians and their neighbors                      
  2. 1985 road map of Northeast Brazil to the Araguáia River showing the Canela and Apanyekra villages (part 1) (part 2)
  3. Canela and Apanyekra reservations and surrounding backlands, 1986–1987 (part 1) (part 2)
  4. Eastern Timbira and their neighbors, past and present   
  5. Escalvado village and Indian service post buildings, 1975            
  6. Porquinhos village and Indian service post buildings, 1975           
  7. Canela area and agricultural lands, 1969                      
  8. Apanyekra area and agricultural lands, 1974                    



  1. Escalvado (a Canela village), 1975                          
  2. Porquinhos (an Apanyekra village), 1975                      
  3. Cerrado countryside (“closed savannas”), 1969  
  4. Racing-log preparation in the “gallery forest” undergrowth, Escal­vado 
  5. Dry forest near Sardinha
  6. Deciduous dry forest in October 1971
  7. Indian service agent Olimpio Martins Cruz 
  8. Bridge built at Ourives in 1969 to protect the Canela after their return to their cerrado homeland 
  9. Indian service agent Sebastião Pereira
  10. Sr. Sebastião’s wife, Dona Fatima, with her children
  11. Jack Popjes of the SIL with Canela and backlander
  12. Canela concepts of “this day”
  13. Timbira sport of relay racing, carrying logs
  14. Uncle disciplining nephew before female dance line
  15. Uncle disciplining nephew before female dance line
  16. Growth stages
  17. Plaza moiety group locations during Pepyê and Fish festivals
  18. Chief Kaarà?khre lecturing in morning plaza council meeting
  19. Pró-khãmmã eating hààkwèl meat pies in their southwest corner of the plaza
  20. Model of one-link/further-links away from ego kin
  21. Model of the two most important consanguineal successions
  22. Division of a Canela hearth group
  23. Classificatory one-link away kin
  24. Canela longhouses and age-set positions around plaza
  25. Apanyekra longhouses and Regeneration moiety positions around plaza
  26. Ideal Canela consanguineal terminology, female ego
  27. Ideal Canela consanguineal terminology, male ego
  28. Affinal models of “in”-house (born in family) versus “out”-of-house (married into family) terminological distinctions
  29. Model of classificatory spouses between two marriage-connected houses, female ego, with alternatives
  30. Model of classificatory spouses between two marriage-connected houses, male ego, with alternatives
  31. Ideal affinal terminology of a woman’s affines in husband’s natal longhouse, with alternatives
  32. Ideal affinal terminology of a man’s affines in wife’s longhouse, with alternatives
  33. Terms of address in women’s ideal affinal terminology for husbands’ kin in their matrilateral and across-the-plaza longhouses, with alternatives (two female egos)
  34. Terms of address in men’s ideal affinal terminology for wive’s kin in their matrilateral and across-the-plaza longhouses with alternatives (two male egos)
  35. Canela and Apanyekra model of female name-set transmission
  36. Canela and Apanyekra model of male name-set transmission
  37. Canela and Apanyekra model of exchanged name-set transmission for parallel-and cross-cousins
  38. Canela and Apanyekra equate “blood” of uterine siblings
  39. Canela and Apanyekra matriline “blood” attenuation through marriage
  40. The flow of kin through time
  41. Canela matriline “blood” attenuation and the sweet potato vine concept of descent
  42. Model of genealogical “distance “ between parallel cousins
  43. Canela cross-cousin, across-the-plaza, linked longhouses
  44. Marital bridge of equivalent “blood” pairs connects houses across the plaza
  45. Wè?tè girl stands before Kô?khre log with a burned-out trough
  46. Cloth-and-feathered decorated Little Falcon swings on vine from mast, “flying” (pushing off) from his cage
  47. Red and Black Regeneration season moiety membership sitting locations during the Ayrën ceremony
  48. Bride’s female in-laws painting her belt with red urucu
  49. Bride’s female in-laws wrapping the belt of long cord around her hips
  50. The older Kaapêltùk listening at a meeting in the plaza
  51. The younger Kaapêltùk writing in his diary



  1. Views of São Luis from the top of Hotel Central in 1964

  2. Barra do Corda in the late 1950s

  3. Barra do Corda Centro

  4. Modes of transportation

  5. Escalvado from the air

  6. Views of the new Escalvado village, 1969

  7. House types of the Canela and Apanyekra

  8. Special features of houses

  9. Interiors of houses

10. Features of house construction

11. Indian service post buildings

12. Cultivation patterns

13. Views of Canela landscapes

14. Agricultural and trapping artifacts

15. Hunting and food distribution

16. Food preparation

17. Household tasks

18. Cord-making and weaving techniques

19. Children’s activities

20. Steps in preparing manioc

21. Steps in preparing manioc

22. Steps in making a meat pie

23. Steps in making a meat pie

24. Ear-piercing rite

25. Ear-piercing rite

26. Genipap body painting designs of the plaza groups at Escalvado, 1975

27. Body decorations

28. Games and ceremonies

29. Curing techniques

30. Mourning and burial preparation

31. Burial procedures

32. Daily and ceremonial singing

33. Late afternoon sing-dance

34. Making a racing log

35. Log racing with Pàlrà logs

36. Pepyê festival

37. Pepyê festival and fierce warrior act

38. Sardinha, 1963

39. Formal and Informal Friendships

40. Terminal phase of the Pepyê festival

41. Khêêtúwayê festival

42. Pepyê festival

43. Pepyê festival’s terminal phase

44. Pepkahàk festival

45. Pepkahàk all-night singing and wasp killing during festival

46. Clowns

47. Fish and Sweet Potato festivities

48. Scenes of Masks’ activities

49. Masks’ activities

50. Pàlrà ritual

51. Pàlrà ritual

52. Wè?tè festival scenes

53. Corn ceremonies

54. Festival of Oranges

55. Urban and backlander influences

56. Artifacts in use

57. Artifacts in use

58. Artifacts

59. Artifacts

60. Artifacts

61. Artifacts

62. Pierced-ear decorations and tools

63. Ceremonial weapons

64. Ceremonial staffs

65. Artifacts

66. Artifacts

67. Artifacts

68. Portraits of Canela assistants

69. Portraits of Canela assistants

70. Portraits of Canela assistants

71. Portraits of Canela assistants

72. Representative portraits of Canela and Apanyekra

73. Representative portraits of Canela and Apanyekra

74. Representative portraits of Canela and Apanyekra

75. Representative portraits of Canela and Apanyekra

76. Representative portraits of Canela and Apanyekra

77. Representative portraits of Canela and Apanyekra

78. Views of Barra do Corda in the 1980s


<<<back  table of contents  next>>>

[top of page]