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The Canela (Eastern Timbira), I: REFERENCE OUTLINE
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Part I. The Field Situation: experiences, techniques, equipment, language learning, and research assistant relationships

            A. General Characteristics

                        1. Outstanding Ethnology

                        2. My Adoption by Canela Families

                        3. My Typical Day

            B. Early Acceptance Experiences

                        1. From Tribal Member to Ethnologist

                        2. Two Most Guarded Types of Behavior

                                    a. Extramarital Relations System

                                    b. Official Stealing of Backlander Cattle

            C. Problem-Solving In The Field: Building Rapport, Trading For Artifacts, Census Taking

            D. Field Equipment

                        1. First Five Field Trips, 1957–1966

                                    a. Note-taking

                                    b. Tape Recording

                                    c. Photography

                                    d. Rorschach Tests

                        2. Last Five Field Trips, 1969 and the 1970s

                                    a. Note-taking

                                    b. Study of Colors

                                    c. Photography and Filming

                                    d. Recording Choral Chanting and Individual Singing

                                    e. Clothing

            E. Learning The Canela Language

                        1. Phonemic Contrasts

                        2. Time Spent on Language

            F. Diaries And Tapes

                        1. First Three Writers

                        2. The Manuscript-writing Program

                                    a. Additional Writers of the 1970s

                                    b. Policies and Payment Principles

                        3. 1979 and the Future

            G. Special Research Assistants

                        1. The Younger Tep-hot (Plate 70g)

                        2. The Older Kaapęltůk (Plate 70b)

                        3. The Older Mďďkhrô (not photographed)

                        4. The Younger Kaapęltůk [= Kaapęl] (Figure 51)

                        5. The Younger Pů?tô (Plate 68a)

                        6. Hŕwpůů (Plate 70f)

                        7. Khŕ?po (Plate 70e)

                        8. Pyę?khŕl (not photographed)

                        9. Ropkhŕ (Plate 71e)

                        10. The Younger Mďďkhrô (Plate 70c)

                        11. Rőő-re-?hô (Plate 68d)

                        12. Khôykhray (Plate 71f)

                        13. Mulwa (Plate 71a)

                        14. The Older Tsůůkhč (Plate 68c)

                        15. Kôham (Plate 68f)

            H. Special Friends In The State Of Maranhăo

Part II: Ethnographic Background: ecological and diachronic contexts, natural and cultural cycles, expressive and material culture

                                    a. Data Sources: see Appendix 6

                                    b. Categorizing Culture Areas

                                    c. Ecological Context during 200 Years of Contact

                                    d. Socioeconomy

                                    e. Historical Context

            A. Gę Language Family, Its Populations, And Ecology

                        1. Gę Language Family: Timbira; Northern, Central, and Southern Gę

                        2. Population of Gę-speaking Indians: all Gę are in Brazil, about 26,000 in mid-1980s

                        3. Effects of Ecology on Survival, Demography, Acculturation, Geography

                                    a. Historical Isolation

                                                (1) Pioneer fronts dislocated Krahó, let Canela retreat behind hills

                                                (2) Geography necessitated mid-20th century roads bypass Canela

                                                (3) Aboriginal trekking became travel to cities, using bypass roads

                                    b. Physical Environment

                                                (1) Three biomes’ intersection: dry forest, caatinga, cerrado

                                                (2) Cerrado environment, almost open grass to almost closed woods

                                    c. Socioeconomic Factors Inhibiting Brazilian Encroachment

                                                (1) Natural barriers

                                                (2) Economic barriers

                                                (3) Transportation barriers

                                    d. Apanyekra versus Canela Acculturation Factors

                                                (1) Backland settlements, ranchers and farmers

                                                (2) Indian service contacts

                                                (3) Trails through forests and rivers versus cerrados and streams

                                                (4) Transportation by truck, jeep, horse, mule, or on foot

                                                (5) Village locations, watercourses; gallery forest for farming

            B. Diachronic Context: Indigenous Accounts, Acculturation, Barra do Corda

                        1. Indigenous Accounts of Canela History from Contact to 1929

                                    a. From Contact to Pacification, Late 1600s to 1814

                                    b. Early Post-Pacification Period, 1815–1840: from disorder to stability

                                    c. Turn-of-Century Cultural Climax: surpluses, cattle, mud houses

                                                (1) Cakamekra join Canela in Hŕ?kawrč act (sex neutralizes hostility)

                                                (2) Suppress Guajajara uprising; Canela help Barra do Corda militia

                                                (3) Youths educated in Barra do Corda; one origin of folk Catholicism

                                                (4) Sorcerer’s Execution and Tribal Schism

                                    d. Years of Economic Deficiency, 1903–1922; not by the Santo Estévăo

                                                (1) Origin of peace keeping ceremony

                                                (2) Kenkateye-Canela massacre

                                                (3) Tribal reunification

                                                (4) Great drought

                                                (5)  Return to the Santo Estévăo and to relative self-sufficiency

                                    e. Intergenerational Control and the Age-set Marriage Ceremony

                                    f. 1929 Forward: Nimuendajú arrives, end of research assistant memory studies

                        2. Acculturation Influences, 1930–1970: backlands, Barra do Corda, big cities

                                    a. Nimuendajú’s Era: he gave them confidence in their traditions

                                    b. Indian Service’s Influences: first outside family living by village

                                                (1) Olímpio Cruz: raises output, but after 1947, no more surpluses

                                                (2) Changing Perceptions of Outsiders

                                                (3) Youths Study in Capital: younger Kaapęl’s outsider tastes

                                    c. Deculturative Factors: chief’s death, much alcohol, two schisms

                                    d. Acculturative Contract Broken: faith lost in Indian service’s support

                                    e. Turning Point: urban civilizados may be “good” like Canela

                                    f. Messianic Movement of 1963: reliance on Awkhęę, not on own work

                                                (1) Prediction; shotgun to Índio, arrow to civilizado

                                                (2) Dancing cult; cattle stolen; predictions fail, reformulation

                                                (3) Ranchers’ attack; Canela runner sent to summon Indian service aid

                                                (4) Younger Kaapęltúk’s defense; mayor and local Indian service head bring help

                                                (5) Saved by Indian service agents’ marching Canela through ranchers’ lines

                                    g.  “Exile” at Sardinha, 1963–1968

                                                (1) Forced relocation from cerrado to dry forest environment

                                                (2) Traditional placement of families around new village’s circle

                                                (3) Messianic movement discredited; Awkhęę did not divert the bullets

                                                (4) Cerrado versus dry forest advantages; esthetics, medicines

                                                (5) Reasons for nonadaptation; different hunting and farming styles; psychological stress, proximity of homelands

                                                (6) Influences from Guajajaras; wearing clothing becomes necessary

                                                (7) City influences; commercialize artifacts, Canela esteem raised

                                                (8) Acculturation nadir; exiled; low morale; work strike; hunger

                                                            (a) Lost dignity of older Canela; contrast with Apanyekra

                                                            (b) Chief dead; new Pró-khămmă so new era; messianism futuristic

                                                (9) Population questions; forest decrease more apparent than real

                                    h. Return to Cerrado Home: ranchers neutralized by army potential

                                                (1) Bridge at Ourives enables army engineers to protect the returnees

                                                (2) Attempted Schisms; reintegration after 13 years

                                    i. Reasons for New High Morale

                                                (1) Home again, game replenished, ranchers destabilized

                                                (2) Indian service presence substantial; new brick buildings, employees

                                                (3) Road completed between Ourives and Escalvado

                                                (4) Sebastiăo Pereira; Indian service agents’ conditions in the backlands

                                                            (a) Builds rapport among Canela; door-to-door medicine; “he cares”

                                                            (b) Compared to Olímpio Cruz; both developed deep Canela relationships

                                                            (c) Active leadership against alcohol, in soccer, in council

                                                            (d) His objective is to train Canela to take post positions before he leaves

                                                (5)Chief Kaarŕ?khre’s conversion from alcohol helps whole tribe


           3. Significant Events of the 1970s

a. Missionary Family Contribution

(1) Fair backland price exchanges; community development

(2) Current practices and ultimate purposes

b. Manuscript Writing: develops ability to analyze

(1) Tep-hot learned outsider analysis translating manuscripts

(2) Apanyekra contrast; little reading and writing; fieldwork hard

c. Visits of Other Anthropologists: Azanha, Ladeira, Layrisse, Mehringer, Ritter

d. Education of Kapręępręk: helps tribe understand city life

e. Official Policy of Conscientizaçăo

f. Demarcation of Lands: Operaçăo Timbira’s student lawyers

(1) Press coverage as a contributing factor; lands increased

(2)  Apanyekra airfield helped protect lands; road completed late

g. Radio Transmitter at Village Post: saves lives; new hopes

h. Changes in Transportation Routes: enable changes in outlook

i. Public Health and Population Growth

j. Agricultural Problems: backland cattle break fences, eat produce

(1) Need to sharecrop near backlander farms

(2) Tractor’s presence makes walking to Barra do Corda an indignity for some

(3) Cattle Raising: possible by leaving cattle in Indian service’s herd

(4) Western Abraçado Dancing: popular but not replacing sing-dancing

4.Barra do Corda Influence on the Canela, 1950s-1970s

a. Geography and Demography of Barra do Corda

b. Settlement: the last river port before crossing to the Tocantins

c. Agriculture of Barra do Corda: rice, beans, manioc; cattle, pigs, chickens

d. Institutions of the City: businesses, industries, banks, churches

e. Communications with Urban Brazil: transportation (boat, air, road) and communications (telephones, television)

f. Regional Agricultural Development: migration into Amazonia

g. Industrial Zone: near the Canela access road to Barra do Corda

h. Education

i. Medicine and Sanitation

j. Construction: buildings, electrical generators, bridges

k. Modernization and Attitudinal Changes

(1) Influences from the Northeast and Brasília

(2) Culture and recreation

(3) Cultural contrasts; Barra do Corda more like USA than backland culture

C. Annual Cycles: climatic, environmental, economic, ceremonial

1. Climatic Cycle: influences from three biomes

a. Region of Climatic Shift

b. Canela Annual Climatic Cycle: rain, humidity, temperature, win

2. Environmental Cycle: traditional monthly markers

3. Economic Cycle: starts in June; more backlander than aboriginal

a. Clearing Fields

b. Burning and Fencing

c. Planting and Weeding

d. Division of Labor

e. Crops, Fruits, Domesticated Animals, Hunting, and Fishing

f. Traditional Artifacts for Sale

g. Summary

4. Ceremonial Cycle: intermeshed with the other three annual cycles

a. Regeneration Season (Më-ipimrŕk): Red versus Black moiety log racing

b. Unnamed Ceremonial Season: Sweet Potato, Corn, Pŕlrŕ rituals

c. Wč?tč Season: festivals; age-set moiety racing; sanctioned extramarital sex

D. Life Cycles: roles and behaviors

1. Birth and Childhood

a. Parental Roles: supportive and permissive

b. Roles of Aunts and Uncles: naming, advising, joking

(1) Naming practices; naming-aunts’ and naming-uncles’ ceremonial roles

(2) Role of the advising-”uncle”; parallels naming-uncle’s role

(3) Joking aunts and uncles; the joy of life, especially when cross-sex

c. Children’s Activities: girls at kin’s side; boys play in the cerrado

2. Life Cycle of Women

a. Loss of Virginity: constitutes marriage and social puberty

b. Menstruation: caused by first sex; requires first restrictions

c. Postpubertal Restrictions: to gain strength and maturity

d. Privacy for Adolescent Girls: 2-meter high beds for sex

e. Being a Girl Associate: high point of adolescent’s life

(1) Positions of high honor for life; statuses contrasted

(2) Winning their belts; symbol of relative maturity

(3) Giving through extramarital sex; joy to the group

f. Winning Objects of Ceremonial Honor: status remembered for life

(1) Seclusion after winning belts; to learn restrictions, to gain kin’s support

(2) Belts painted red by female in-laws as acceptance

g. Women’s “Free” Years: “adolescence”; married but very available

h. Attaining Womanly Maturity: pregnancy, childbirth, motherhood

(1) Securing her social husband through pregnancy

(a) Choosing contributing-fathers for child’s traits and life-long support

(b) Avoiding activities or items affecting the fetus; backland influences

(2) Childbirth; exigencies of childcare

(3) Motherhood; reinforced by teknonymy and advising kin

i. Women’s Roles: mother and household maintainer first, wife second

(1) Work primarily in house and harvesting

(2) Food collection; formerly primary, currently minor

(3) Social activities limited and child-oriented

(4) Sharing judicial and ceremonial authority with brothers

(5) Female head of household; a position requiring leadership

(6) Status of permanently single women; respected; fewer because of acculturation

j. Status of the Elderly Woman

(1) Loss of authority to daughter who takes over household

(2) Agricultural retirement pensions contribute to household support

3. Life Cycle of Men

a. Induction into Age-Set: Khęętúwayę festival; kin ward off ghosts

b. Ear-piercing Rite: seclusion for better listening, understanding, obeying

c. Loss of Virginity: discipline transfers from parents to uncles

(1) Internment to learn the character-building practice of restrictions

(2) Ordered to live in the plaza but not to touch the free women there

(3) Disciplined before line of women; uncles’ enforcement of authority

d. Internment in the Pepyę festival: youths enculturated by tribal agents; build group solidarity, and individual growth

e. Winning Honor Awards from Pró-khămmă: to motivate proper behavior

f. The Nkrekre-re Period: individual and age-set activities

g. Couvade: the shock that binds; subject to his in-laws command

h. Status of Fatherhood and Sons-in-Law: full maturity; family’s economic support

(1) Sons-in-law; their current rise in relative power and importance in agriculture

(2) Succession to household leadership; son- to father-in-law

i. Adult Male Activities and Roles

(1) Going on Trek: returning with urban equipment proves ability

(2) Ceremonial Roles: prestige of some roles carries over into daily life

(a) Dance masters learn to lead in festival roles and in daily dancing

(b) Ceremonial chiefs (më-hőőpa?hi) of each age-set

(3) Political Roles: start with leadership roles in initiation festivals

(4) Town Crier: sings out results of council meeting to whole village

(5) Shamans: ghosts may give powers to the sick and youths in seclusion

(6) Hunters: traditionally more prestigious than farmers

(7) Farmer and Hunter Compared: closer to hunting than farming psychology

j. Middle Age: formerly respected for their endurance shown in survival

k. Council of Elders: gratifying for all older men

l. Old Age: life continues similarly, but individuals weaken

E. Daily Cycle

1. Definitions of Individual Activities

a. Occurrence of Daily and Festival Activities: occur concurrently or sequentially

b. Non-daily Cycle Activities: festival, life cycle, idiosyncratic, ceremonial

2. Time Orientations: Canela concepts of “today” and sequence of “todays”

3. Evening Activities: day begins at sunset, coming early morning dance is “today’s”

a. Twilight: male conviviality; council meeting; cheer for moon

b. Evening Sing-Dance: fun for young women and men; foreign dances

c. Troubadours: rare serenading of the village by the young

4. Midnight and Early Morning Activities: dividing point of night’s “today”

a. Early Morning Sing-Dance: time of great joy for the young

(1) Calling out the women

(2) Youths’ role; women fixed in single line, while male patterns vary

(3) Climax: most frenzied time for the restrained Canela

b. Bathing: twice a day, formerly in mixed groups, but certain avoidances

5. Morning Activities: time for work

a. Age-Set Meetings

b. Morning Council Meeting

c. Track Events: mild male competitiveness; various foot races

d. Men Visit Female Kin: where they are authorities as mothers’ brothers

e. Off to Work: to farms, group work sites, or tasks in village

f. Women for Male Work Groups: changing mores

g. Quality of Work: slow but full of care; almost all acts made into play

6. Mid-Day and Afternoon Activities: return to pleasure; rest, sex, athletics

a. Siesta: for relaxation after work and before racing

b. Log Race: the intertribal pan-Gę sport

7.  Late Afternoon Activities: ceremonial sing-dance; council meeting

a. Afternoon Dance in Plaza: the great sing-dance ceremonial

b. Key Authority-Maintenance Ceremony: uncles discipline nephews

c. High Ceremony for Hŕmren People: meat pies presented to Pró-khămmă

8. Early Evening Council Meeting and Boulevard Sing-Dancing: factors in high social cohesion

9. Canela Day Seen Ethnostructurally: similar to two festival structures

10.Observations: sufficient flexibility, satisfactions, communication

F. “Recreation:” music, sports, games, body painting; frustration outlets

1. Music: principally vocal and choral with gourd and belt rattles

a. Rattles: precise percussion instruments; maraca; sing-dance master

(1) Formal instruction by maraca master in Pepyę festival encampment

(2) Maraca masters’ techniques, procedures, rhythms

(3) Belt rattle of tapir hoof tips dropped on mat or shook from knee

b.  Secular Sing-Dancing: descriptive terms

(1) Individual vocal traits (Canela, backlander); learning; performing on city radio

(2) Group styles and formations; variety, harmony, scales, tones

(a) Daily sing-dances in plaza; three dance periods; song repertoire; songs of other tribes

(b) Troubadours around boulevard; small group of youths serenade houses

(c) Më Aykhë around boulevard; age-sets facing houses; for special occasions

(d) Evening boulevard age-set files with maraca leader

c. Ceremonial Sing-Dancing: styles and formations in festivals

(1) Khęętúwayę festival dancing; two facing rows turn to march in files

(2) Singing in circle, facing in, expanding and contracting the circle

(3) Më hakrel; files move parallel but in opposite directions; similar to prayer

(4) Great buriti log race squared style; “splitting” the plaza, running

(5) Individual sing-dancing around boulevard before each house

d. Foreign Songs: learned Pukobyé songs in 1960, and still singing them

2. Sports: adapted to long distance, unhampered, open cerrado running

a. Log Racing: competing moiety dichotomies; Apanyekra imbalance

(1) Procedures and practices; challenges to balance past defeats

(a) Cleared wide roads for two teams to run parallel unhindered by brush

(b) Log cutting and selection; buriti and Pŕlrŕ styles

(c) Shapes, textures, decorations; final log preparation, weight testing

(d) Lifting to shoulder; learning to bear great weight; level running style

(e) Transfer to follower; choice of following reliable runners

(f) Objectives are to enter village first; individuals pass opponents

(2) In festivals, special songs, challenging team’s lead, participants

(3) In village, winning matters little; re-challenge races; Wč?tčs’ role

b. Track Events: sprinting, long distance endurance, relay races

c. Projectile Games: all tests of skill but great fun

(1) Arrow bouncing, deflecting off board to out-fly other age-set’s arrow

(2) Padded hand-thrown lances; uncle-nephew dodging practice

(3) Padded arrows; lance and bonnet winner dodges other age-set’s arrows

(4) Arrow dance; women shoot at non-relatives who dodge the arrows

d. Soccer: Noncompetitiveness vs appropriate aggressiveness

(1) Popular Indian service personnel was the key to learning new values

(2) Respect gained in the backlands through fielding an effective team

3. Children’s Games and Toys: chance not important factor in games or sports

a. Individual Games and Toys: made by parents, not by aunts or uncles

b. Group Games and Toys: doll houses, backland competitions

4. Adult Formal Friendship Dramas

5. Body “Painting”: reveals status, conditions, states, relationships

a. Falcon Down: used only in specific ceremonial high status situations

b. Urucu: expresses familial care and health

c. Charcoal and White Latex Paint: implies joking and extramarital sex

d. Black Charcoal: indicates the wearer is undergoing food and sex restrictions

e. Rare “Paints”: genipap, yellow urucu root, white chalk, pati fuzz

6. Generalizations: log racing and body “painting”; soccer, visual arts vis-ŕ-vis musical arts

G. Artifacts

1. The Visual Arts: relatively unemphasized

2. Commercial Products: lesser quality, more elaborate painting

3. Traditional Artifacts

a. Honor Awards: bestowed on individuals for good behavior

(1) Feather Bonnet (hŕkyara) (Table 8, item 2; Plate 56e)

(2) Ceremonial Lance (khrúwa-tswa) (Table 8, item 1; Plates 56e, 63c,d)

(3) Belt with Pendants All Around (tsů) (Table 8, item 3; Plate 60c,d)

(4) Belt with Pendants Only in Front (tsęp) (Table 8, item 4)

(5) Belt of Cords with Bead Pendants Behind (akŕŕ) (Table 8, item 5; Plates 57c, 59h)

(6) Dorsal Neck Pendant, with Bead Pendants and Small Gourd Bowl (krat-re) (Table 8, item 6; Plate 59f)

(7) Dorsal Neck Pendant, with Wooden Comb and Bead Pendants (khoykhe-re) (Table 8, item 7; Plate 59b,g)

(8) Shoulder to Waist Diagonal Sash with Two Tassels (hahď) (Table 8, item 8; Plate 56)

b. Festival Items: made for and mostly worn during certain festivals

(1) Headband of Vertical Macaw Feathers (pŕn-yapůů) (Table 8, item 24; Plate 61a)

(2) Body Scratching Stick (Table 8, item 25; Plate 67c)

(3) Child’s Dorsal Head-Strap Basket (Table 8, item 26; Plate 66a)

(4) Miniature Racing Logs with Handles (Pŕlrŕ-re) (Table 8, item 27; Plate 67a)

(5) Diagonal Shoulder-Armpit Sashes of Cords (Table 8, item 28; Plate 59a,e)

(6) Novice’s Carved Staff with Tines (Pepyę yőő khô) (Table 8, item 31; Plate 64d)

(7) Cotton Bracelets with Tassels (pa-tsęę) (Table 8, item 34, Plate 60f)

(8) Occipital Hair Tie of Cotton with Cane Rod Pendants (poopok) (Table 8, item 39; Plate 61b)

(9) Fish-shaped Meat Pie Frame (tep yŕ?-kuupu: fish its-pie) (Table 8, item 43; Plate 67b)

(10) Life-size Body Mask (ku?khrůt-ti ?hô: water-beast large its-hair) (Table 8, item 47)

(11) Mask’s Food-spearing Stick (Table 8, item 48)

(12) Occipital Hair Adornment of Catolé Palm Frond (híwa?kčy) (Table 8, item 49)

(13) Padded Arrows (khrúwa kakot) (Table 8, item 35; Plate 63b)

(14) Padded Lances (Table 8, item 50; Plate 63a)

c. Women’s Items

(1) Belt of Tucum Cords (i?pre) (Table 8, item 19; Plate 39d)

(2) Belt of Shredded Bast (Table 8, no field number)

(3) Necklace of Many Strings of Ceramic Beads (Table 8, item 149; Plates 57b, 73c, 76g)

(4) Dorsal Head-Strap Basket of Buriti Stalk Surface Strips (khay) (Table 8, item 61)

d. Men’s Objects

(1) Wooden Staff (khô-po) (Table 8, item 9; Plate 64e)

(2)Wooden Club (khôtŕŕ) (Table 8, item 10; Plate 63f)

(3) Small Wooden Club (khôtŕŕ-re) (Table 8, item 10; Plate 63f)

(4) Relay Race Batons (a?khrô-re) (Table 8, item 11; Plate 64a,b)

(5) Head Bands (i?khră-?khŕ or hŕ?khŕ)

(a) Little Old Cerrado Deer (poo-tsũm-re)

(b) Headband like a Calf                                   

(c) Póro

(d) Clown’s Headband (or hď-?ti)

(e) Older Person’s Headband

(f) Calf Headband (průů-ti ?khră)

(6) Round Earlobe Spools (khuy) (Table 8, item 13; Plate 62a,b,c)

(7) Wooden Earlobe Piercer (hapak katswčl tsŕ) (Table 8, item 55; Plates 62g, 68c)

(8) Buriti Bast Bag for First Earlobe Hole Pins (Table 8, item 56; Plate 62f)

(9) Necklaces (hő?khre-tsęę) (Table 8, item 149; Plate 59a)

(10) Plaited Shoulder-Armpit Diagonal Sashes (hara-?pę) (Table 8, item 16; Plate 58a)

(11) Armlets (hara-khat-tsęę) (Table 8, item 17e) and Leglets (i?te-tsęę) (Table 8, item 17f)

(12) Belt with Tail of Buriti Frond Straw (tsoo-re yapúú) (Table 8, item 18; Plate 58b)

e. Musical Instruments

(1) Cattle Horn (hô?hi) (Table 8, item 20a; Plate 65c)

(2) Gourd Horn (pŕtwč) (Table 8, item 20b; Plate 65d)

(3) Gourd Rattle (ku?tőy) (Table 8, item 21; Plate 65a)

(4) Gourd Whistle (ku?khőn-re) (Table 8, Item 22)

(5) Straight Wooden Whistle (ku?khőn-khrčt) (Table 8, item 23; Plate 65b)

Part III: Social Organization: socialization, psychological polarities, and social and ceremonial units; political structure, terminological relationships, and marriage

A. Socialization and Related Adult Activities

1. Research Methods

a. Personal Observations

b. Discussions with Research Assistants

c. Canela and Apanyekra Socialization Processes

2. Foci of Socialization

a. Infant Care: by female kin group; “milk siblings”

b. Breast Feeding: on demand; for distraction, given someone’s breast

c. Feeding of Solids: no bottle feeding in 1950s, nothing forced

d. Exploration and Distracting Small Children from Dangers

e. Standing and Walking: babies helped when ready, never forced

f. Weaning: traditionally between 3 and 4 years; now, between teething and walking

(1) Principal weaning technique; tricked into eating, not done against will

(2) Pepper breast only if pregnant; a deplored backland “regular” practice

g. Talking: through imitation and repetition; in joking relationships

h. Urination: no attempt to control it, wet clothing tolerated

i. Defecation: between 2 to 4 years old, when children understand to go outside

(1) Related adult practices; alone, hidden, in the cerrado

(2) Sanitation problems in Sardinha and Escalvado

j. Sex: Important training for tradition of extramarital relations

(1) Penis Play: by mothers and classificatory wives

(2) Masturbation: forbidden; a matter for aunts and uncles to correct

(a) Loss of virginity payments (both sexes); male loss if foreskin loose

(b) Adult modesty; though naked, glans penis and inner genitalia hidden

(3) Opposite-Sex Siblings’ Sex Play: one of two most severely punished offenses

(4) Adolescent or Adult Incest: uterine siblings become crazy and die

(5) Sexual Education of Males: from joking, rafter beds, “spouses,” watching trysts

(a) Homosexuality: rare but tolerated

(b) Males’ first experience with an older classificatory spouse

(6) Sexual Education of Females: from joking uncles, from hearing rafter bed activity

(a) Learns from disciplinary aunt, who also inspects her for broken hymen

(b) Learns by group force if she is not “generous” with her other “husbands”

(c) Learns through being a girl associate, “wife” to a male group

k. Aggression Regulation: external aggression not rewarded for last 150 years

(1) Girls fighting is rare and only when very small

(2) Boys fighting is rare; second worst offense; a trial if blood is drawn

(3) Spirited willfulness of little A?prol; like earlier warrior

(4) War leaders had innate ferocity; externally directed, internal restraint

(5) Non-confrontational at foci, many outlets for frustrations

l. Eating Practices: permissive and irregular for both children and adults

m. Independence/Dependence: girls help parents, boys play in cerrado; of adults

n. Khęętúwayę Festival: pre-pubertal boys cooperate in non-familial group

(1) Boys learn protective roles of kin against unknown and supernatural dangers

(2) Boys confined and visited by uncles who teach traditions and values

o. Ear-piercing for Boys: to listen, understand, and obey

p. Puberty: shift to uncle’s harsher discipline

q. Pepyę Festival: post-pubertal boys learn restrictions

r. Group Disciplinary Practices: to toughen and control adolescents

(1) Uncles as warriors haze nephews for food and sex infractions

(2) Apanyekra practice severe public shaming for sex during Pepyę internment

s. Traditions Lost due to Service Personnel’s Presence: uncle-nephew hazing

(1) Adolescent sex with elderly; youths with menopausal women

(2) Childless women sleeping in the plaza on opposite side from husbands

3. Forces of Socialization

a. Forces of Socialization for Children

(1) Rewarding and Motivating Forces

(a) Parents’ roles; give extra toys and food (Ta?pa); tell stories

(b) Aunts’, uncles’ roles; supply head-baskets and toys; joking, storytelling, hunting

(2) Restraining Forces

(a) Trait formation; not stingy, angry; no fighting, maligning, stealing

(b) Incessant streams of mild talk and insistent requests

(c) Distraction, trick into cooperation; to not confront and weaken will

(d) No verbal abuse used to lessen self-image, unlike backlanders

(e) Fear used to attract attention, impress, and get cooperation

(f) Ignoring the very willful; if control ineffectual, let child have it’s way

(g) Physical punishments; hitting palm of hand for extreme misbehavior

(h) Forcing medicine; acculturative change from late 1950s to 1970s

(i) Aunts and uncles hit only in extreme cases; if ignored return to parents

b. Forces of Socialization for Adolescents

(1) Restraining Forces

(a) Aunts and uncles teach sex restrictions; more detached than parents

(b) Aunts and uncles teach endurance for life roles through confrontation

(c) Attaining strength through maintaining virginity (Pŕŕtsęt)

(d) Uncles send nephews to plaza; impose sex and food restrictions; haze

(e) Formal Friends: fear of “games” against them restrains individuals

(2) Enabling Forces

(a) Food, sex restrictions; “helping hand” to do well in most adult roles

(b) “Medicines,” Formal Friends, cross-sex siblings

(3) Rewarding Forces: public and private awards

(a) For girls

(b) For youths

c. Forces of Socialization for Adults

(1) Rewarding Forces

(a) Extramarital sex partners; general availability helps morale

(b) “Advice” from older relatives; inter-generational adult bonding

(c) Appointment of children to positions of honor brings honor to their parents

(d) Prestigious roles; few positions for highest roles, some high roles for all

(2) Enabling Forces

(a) Food and sex restrictions against pollutions by shamans and hunters

(b) Formal Friends, the most developed helping device for adults

(c) “Powers” from ghosts, hunting “vision” from “medicines”

(d) Orders for carrying out most roles is strongly felt need

(3) Restraining Forces for Adults

(a) Shame; enculturated inhibiting factor; hŕmren have much shame, Clowns have little shame

(b) Formal Friend “games”; shaming acts replacing uncles’ discipline

(c) Stories as warnings; she hung herself to avoid marrying mother’s choice

(d) Concern about reputation of stinginess (hőőtsč); lose sex partners

(e) Apprehension of negative rumors (tswa?nă); spoiled name

(f) Age-set admonitions; pressure on men; noncompliance is antisocial

(g) Political pressure; no enforcement agent, but deep need felt to comply

(h) Fear of shaman’s spell; enforced generosity traditionally, but now weak

(i) Folk Catholic Satan; when God is not “looking,” Satan harms strayers

(j) Spurning by “other spouses”; open sex talk and rumors diminishing

4. Ethnotheories of Individual Development

a. Personality Is Imminent: so training is permissive

b. Discipline Breeds Respect: so train with strength

c. Conceptualization of Growth Periods: steps slanting upward

5. Summary

a. Permissive Training: generates low tolerance of frustration

b. Dependency Training: creates expectation of being cared for by others

c. Discipline and Freedom: control at puberty contrasted with sexual freedom later

d. Acculturative Factors in the Disorganization of the 1970s

e. State of Being in the 1970s: strong desires with little control

B. Psychological “Polarities,” Values, and Behavioral Orientations

1. Valued Orientations: complementary and oppositional “pairings”

a. Generosity versus Stinginess

(1) Backlanders “stingy” with year’s subsistence stores

(2) Game eaten secretly to avoid “begging”; “generous” when confronted

(3) Individuals gave to avoid accusations of witchcraft, a pervasive fear

(4) Rights to sex and other services belong to desirer; result in bold “begging”

b. Feeling and Caring versus Self-Centeredness

(1) Disapproval of backlanders’ lack of strong caring for others

(2) Feelings over fairness in distributions of goods; trading difficulties

(3) Telling the truth less important than not hurting feelings; “lying”

c. Joy and Fun versus Sadness and Introspection

(1) Joking relationships enliven life; opposite sexes, sexual references

(2) Expressing joy when Formal Friends honored; comic relief of festivals

(3) Introspection considered evil; sad individuals must join the group

(4) Activity, noise, and movement almost necessary; group action best

d. Individuality within Solidarity

(1) High group involvement does not eliminate individuality which is respected

(2) Extreme individual tendencies accepted and ignored once established

(3) Initiative within “shame”; Wetheads (hŕmren) join Dryheads (Clowns)

e. Endurance versus Weakness

(1) Male endurance in work and forbearance in marriage valued; women direct

(2) Women express feelings more; softer, less patient (men’s view)

(3) Admiration for permanence and durability; stones, armadillo, a haakhat

f. The Beautiful and the Ugly

(1) Straight roads and hair, open and distant vistas, straight posture

(2) Tolerance for variant individuals (Moon’s descendants); city returnee

(3) Individuals conceal or ignore body defects; no pity sought

(4) Dignity and poise even while “begging”; Apanyekra more direct

g. The Little Good and the Little Bad

(1) Pretentiousness is second greatest evil

(2) Physical deformities as little evils; no bad naming or extremes

(3) Clowns seen as only somewhat bad; Tŕmhŕk, Pepkahŕk, Më?khęn compared

(4) Paired complementarity and paired opposition; moderate-extreme ranges

h. Avoidance versus Conflict

(1) In politics, absence preferred to confrontation (cases of two chiefs)

(2) Ceremonialism; battle ceremonially prevented by intervening file of honor

(3) Terminological avoidance affines, Formal Friends; no hostility spoken

(4) Through diversion, expressionless faces, falsifying, nonappearance

i. Youth versus Age

(1) Kuwrč’s death, extreme mourning for ideal young woman; festival postponed

(2) Festival roles largely for the young; girl associates, initiates

(3) Secular dancing and marriage; hearth group maintained for the young

j. Kin before Affines: harmony versus tension

k. Following Orders versus Individual Initiative

(1) Killing backlander cattle on orders of any other Canela

(2) Order issuers; chiefs, Pró-khămmă, household heads, kay

(3) Individual Authority; orders from God

l. Inner or Outer, We or They

(1) Dualistic forms in the language; special pronoun, inclusive-exclusive

(2) Dualism between groups, concepts, items; oppositions made “similar”

2. Observations: assistants work better with polarities; need to resolve conflict

C. Socioceremonial Units: moieties, high and low honor, ritual matriliny

1. Defining the Units: in daily life as well as ceremonial

2. Recruitment Principles

3. Age-Set Moieties: Upper versus Lower; recruited by relative age

a. Formation of Age-Sets: through initiation festivals over a 10-year period

b. Pró-khămmă Age-Set: governs council of elders for 20 years

c. Separate Age-Set Activities: loss of traditional age-set names

(1) Political disintegration when Indian service hired age-set leaders

(2) Possible origin of age-sets; Pepyę warriors

d. Moieties compete as Work Forces: for agriculture and road building

e. Roles of Age-Set Moieties in Festivals: the most frequently used organizing principle for groups

f. Recruitment of Women: appointed by Pró-khămmă; wet-headed in status

g. Eastern Timbira Comparisons of Krahó and Krĩkatí

h. Behavior Within and Outside the Festival Context

4. Red and Black Regeneration (“Rainy”) Season Moieties

a. “Regeneration” Defined: Red/Black oscillation; “outer” clarified

b. Recruitment into Regeneration Moieties: only case of female name-sets

c. Principal Characteristics of Moieties: meet at plaza’s edge; competitive teams for log racing

(1) Alternate Ascendancy Status of Moieties: leveling; logs’ shape, “growth”

(2) Ayrën Ceremony: intermoiety extramarital sex exchanged for meat

d. Diminution of the Regeneration Moiety System: sharecropping for backlanders a factor in system’s loss

5. Plaza Group Moieties

a. Definitions of Plaza Groups: three vs. three in plaza’s center; symmetrical, opposed

b. Characteristics of Plaza Groups in the Fish, Khęętúwayę, and Pepyę Festivals

c. Recruitment of Girl Associates: appointed by Pró-khămmă, by group choice

d. Evolving Position of Plaza Group Moieties: these earlier elements may be “inserts” in age-set acts

6. Men’s Societies: by name-set transmission

a. Men’s Societies Compared with Plaza Groups: two vs. one at plaza’s edge; asymmetrical

b. Recruitment of Girl Associates: varies between Pró-kkămmă, membership, uncles’ veto

c. Comparison with the Krahó Men’s Societies: both tribes losing name affiliation

7. “Wetheads” and “Dryheads”: by name-set or by Pró-khămmă appointment

a. Visiting Chiefs: Tŕmhŕk (King Vultures) have high ceremonial honor

(1) Traditional and modified patriline succession (F/S, %/BS, %/”B”S)

(2) Procession to plaza; Pepkahŕk; high honor

b. Clown Society: low ceremonial honor, little restraint through “shame”

(1) Recruitment by group choice

(2) Girl associates; the lowest status; their act epitomizes greatest “evils”

8. Ritual Societies: river-oriented

a. Festival Haakhat: by matriliny, name-transmission or both

b. Lodge and Haakhat Compared: location, ownership, Pró-khămmă appointed

c. Acculturation: from matriliny to naming because easier, less confining

d. Individual and Family Recruitment: varies with ritual

9. Relative Status of Women in the Various Socioceremonial Units

10. Hypothetical Development through the Eras of Organizing Principles

a. Early Period and Regeneration Principle

b. Riverine Period and the Haakhat Principle

c. Bellicose Period and the Age-Set Principle: wars, visiting chiefs, hŕmren honor,”patrilines”

11. Summary and Discussion of Canela Socioceremonial Units

D. Political System: chieftainship, council of elders, judicial system

1. The Chieftainship: one or several chiefs, serve different purposes

a. Evidence for Stronger Earlier Leadership: language, orders, obedience

(1) Inferences of authority from “broad” term, “hear-know-obey-perform”

(2) Compulsion to follow commands is notably pervasive

(3) Reported great discipline, dispatch, rectitude, conformity of ancients

b. Choice of Tribal Leader by Outsiders

c. Roles of First Chief: he takes political initiatives, their extent varies

(1) Head of Council of Elders: leads morning planning, makes individual assignments

(a) Conducts plaza meetings; provides topics, listens, declares consensus

(b) Supervises plaza decisions; sacred nature, no anger, no enforcement

(c) Allows alternative leaders; deputy chiefs, Pró-khămmă, other elders

(d) Plans day of work and hunting groups, women, family tasks, messengers

(2) Age-Set Moiety Leader: leads work group versus other moiety; provides lunches

(3) Tribal Representative: to Indian service, visitors, and backlanders

(a) Three kinds of civilizados, backland, Barra do Corda, big-city people

(b) Other Eastern Timbira visitors, Krahó, Krĩkatí, Pukobyé

(c) Apanyekra receive far more visits from other Timbira than Canela

(4) Chief Justice: hearings; his style, payments, no enforcement

d. Chiefs as Shamans: not main power source but some compliance from fear

e. Range of Powers: moves into power vacuums; balanced by Pró-khămmă

f. Other Political Leaders: first chief’s deputies and also his rivals

(1) Deputy Chiefs: appointed by first chief as help, are not his rivals

(2) Self-appointed Leaders: all are former initiation festival officials

(3) Indian Service Appointments: formerly the custom but a rare act today

g. Schisms: when potential leaders try to establish a new village site

(1) Succession to Chieftainship, 1951–1957: Kaarŕ?khre’s “commission”

(a) Founding a separate village; from farm huts to Indian service support

(b) Intervillage rivalry when rumors not settled daily by councils

(c) Inability to verbalize competition for leadership; betrayal of peace

(2) Separatist Movements, 1963–1968: five potential chiefs, five villages

(3) Reunification, 1968: put on initiation festival to involve most children

h. Succession: to kin or able man; council and outside “authorities” help

i. Chiefly Characteristics: masterful but not overbearing

(1) Kinds of leaders; age-set commandant, file leader, warrior, sing-master

(2) Not hŕmren in state, political, not ceremonial; two routes to power

(3) No personality cult, not to appear “greater than others”; salary helps

(4) Tyranny impossible; tactics spontaneous, partly unconscious, secretive

j. Bases of Political Power

2. Council of Elders: older males meeting in plaza

a. Meetings: sequence of events, morning planning, age-set’s positions

(1) Informal topics, game killed, backland evils, neutralization of rumors

(2) Formal part, ancient formal speech, order of speakers, termination call

b. Pró-khămmă Age-Set: dominates council of elders (average age: 45–65)

(1) Its formation through four initiation festivals during 10 years

(2) Place in council of elders; relationships among the three age-sets

(3) Sequence over four decades (1950s-1980s); three Pró-khămmă age-sets

(4) Change proceeds in steps, not at even rate, due to 20-year cycle

(5) Ascendancy over Upper age-set moiety; contrast with four other moieties

(6) Formal leader, commandant of novices in final Pepyę, if he survives

(7) Apanyekra elders; age-set formation and symmetry

c. Roles of the Pró-khămmă Age-Set: apart from those of the council of elders

(1) Govern Festivals, Rituals, and Other Ceremonies

(a) Initiate, give permission, or order ceremonies to be performed

(b) Choose performers; designate new succession lines; direct performances

(c) Debate and determine sequence of events

(2) Bestow Honor Awards to Youths: for their good performance in festivals

(3) Accept Honor Meat Pies: from hŕmren persons returning to social activity

(4) Receive First Crops: designate some hŕmren to test them for ripeness

d. Roles of the Council of Elders

(1) Representation of everyone in tribe by “uncles” or “grandfathers”

(a) Inter-familial problems surface first in plaza, discussed by uncles

(b) Rumors resolved in plaza

(2) Check on power of chief through informal interplay in daily meetings

(a) Chief resigned because denounced by a Pró-khămmă in the early 1980s

(b) Four new chiefs installed in several years

e. Council as Key to Solidarity: reliance on meetings unusual

3. Judicial System

a. General Characteristics: hearings between extended families

b. Typical Hearing: uncles lead, testimony sought, frustration aired

c. Characteristic Problems: any disturbance; mostly marital, then theft

(1) In Marriage: virginity loss; retaining husband; divorce; shamed spouse

(2) Theft: beads, iron tools, household utensils, ceremonial artifacts

(3) Physical Abuse: minimal with exceptions for drunkenness; stingy girl

(4) Violence: not characteristic; acculturative increase; urbanized Canela

(5) Suspicion of Witchcraft: 1903 case; rapidity of resolution in 1970s

d. Three Levels of Hearings: among elders; between families; by chief

e. Principles Used at Hearings

(1) Maintain Peace: fear that categorization into social parts may be divisive

(2) Consensus: the Canela Genius, a problem with research assistant groups

(3) Compromise and Social Leveling: done by the more prestigious

(a) A Trial: peace before justice

(b) Overlook thefts to keep peace, due to ceremonial and political roles

(4) Ease Shame, Save Face: offense remembered (shame); folk Catholic guilt

(5) Restitution, Not Punishment: punitive payments are unusual

(a) Restitution of marital payments depends on extent of steps in marriage

(b) Punitive payments for “leaving children”; loss of all material goods by man

f. Effect of Judicial System: frustration reduction leads to satisfaction and low emigration

E. Terminological Relationship Systems: kinship and domestic units

1. The Nine Relationship Systems

2. Consanguineal Terminological System: Crow-like kindreds, “parallel transmission”

a. Terms FZ = FZD = FZDD = FZDDD = FM = MM; MB = MF = FF = FMB; F = FZS = FZDS = FZDDS

b. Distinction between One-Link-Away and Further-Links-Away Kin: “Restrictions” kin

c. Distinctive Crow-III Kintypes: further-link terminological exceptions

d. Successions D/M, male DH/WF, ZS/MB, “Z”S/M “B,” S/F: taking their place

e. Demographic Arrangements in Relation to Village Circle and Farms

(1) The “Hearth”: female kin with families are smallest economic unit

(a) Elementary family, the eating together unit

(b) Hearth unit splits, oldest daughters build new house beside or behind mother’s

(2) Parallel-Cousin Matrilateral Arc: “mothers’ longhouse”

(a) Examples of the Canela and Apanyekra longhouse

(b) Comparison of economic, jural, ritual, and exogamic domestic units

(c)Village and farm unit arrangements; male as well as female factors

(3) Cross-Cousin, Across-the-Plaza Kin: “grandmothers’ longhouses”

(a) Crow-III patterns broken through naming, Formal and Informal Friend­ships, co-fatherships

(b) Hypothetically broken less in earlier times of higher populations

3. Affinal Terminological System

a. Distinctions and Usages

(1) “In-House/Out-of-House” Distinctions: born-in/married-into

(2) Same-Sex Same-Generation Relationships: male Z over male W and female B over female H

(3) Same-Sex Adjacent-Generation Authority Distinctions: senior/junior

(4) Opposite-Sex Adjacent-Generation Avoidance Terms: meanings, behavior

(5) Avoidance Terms as Alternatives to Spouse Terms: three links away

(a) In “parallel transmission”

(b) Name-set transmission, choice based in alternative behavior

(c)Across-the-plaza matrilines; wife’s “aunts”/”nieces”

(6) Opposite-Sex Same-Generation Affines: spouses and “other spouses”

(a) Not “potential” spouses; “other” spouses more appropriate

(b) Sororate, a sister or close “sister” preferred for child care

(c) Joking relationship; much joy in life comes from such play

(7) Secondary Consanguineal Terms

b. Comments on the Affinal System

c. Honorific Pronoun Yę: for some affines and Formal Friends

4. Name-Set Transmission Terminology: female F “Z”/female “B”D, male M “B”/male “Z”S

a. Special Terms: i-túwa-re (my-young-one) is used for both sexes

b. The Informal Agreement between “Sisters” and “Brothers”

c Distant Siblingships: maintained by name exchange or broken by incest

d. Earlier Exchanges with More Distant “Siblings”

e. Creation of New Names: from name-giver’s life experiences

f. Name-Sets, Name-Givers and Name-Receivers, and Festival Roles

g. Name Changes during a Pŕlrŕ Log Racing Ceremony

5. Formal Friendship Terminology: same-sex or opposite-sex bonds of solidarity

a. Extensive Systems of Reference and Their Honorific Pronoun

b. Initiation of Formal Friendships: Ntęę ceremony; two novices bathe; paired girl associates; linked names

6. Informal Friendship Terminology: between two men of the same age-set; dual pronoun reference

7. Mortuary Terms: consanguines and affines

8. Teknonymy: consistent address

a. Between Cross-Sex Siblings: name-receiver’s parent

b. Spouses and “Spouses” in Long-term Affairs: first born’s parent

9. Contributing-Father Terminology: no unique terms but affects behavior

10. Ceremonial Relationship Terminology: no unique terms, sometimes uses consanguinal terms

F. Marriage: to any non-kin, steps into marriage, payments, ethno-ideology

1. Preferences and Restrictions: no alliances; sororate; longhouse exogamy

2. Classificatory Spouses: intertribal opposite-sex unrelatedness

3. Incestuous Marriage: kinship distances; penalties

4. Steps into Marriage: bind the couple increasingly closer

a. Engagement: earlier times, girl 4–6, boy 12–18; usually broken

b. Marriage Definition: losses of virginity, widowhood, singleness

(1) Detachable men, those without children through marriage

(2) Single women with children (më mpíyapit) respected

c. Marital Hearings: “contracting” and “adjusting” the marriage

(1) Large payment for youth to leave; virginity and first marriage valued

(2) Other sequences; acculturation; virginity stolen, then “adjusted”

d. Purchase of Son-in-Law: between extended families; now exchange

e. Painting the Daughter-in-Law’s Belt: gives her sexual freedom and further secures marriage

(1) Sufficiently accepted by in-laws to participate openly in sanctioned extramarital relations

(2) Period of woman’s great freedom before pregnancy and child raising

(a) Earlier era, women slept with men in plaza

(b) Modern times, uncles have lost control of youths, so sons-in-law complain of wife’s activities

f. Presentation of Mother-in-Law’s Meat Pie: acknowledgment of wife’s sexual freedom

g. Conception: catches her husband until their children are grown

h. Childbirth: basic marriage-securing step, if the baby lives

i. Couvade: cements marriage, domesticates husband; isolates mother and baby

j. Postpartum Co-Father Meat Pie Rite: final payment for husband

5. Marital Payments and Balance of Costs

a. Gifts versus Payments for Sexual Services

b. Contributions by Husband and Wife to the Marriage

6. Purpose of Payments: to keep men married; the shame of public hearings

7. Purpose of Marriage: to provide a “hearth” group for raising children

8. Lovemaking and Affairs: sanctioned by festival arrangements

a. Informal Relationships: long affairs, quick encounters, life’s zest

b. Women Also Take the Initiative: beginning of embraced Western dancing style

9. Divorce: “none” while children are growing; 7 divorces in 96 marriages studied

a. Starting a Trend in the 1970s

b. Divorce among the Eastern Timbira: less frequent among the Canela

10. Group Age-Set Marriage: in earlier times each youth led to wife

11. Ethno-ideology: social structure built on “blood” linkages

a. “Blood” Concept: first-link kin pollution; spouses assume restrictions of one-linkers but do not become blood kin

b. Flow of Humanity: matrilines pass on linearly, husbands attached

c. Extending the Sweet Potato Vine: marriage enables “descent”

d. Across-the-Plaza Bridges of “Blood”: marriages connect matrilines

e. Cross-Cousin and Parallel-Cousin Longhouse Matrilines

12. Summary of Village “Blood” Ethnostructure: of kinship and marriage

Part IV: Ceremonial and Belief Systems: tribal festivals and individual rites; cosmology, shamanism, and pollution

A. Festival System: dramatization of values

1. In and Out of the Festival State

2. Festivals as Pageants and Role Models

3. Wč?tč (Dry) Season: spouses separated for extramarital sex and fun

a. Opening Wč?tč Festival: symbolic antagonism of sexes dramatized

b. Structure of the Five Great Wč?tč Season Festivals

(1) Beginning and middle periods, and the “great days”

(2) Hunting phase (A?tu ?Pôk); age-set moieties kill game, women prepare meat

(3) Terminal phase; high dramatic acts precede athletic and comic ones

c. Five Great Festivals: socializing, honoring, freeing; leveling

(1) Khęętúwayę Festival: prepubertal (ghosts and kin)

(a) Catching and interning novices in plaza moieties’ two rooms

(b) Daily plaza singing; kin protect novices from ghosts (the unknown)

(c) Age-set’s elite; deputy commandants, file leaders, girl associates, messenger boys

(d) Ayčk Ceremonies: defenses against attracted ghosts

(e) Terminal phase; novices released from seclusion, awards of honor bestowed, endurance tested, comic acts

(2) Pepyę Festival: postpubertal restrictions against food and sex

(a) Internment and inspection by uncles; restrictions for “growth”

(b) Song training and other campsite activities; racing; being disciplined

(c) Terminal phase; formation of an age-set: endurance, singing, solidarity

(3) Pepkahŕk Festival: adult (high ceremony); reinforces hŕmren’ s behavior

(a) Seclusion in hut outside village; community service; restrictions

(b) Daily acts; file around outside houses for food; evening singing

(c) Great days; Pepkahŕk dignity leveled by their “other wives”

(d) Closing period; highest ceremonial honor of any festival dramatized

(e) Hŕmren state of high honor portrayed in special acts

(f) Internment festivals compared; each has aids appropriate to their age-group

(4) Fish Festival: Clowns (low ceremony, sex joking); in opposition to Pepkahŕk

(a) Composition, characteristics, roles of plaza moieties

(b) Daily acts, great days; free Clowns break most traditions

(c) Dominance of Clowns over all other societies during terminal phase

(5) Masks’ Festival: Life-size palm straw river creatures play and “beg”

(a) Cerrado lean-to for weaving masks; Jaguars “eat” Agouti; parade, games

(b) Personalities, behaviors; adoption by “mothers” (other wives)

(c)Food distribution; “begging” (economic leveling); high morale factor

(d) Relationship of Masks’ and Wč?tč festivals

d. Origins and Retention of Festivals

e. Closing Wč?tč Festival: change of focus from enjoyment to responsibility

(1) Wč?tč girls and their families provide “family life” away from home for the opposite age-set moiety

(2) Girls gain their belts by climbing on Little Falcon’s cage

(3) Kô?khre log’s absence of enjoyment

f. Occasions for Sanctioned Extramarital Sexual Relationships

(1) Wild Boar Day: between age-set moieties; spouses separated by distance

(a) Village Më Aykhë dance; sex in Wč?tč houses and by the stream

(b) Farm meal, talk, and log preparations; sex in bushes, body painting

(2) Ayrën Day: Red and Black Regeneration season moieties

(3) Male Work Groups on Tribal Projects: with designated female associates

(4) Moieties Hunt during Great Festivals’ Terminal Phases

(5) Festival of Oranges: the women with male associates (role reversal)

(6) Ceremonial Chief Days

(7) Summary: loss of sanctioned extramarital sex occasions and contrasts with the Apanyekra

4. Red and Black Regeneration Moieties’ Season (Wet)

a. Events Preceding the Regeneration Season

b. Alternation in “Growth:” shape of logs; cylinders/coins

c. Principle of Social Leveling: the lesser harass the greater

d. Më-ipimrŕk’s Occurences in Earlier Years

e. Comparison with the Apanyekra Age-Set Moiety Racing

5. Unnamed Ritual Period: February-April

a. Corn-oriented Activities: November and February

b. Buriti Wet Pith Ball-Throwing Ceremony

c. Sweet Potato and Grasshopper Rituals: carnival of the Canela

d. Corn Harvest Ceremonies: to increase size of the harvest

e. Pŕlrŕ Ceremony: evokes the Wč?tč season

(1) Tsů?katę-re (ceremonial elite members) signal start of race

(2) Pŕlrŕ Logs; their cutter tests auspiciousness of chosen tree

(3)New name-sets sung onto individuals, items, honored visitors

6. Apanyekra Festivals

7. Elements Used for Associating Festivals

a. Recruitment into Group and Role Membership

(1) Name-Set Transmission

(2) Matrilineality: limited but confused with name-set transmission

(3) Patrifiliation and Matrifiliation: peace-making among Eastern Timbira tribes

(4) Membership by Pró-khămmă Appointment versus Group Selection

b. Men’s Societies and Plaza Groups: associated with Wč?tč season

c. Nonburiti Pŕlrŕ-like Logs

d. Tsů?katę-re: signal-giving elite; Pŕlrŕ- and plaza group-related

e. Internment and Restrictions

B. Individual Rites: performed by ego’s kindred

1. From Birth to Parenthood

a. Birth into Female Solidarity Group: no men; place amulets, cut hair

b. Designation of Contributing-Fathers

c. Naming Transmissions: of newborn; of cross-sex siblings; of ceremonial groups

d. Childhood Engagement and Bride Service

e. Ear-Piercing for Boys: arranged by uncle; performed by specialist

f. Menstruation and Seclusion: food restrictions and impact of acculturation

g. Girl’s Steps into Marriage

h. Woman’s Belt-earning Process: biggest life step except for childbirth

(1) Fabrication of the belt (i?pre): female solidarity

(2) Ways of winning belt; as girl associate or as a companion to Little Falcon

(3) Purpose of seclusion is to mature girl and belt (comparable to piercing boy’s earlobes)

(4) Painting the i?pre and full acceptance by female in-laws

(5) Freed for extramarital sex

i. Groom-Price: the son-in-law is paid for with meat pies

2. Natal Rites

a. Prenatal Practices: pregnancy recognized by missed menstrual periods

b. Childbirth: seclusion quarters and matriline continuity

c. Couvade: to protect infant’s blood from parents’ pollutions

(1) Restrictions before umbilicus falls; only eat corn and rice; avoid dangers

(2) After umbilicus falls; test additional foods on whether or not baby cries

(3) After navel heals father hunts meat for mother’s milk; he moves, she eats more

d. Contributing-Fathers’ Rite: publicizes their lifetime commitment to their child

(1) Presentation of meat pies formalize relationship for her kin, his kin, and co-fathers

(2) Urucued mother summons charcoaled co-fathers to assemble around meat pies

(3) Strong hunter blows breath (smoke) on pie, passing strength to fathers

(4) Non-tasting pie ceremony; life-time restrictions for baby’s health

(5) Little Fox act is secretive, like a co-father helping his child

(6) Distribution of food; orderly and disorderly “payments” contrasted

e. End of Hŕ?krël Rite: secures marriage and co-fathers

3. Funeral Proceedings: paid messengers sent to summon one-link kin

a. Attending the Deceased: kin and principal Formal Friend’s helpers

b. Attending the Bereaved: emotional release restrained; goods subject to loss

c. Gravedigger’s Payment: Formal Friend’s final compensation

d. Mourning: to enable a person to continue living in the present

(1) Formal Friend helps widow or mother mourn, going to remembered places

(2) Duration and nature of practices; seclusion, inactivity, undecorated

(3) Bereaved wails with every relative and some friends to erase lingering memories

C. Oral History and Cosmology: myths, war stories, other worlds, souls

1. Oral History: their worlds of the past

a. Method and Theory: derived partly from group discussions after narration

b. Material from Myths: nature- to culture-oriented

(1) Sun and Moon: origin of human differences, traits, death, shame, work

(2) Eating Sun-Dried Meat: earliest style of existence

(3) Fire Obtained from Jaguar: a step away from nature

(4) Crops and Fruits Identified: by Star-Woman for use by Canela

(5) Self-transformation and Its Loss

(6) Awkhęę and the Acculturation Contract: shotgun versus bow and arrow

(7) Migrations and Acquisition of Cosmology

(a) Before era of war chiefs, tribe led by “pack” leaders

(b) Forced on by backlanders; festivals acquired when by a great river

(c) Arrived in present area from a riverine region

(d) Canela origin for all tribes; dispersed from one ancestral village

c. Warfare According to War Stories

(1) Visiting among Tribes: some marriages; kin or in-laws mediated

(2) Relationships with Other Tribes

(3) Kay Abilities in Warfare: usually determined victors

(4) Souls of Warriors: leave bodies well before death, which fight on weakly

(5) Special Trips: for trophies or results of shame

(6) Causes of Warfare: youths’ need to prove themselves; keep enemy tribes small; freedom of movement

(7) Village Size: no reliable estimations

d. Intertribal Liaisons and Leaders: information from war stories

(1) Alliances and Chiefs: tribes of the forest versus those of the cerrado

(a) Early visiting chiefs (Tŕmhŕk); tribal merging ceremony (Hŕ?kawrč)

(b) Modern protection chiefs (më-hőőpa?hi)

(c )warrior chiefs (më-hŕŕprăl)

e. Tribal Schisms: difficult to carry out in pre-pacification times

f. Intra-village versus Inter-village Orientation: Canela more inward looking

(1) “Village” as tribal unit; Eastern Timbira are many nations; not one people

(2) Canela more war-oriented than previously thought

g. Stages of Development Identified by Research Assistants: from knowledgeability to self-direction (gain pollution, dangers) to dependency (gain justification for begging)

h. Observations: on shamanism, warfare, and Canela origins

2. Cosmology: other worlds and souls

a. Village of the Dead: ghosts’ life pitied, so live for the present

b. Worlds Above and Below: origins of festivals

c. Ghosts and Their World: dangers for the living

(1) Souls visit village of the dead; becoming involved, they stay there

(2) Community under lake probably of post-pacification origin

(3) Heaven is where most Canela believe they go today

d. Celestial Objects: not important, except for sun and moon

e. Aspects of Karő (animism): souls, shadows, and photographs

f. Culture Heroes: Sun, Moon, Star-Woman, and Awkhęę

D. Shamanism, Pollution, and Medicine

1. Shamanism: mediating system between Canela and ghosts

a. Generous Curer: supports self economically; basically “good”

b. Independent in Authority: free of chief and council like Clowns

c. Visitations by Ghosts: give instructions and “powers”

(1) Seeker’s effort is no guarantee of visit; ghosts come to persons they like

(2) Importance of restrictions is to attain and maintain the kay state

(3) Ghosts first appear to trainee as animals in a quiet and solitary setting

(4) Krahó and Kayapó comparisons in becoming a shaman

(5) Receiving devil’s powers, trainee breaks state by having sex and “loaded” foods

(6) Given specific powers to cure certain illnesses

d. Spells: in trial curing, patient’s spell removed by smoke and sucking

(1) Location of “powers” in left armpit; today more but weaker shamans

(2) Negative powers return to harm their thrower; act never admitted

e. Shamans: watchful; they can be hŕmren

(1) Social orientation is to serve; respected because shaman could turn harmful

(2) Payments only moderate or are thought antisocial; received only for a cure

(3) Women rarely attain “pure” blood that ghosts like, so few become kay

(4) Little teaching, no apprentices; ghosts, not old kay, give seeker knowledge

2. Animal Spells: hunter kills few of same game or it hurts his child

3. Pollution

a. Restrictions on Food and Sex: reduce entry of pollutions to body

b. “Restrictions” Kin: in one-link kin’s common “blood pool,” pollution’s harm spreads to all

c. Post-pubertal Restrictions: build up endurance for most of life’s roles

d. “Pollutants”: believed to weaken individual, especially if liminal

(1) Meat juices; messengers sent to have one-link kin observe restrictions

(2) Distance does not reduce effects of pollution for one-link kin

(3) Menstrual blood harmful to all but her children

(4) Sexual fluids harm the weak, babies, the ill, internees

(5) “Bile” counteracts pollution, but interaction of these fluids weakens the ill

e. Death from Not Maintaining Restrictions: mother “kills” her baby

f. Restrictions during Pepyę Festival: isolation to learn life’s key helping device

g. Effect of Acculturation on “Restrictions”

4. Medicine: to rid the body of pollutions

a. Infusions: for luring game to hunter

b. Herbs

5. Affirmative Chanting: “strong” words strengthen hearers (Khrúwapu myth)

6. “Knowledgeability”: life manipulating device of early ancestors

7. Summary

Part V. Canela Structural Patterns

A. Structures in Some Sociocultural Sectors

1. Application of Key Terms to “Traditional” Pairings

2. Principles Behind Complementary and Oppositional Pairings

3. Application of Principles to Other Sectors: “traditional” to new pairings

a. Fieldwork Procedures: shapes and dimensions; triads or complex dyads

b. Examples of Oppositional and Complementary Pairings: worked out in the field

4. The System of Combined Pairings: dyads operate as triads

a. Categories of Canela Triads: fixed, modifying, generating

b. Dualities: sufficient for fixed, generating, but not for modifying triads

5. Examples of Combined Pairings

a. Fixed Category Examples: relationships unchanged “forever” or for some time

(1) Inanimate Examples: least structured by “physical world”

(a) “Today” as a Unit of Time: two night-todays versus one daytime-today

(b) Physical Dimensions: significant shape (sphere with circle vs. length)

(c)Two or Three Ceremonial Units versus One: Wč?tč festival system

(2) Animate Category Examples: between people, groups, but no modifying triads

(a) Positioning in Festivals: interaction of mens’ societies, plaza groups

b. Modifying Category Examples: “third element” resolves problems (operational)

(1) Resolutions through Mediating Elements

(a) Institutions: marriage, name-exchange, Formal Friendship (warriors)

(b) Bridges: Indians and ghosts; forests and society; warlike tribes

(2) Resolutions by Protecting Devices: restrictions, urucu, Formal Friends

(3) Resolutions in Transforming Conditions: altered states

(a) Transformation of Form: raw to cooked (elements A, B, the same)

(b) Transformation in Consciousness: hunter vs. animal (restrictions, “medicine”)

(4) Resolvable/Unresolvable Situations: hostile tribes

c. Generating Category Examples: third element a product (diachronic)

(1) Kin (Product) or Affines (Opposition): contrasted by use of key terms

(2) Plaza versus Circle of Houses

(3) “Universals”: raising progeny, cultivating crops

(4) Absolute Opposition: good vs. bad, God vs. Satan, light vs. dark

B. Key Expressions in Other Contexts

1. Conceptualization of Time

a. Cyclical Time: movement between village, farm; male names

b. Linear Time: climatic, festival seasons, ancestors-descendants, years

c. Product-forming Linear Time: circle of houses with plaza; progeny

2. Chance: no key expression found for this concept

3. Sectors Characterized by Set of Data-tested Systematized Perceptions

4. Triads and Canela Problem Resolution

Epilogue: The Canela in the 1980s

1. New Pró-khămmă Age-Set in Council: outlook hopeful, secure, innovative

2. Transition of Power: Kaarŕ?khre resigns; several new chiefs; balance of power to Pró-khămmă

3. History of Chieftainship since 1951

a. Chief Kaarŕ?khre’s Assumption and Consolidation of Power

b. Four Chiefs in Four Years

4. Qualifications for Chieftainship

a. Outside Economic Support: leaders receive outside company’s funds; obtain outside goods

b. The Younger Kaapęltůk: background and consolidation of power

(1) His Original Power Base: age-set leadership to Pró-khămmă domination

(2) His Power Sources: store, debt system, loyal followers, provides lunches

(a) Personal Characteristics

(b) Extensive Personal Networks: kin, affines, lovers’ husbands

(c)Proof of Courage: heroism during 1963 attack

(d) Internal Support from Kaarŕ?khre and Sr. Sebastiăo

(e) Advocacy: backland agriculture, urban styles, Catholicism, literacy

5. Aspects of the 1980s

a. Commercial Outlets and Continuity of Indian Service Personnel

b. New Farm Villages and the Potential for Schisms

c. Pan-Indian Self-Awareness: gives strength and ideas to new Pró-khămmă

d. Impact of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL): significant following, literacy; understand fixed, “fair” prices

6. Outlook for the Future: relative self-sufficiency

7. Kaapęltůk’s Potential Role: choose “better” acculturative influences


1. Ten Field Trips to the Canela Over 22 Years

2. Canela and Apanyekra Collections at the Smithsonian Institution

a. Artifacts

b. Photographs

(1) Black and White

(2) Colored Slides

(3) Color Prints

(4) Polaroid Prints

c. Cinematographic Film (Color, Canela Only)

(1) Silent Super-8 Film

(2) Sound Super-8 Film

(3) 16 mm Film

d. Magnetic Tape Recordings

(1) Music (Canela Only)

(2) Myths and Stories

(3) Judicial and Political Meetings (Canela Only)

(4) Autobiographical Diary Cassettes (Canela Only)

(5) Sound Tracks of 16 mm Film (Canela Only)

e. Autobiographical Diary Manuscripts (Canela Only)

3. Primary Materials for Future Studies

a. Diaries on Paper (1964–1979) and Tape (1970–1979)

b. 120 Myths or Stories (taped and translated into Canela Portuguese)

c. Judicial Hearings and Plaza Tribal Council Meetings (on tape in Gę )

d. 16 mm Film Sound Tracks (translated and typed in Canela Portuguese)

e. Choral and Individual Singing (on tapes)

(1) Quality Recording with a Nagra in 1978–1979

(2) Song Conservation Program (words and music)

f. Photographic Field Data on Film

(1) 16 mm Research Films (annotated and retained in sequence)

(2) Super-8 Film of Rites, Festivals, and Athletics (uncut field notes)

(3) Study of Canela Houses (still and Super-8 film)

g. Collections of Artifacts (in Brazil and USA)

h. 16 mm Color Film in the National Human Studies Film Archive

4. Linguistic Notes

a. Phonemes

(1) Vowels

(2) Semivowels

(3) Consonants

(4) Vowel Length

(5) Word Stress

(6) Nonphonemic Orthography

b. Contributions to the SIL

c. Orthography

(1) Modifications in My Orthographic System

(2) Comments on Brazilian Orthography: “Y” and “W” for “I” and “U”

(3) Suggestions for Brazilians Writing Canela

(4) Distinctions Not Heard by Nimuendajú and Others

5. Concept of “Today”: time-flow divided into 24- and 36-hour segments

a. When Talking during the Daytime

b. When Talking at Night

(1) When Talking before Midnight

(2) When Talking after Midnight

(3) When Talking about the “Short” Side of the Nocturnal Today

c. When Expressing a Number of Days Ahead or Behind

6. Sources of Data

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