Book      Literature

"Canela," by William H. Crocker. An entry in the Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Volume VII (South America), pp. 94–98. Volume edited by Johannes Wilbert. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1994. This compact summary of Canela ethnography provides overall materials from which to begin a study of these people.

"Canela Initiation Festivals: 'Helping Hands' through Life," by William H. Crocker. In Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual, pp. 147–158. Edited by Victor Turner. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. This popularly written study of three Canela internment festival-pageants portrays how the first trains boys, the second disciplines adolescents, and the third captures adult males to force them into a retreat where they enhance their self-awareness.

“Canela Relationships with Ghosts: This-Worldly or Otherworldly Empowerment,” by William H. Crocker. In the Latin American Anthropology Review, 1993, Volume 5(2),  pp. 71–78. Aboriginally, the Canela did not have God or gods. They did not try to manipulate supernatural beings to bring them aid. They did, however, have ghosts—their recently dead relatives, who, still longing for their living kin, tried to coax them into their otherworld, thereby killing them.

“Some Demographic Aspects of the Canela Indians of Brazil,” by Margaret E. Greene and William H. Crocker. In South American Indian Studies, 1994, Number 4, pp. 4762. Edited by Kathleen Adams and David Price. Bennington, VT: Bennington College. Seldom do a demographer and an ethnographer get together to enhance each other's skills. Here, Greene analyzes the data in Crocker's Canela censuses to extract quantitative measures and discusses trends she could not have interpreted without his ethnographic knowledge.

“Canela Marriage: Factors in Change,” by William H Crocker. In Marriage Practices in Lowland South America, pp. 14:6398. Edited by Kenneth M. Kensinger. Illinois Studies in Anthropology, Urbana and Chicago:University of Illinois Press, 1984. The loss of certain aspects of the extramarital sex system is demonstrated quantitatively, the intricacies of the belief system about body pollutants are examined in detail, and an alternative to Crow-type kinship, namely parallel transmission, is offered and supported.

The Eastern Timbira, by Curt Nimuendajú, translated and edited by Robert H. Lowie. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 41. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1946, 357 pp. This hard-to-find, classic ethnography has been out of print for years, but is available here in a format which is as close to the original as possible. Its vivid account of Canela life during the 1930s is the master work of Brazil's foremost ethnographer of the first half of the 20th century.

The Canela (Eastern Timbira), I: An Ethnographic Introduction, by William H. Crocker. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Number 33. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990, 487 pp. Crocker's monographic book is a restudy of Nimuendajú's work, tracing the changes over the 21 years between the extended field visits of the two ethnographers. This work brings the changes into the 1980s and presents a general view of the Canela way of life from which to base later studies. This work is organized with a Reference Outline. Clicking on any heading will take you to the chosen section. Call 202-357-4731 or email to obtain a copy of the book.

A study of differences between the two above monographs on the Canela made in the field by William H. Crocker will eventually be posted here.

“The Catch of the Long Haul is Large—But Where to Put it? The Work of William H. Crocker,” by William H. Fisher. A review of The Canela (Eastern Timbira), I: An Ethnographic Introduction.  In the Latin American Anthropology Review (Now the Journal of Latin American Anthropology), Volume 4(2), pp. 75–78. Fisher points out that Crocker has collected more Canela ethnographic field data than he may be able to ever publish. The book is large, so this review may be a help to the reader.

Estoria das epocas de pre e pos-pacificacao dos ramkokamekra e apaniekra-canelas, by William H. Crocker (In Portuguese) Instituto Nacional De Pesquisas Da Amazônia Boletim Do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Nova Série Belém - Pará - Brasil Antropologia N0 68 27, Março, 1978

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