Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
Website Search Box
{search_item}
skull
Reconstruction of Jane
Forensic facial reconstruction of "Jane" the girl from
James Fort.

JR3081F, James Fort Site, Jamestown Virginia.
Sculpted bust by Jiwoong Cheh. Coif head covering by Aimee Kratts, Costume Researcher. Reconstruction funding provided by Roy E. Hock and Margaret Nelson Fowler.
Image: Smithsonian Institution

In 2012 Jamestown archaeologists excavated fragments of a human skull and leg bone dating to the "starving time" winter of 1609-1610. From these remains forensic anthropologists have been able to reconstruct the story of a long-forgotten young woman, while confirming a desperate story of survival in a struggling colony.

Background

Colonists wrote about the winter starving time of 1609-1610, when by one account, only 60 Virginia settlers survived out of 500.  In the face of slow death by starvation a few of the desperate resorted to living off the remains of the dead.  Records also state that a man killed and ate his wife.  These written accounts have never been proven, until now.  The bones found in this trash deposit within the James Fort site confirm this grisly period of survival.

[ arrow to top TOP ]

Evidence at the Scene

Trowel & skull fragments & clay pot pieces in pit
Broken clay pot and partial cranium in the cellar trash pit.
Image: Jamestown Rediscovery

Excavation of a cellar during Jamestown Rediscovery's 2012 field season produced an unusual find – a partial human skull and leg bone.  They were among discarded butchered animal bones and artifacts dating to the "starving time."  This debris was likely collected from a common trash pit and re-deposited in the cellar in an effort to "cleanse" the decrepit town by Governor De La Warr and his men who arrived in June 1610.

[ arrow to top TOP ]

Skeletal Evidence

Pieces of skull & tibia
Skull, mandible and other bone fragments retrieved from the cellar.
Cut tibia is in the lower right corner.
Image courtesy of: Smithsonian Institution

This broken cranium was found next to a American Indian clay pot. The mandible and the knee-end of a right tibia were found nearby in the cellar. The small cranial shape matches other 17th-Century English females. Unerupted and partially formed third molars and beginning union of the growth plate (epiphysis) at the knee indicate an age of about 14 years. She is one of the many who did not survive the colony’s “starving time” winter. It is likely that she arrived at the Fort in late summer or early fall of 1609 when several ships of the ill-fated Third Supply arrived at the colony with a number of women and girls aboard, as well as craftsmen.

At least three factors led to the "starving time." The colony was not self-sufficient even before additional people arrived in late summer of 1609 and the ship that carried the desperately needed supplies was separated from the others and shipwrecked in Bermuda. The summer of 1609 had been dry and what crops had survived were meager at best. And, finally, relations with the neighboring tribe were not good - not only was there little, if any, exchange of provisions, but the tribe was hostile and the Fort was under seige.

See what the settlers said about their plight.

[ arrow to top TOP ]

Evidence of Suvival Cannibalism

Unlike skeletal injuries related to the cause of death, these bones have marks reflecting a deliberate attempt to open the skull and remove tissues, including the brain. Stereozoom and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the pattern and types of sharp cuts, chops and punctures from three metal implements. Cuts on the tibia fragment suggest that the bone was cut in two different places, then broken open to retrieve the marrow.

Skull with arrow pointing to knife mark
Skull with arrow pointing to another knife mark
Four shallow chops in the forehead represent a failed first attempt to open the skull.
  Red arrow points to indentation on the skull made by a sharp tool.
Closeup of indentation from sharp tool.
The back of the head was struck by a series of deep, forceful chops from a small hatchet or cleaver. The final blow split the cranium into two halves.
  Lower jaw with arrow pointing to knife mark
Closeup of knife marks on lower jaw
Fine cuts and punctures mark the sides and bottom of the mandible. These reflect efforts to remove tissues from the face and throat.

[ arrow to top TOP ]

Bringing Jane Back to Life

Thumbnail of the skull pieced together
3D Reconstruction Video (PC)
This video shows a virtual rebuilding of the skull and high-resolution images of the cut marks in the bones. This digital technology provides information on the overall shape of the skull and how it was broken. Anthropologists used this technology to create a physical model used in the reconstruction of the individual’s appearance.Image courtesy of: Smithsonian Institution

Anthropologists and imaging experts have been able to piece together the skull fragments to create a partial intact skull using 3D imaging techniques. A complete skull can be created by using mirror imaging techniques to form the missing left side.

Once the skull pieces have been scanned and the virtual reconstruction completed, a facial reconstruction can be made by a forensic sculptor using the bone model as a guide. The likeness of this young woman as she appeared in life helps tell her story and adds a long forgotten face to the past.

 

    More about facial reconstruction
    
        Forensic Facial Reconstruction
    
     Another Example: The Young Woman from Harleigh Knoll
        
    Fact Sheet - Forensic Reconstruction
[Do you need a PDF reader? Download here]

 

 

Explore other forensic files.

[ TOP ]