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A CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, FOR K-12
INTRODUCTION NW COAST ARCTIC SUBARCTIC
GENERAL - CALIFORNIA - PLAINS NORTHEAST
SOUTHWEST PLATEAU GREAT BASIN SOUTHEAST

CALIFORNIA TRADITIONAL STORIES

Bierhorst, John ed.; Curtis, Edward S., photog. The Girl Who Married a Ghost. New York, NY: Macmillan ChildGroup; 1984. 113 pages. (elementary/secondary).

This collection contains nine of the 350 tales collected by photographer Edward S. Curtis (1868--1952). These tales represent sacred origin stories, ghost stories, trickster tales, and non-sacred campfire tales. The book is organized by geographic area---Plains, Northwest Coast, and California---each with a short introduction. The book is illustrated with Curtis' photographs. Curtis has received criticism for "staging" his subjects, creating culturally inaccurate portraits. Bierhorst has edited these tales into simple, easy prose. e/s/legend/Plains/Northwest Coast/California.

Curry, Jane Louise; Watts, James, illus. Back in the Beforetime: Tales of the California Indians. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books; 1987. 134 pages. (lower and upper elementary).

The author retells legends from twenty-two unidentified California Indian tribes are retold. Tales include explanatory stories (e.g. why there is darkness) and Coyote trickster tales. Sources for the tales are not given.

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Carlson, Susan Johnston, illus. First Houses: Native American Homes and Sacred Structures. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1993. 147 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This is a collection of legends associated with American Indian houses and sacred structures from the temperate zone of North America. Stories about the Plains tipi, the Iroquois longhouse, the Navajo hogan, and a variety of other house types show how the designs for these ancient dwellings set the pattern for homes of today. Most of the stories were collected directly from Indian storytellers and were originally published in scholarly books and journals "reduced to lifeless prose." The authors have presented the stories here "in a form that we hope conveys more of the liveliness of the original telling."

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Sturat, Edgar, illus. They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1987. 118 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book is a well-documented presentation of American Indian star stories. The first two chapters compare various legends about the Pleiades and the Big Dipper. The rest of the book is arranged by tribe or region---Southwest, Pawnee, Plains, California, Northwest Coast, and Southeast. An introductory paragraph to each story provides a brief outline of the tribe's history. Where available, explanations are suggested as to how the events described in the stories might relate to the seasonal movement of the stars. A bibliography provides sources (generally scholarly papers) for each myth presented. The preface notes that legends reinforce behavioral standards for the people. It also explains that the stories are meant to be read aloud, since a certain quality is lost when an oral text is set down in print. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings, the book includes an index and a glossary with a pronunciation guide.

CALIFORNIA NON-FICTION

Bains, Rae; Guzzi, George, illus. Indians of the West. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?.

This is a very brief overview of the pre-Contact lifeways of the American Indians of the Northwest Coast, Southwest, California, and of the inland Paiute, Bannock and Ute peoples. The book focuses on housing, subsistence, the potlatch, and Southwest and California Indian religions. The effort to cover so much material in such a limited book results in broad generalizations with little attempt to explain underlying structure. For instance, Northwest Coast Indians are characterized as "wasteful," without providing context for understanding the importance of the potlatch as a means of redistributing wealth within the society. The book declares, "Strangely, all the California Indians lived off the rich land without making any effort to develop it into farms," but does not explain why the Indians of that area had no need to farm in order to flourish. No information on contemporary Indian culture is given.

Baylor, Byrd; Ingram, Jerry (Choctaw), illus. They Put on Masks. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons; 1974. 47 pages. (lower elementary).

The forms and functions of masks among the Eskimo, Northwest Coast tribes, Iroquois, Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Zuni and Yaqui are thoughtfully described in this book, which successfully evokes the powerful feelings associated with masks while providing much descriptive information. It is important to note, however, that many American Indians find depicting masks and using them for classroom activities offensive.

Brandt, Keith; Guzzi, George, illus. Indian Festivals. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1985. 30 pages. (lower elementary) ?

This book briefly describes the festivals of American Indians in the Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois, Algonquian), Southeast (Muskogee), Plains, Southwest (Pueblo), California, and Northwest Coast regions. Inaccuracies, generalizations, and stereotypes are used throughout the book, as are potentially offensive words such as "braves." "The Indians who lived in California did not hunt or farm," the book declares. "They lived entirely on acorns that were gathered from trees. But while their lives were easy and peaceful, their festivals were almost totally concerned with death."

Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. New York, NY: Holt & Co.; 1991; c1970. 512 pages. * (secondary).

The Western tribes' displacement from their lands, confinement to reservations, and the consequent destruction of traditional culture are carefully and compassionately recounted in this compelling and highly readable history (1860--1890). Unlike other histories covering these topics, the book presents the events as experienced by the victims. The main sources for the history are official records of U.S.-Indian treaty councils and meetings. The reasonableness and humanity expressed by the American Indian spokesmen during these encounters, as recounted here, do much to counter the stereotype of "ignorant," "savage" Indians, and the courageous spirit they reveal evokes admiration and respect. Chapters are arranged chronologically, each devoted to a particular tribe or campaign. The final chapter describes the growth and significance of the Ghost Dance movement and the Battle of Wounded Knee. A map shows the location and dates of the main actions. Sources are cited in the extensive notes. Archival photographs, bibliography and index are included.

Brown, Vinson. Native Americans of the Pacific Coast. Published as Peoples of the Sea by MacMillan (1977) ed. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers; 1985. 272 pages. (secondary).

The book describes lifeways (social organization, economy, religion) of selected tribes from the four culture areas along the Pacific Coast (Arctic, Subarctic, Northwest Coast, and California) during the period 1500--1700. Nine of the eighteen descriptions are followed by fictional stories intended to illustrate the spirit and essence of the people. The author runs a risk inherent to fictionalizing about past societies---that of attributing thoughts and actions to the characters that may be alien or unlikely for people in that society. In one story, a young Kwakuitl girl questions the violence of one of her tribe's rituals. This pairing of fictional opinion with fact might lead the reader to feel that all aspects of the story are culturally accurate. Unfortunately, this combination of lists of facts with fictional stories fails to coalesce into a comprehensible introduction to the many cultures described. Lengthy appendices list Pacific Coast languages, material culture, and religious and social elements of each group. Includes a useful bibliography.

Brusa, Betty War; Bonnot, Eugenia. Salinan Indians of California. Heraldsburg, CA: Naturegraph; 1975. 94 pages.(upper elementary/secondary).

This brief overview of the pre-Contact culture of the Salinans of California includes information on economic life, architecture, dress, material culture, government, religion, and legends. Shorter sections describe neighboring California Indian groups---the Esselen, Chumash, Costanoans, and Yokuts. The Smithsonian Institution's Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 8 states, "Although genetic descendants of the Salinan Indians are still living, Salinan culture can be described as ethnologically extinct." Includes an appendix with a short list of Salinan and Esselen vocabularies, a large map, bibliography, and index.

Carrico, Richard L. Strangers in a Stolen Land: American Indians in San Diego, 1850-1880. Newcastle, Ca: Sierra Oaks Publishing Company; 1987. 93 pages. (secondary) *.

This extensively researched work covers the little-known history of Indians in San Diego County between 1850--1880, describing the neglect and exploitation that characterized their treatment by local, state, and federal government authorities. The author seeks to counter the notion that American Indian populations of San Diego..."crept away and died. Indian people fought the advancing tide of white settlement...using a wide variety of methods, revolt, appeasement, cooperation. Their story is one...of intense pride, heroic efforts, and successful adaptation...." The book's excellent introduction states that most written history is based on the Non-Indian perspective, since most American Indians did not have written language. Illustrated with archival photographs and maps. Includes extensive bibliography and index.

Emanuels, George. California Indians: An Illustrated Guide. Walnut Creek, CA: Diablo Books; 1991. 172 pages. (secondary).

A survey of seventeen California Indian groups focusing mainly on pre-Contact lifeways, with only occasional reference is made to contemporary conditions. The disjointed writing style and an attempt to be comprehensive unfortunately lead to inane generalizations such as "Most often men and women were fat and had large faces. They were peaceful and dreamed of the perfect life in heaven above."

Forbes, Jack D. (Lenape). Native Americans of California and Nevada. Revision of 1969 ed. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers. 240 pages. (secondary).

This handbook, especially written for teachers and school administrators, consists of two basic parts: a condensed history of the American Indians of California and Nevada and some basic concepts relating to American Indian studies, with suggestions for a multicultural, community-responsive approach to Indian education. The history briefly covers pre-Contact life, the deleterious impact of the Spanish missions, and the subsequent takeover of Indian land by Anglo settlers. The role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Dawes Act in these events is discussed. The section titled "The Native Awakening" describes the story of Indian struggles for equality of citizenship, land and compensation, improved education, and efforts to redress poverty and discrimination. The author analyzes the questions: "Who is an Indian?" and "What are Indian cultures?" Includes a guide to resources and further reading, a California/Nevada Native American history chart, and a linguistic classification of California and Nevada Indians. Illustrated with archival photographs. s/California/Basin/history.

Keyworth, C. L. California Indians. New York, NY: Facts On File; 1991. 95 pages. (The First Americans). (secondary).

This examination of the history and culture of the diverse Indian peoples of California focuses on lifeways, religion and beliefs, and the changes wrought by contact with Europeans. The book includes Indian contributions to American culture. The text is illustrated with several full-color photo essays.

Red Hawk, Richard (Wyandot) Brook, Anne C., illus. A Trip to a Pow Wow. Newcastle, CA: Sierra Oaks Publishing Company. 45 pages. (lower elementary) *.

Tess shares with her non-Indian classmates the origin and meaning of the Powwow, and teaches them the Round Dance. She then takes her classmates to a local Powwow, where they enjoy taking part in the dancing. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Trafzer, Clifford E. (Wyandot). California's Indians and the Gold Rush. Sacramento, CA: Sierra Oaks Publishing Company; 1989. 61 pages. (elementary) *.

This is a study of the important role played by American Indians in the early stages of the California Gold Rush. Among the topics covered are: the sharp divisions within American Indian communities regarding involvement in gold mining; the labor contributions of American Indian children; the cultural changes introduced with Euroamerican contact; the cheating by white traders; the violence of non-Indian miners towards the Indians, and the eventual ouster of American Indians in favor of non-Indian workers. Illustrated with beautiful archival photographs and reproductions of prints. A map shows the major towns and rivers involved in Gold Rush activity.

CAHUILLA NON-FICTION

Bean, Lowell Jordan; Bourgealt, Lisa J. The Cahuilla. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 103 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

Written by two anthropologists, this informative book describes Cahuilla traditional lifeways, kinship, subsistence, religion, European contact, and the people today. Includes a bibliography, glossary, index and "Cahuilla-At-A-Glance." Illustrated with archival photographs.

Brumgardt, John R.; Bowles, Larry L.; Bowles, Dorothy M., illus. People of the Magic Waters: The Cahuilla Indians of Palm Springs. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications; 1981. 122 pages. (secondary) *.

A clearly written and comprehensive account of the Palm Springs Cahuilla covers geographic environment, origin stories, social structure, subsistence, religion, and culture. The final two chapters describe the changes brought by Europeans and contemporary prosperity and problems. Illustrated with line drawings and map. Includes a bibliography and an index.

CHUMASH NON-FICTION

Gibson, Robert O. The Chumash. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1991. 103 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

This overview of the Chumash who inhabited the coastal area of what is now southern California, focuses on traditional Chumash culture, with its complex social and political systems. The devastating effects upon Chumash culture from disease and the mission system introduced by the Spanish in the mid-18th century are described. This is followed by a description of the destruction incurred under Mexican, and then American, rule in the mid-19th century. Includes a color photographic insert on Chumash artistic traditions, a glossary, bibliography, index, and "Chumash At A Glance."

Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Education Center. California's Chumash Indians. San Luis Obispo, CA: EZ Nature Books; 1988. 71 pages. (upper elementary).

This book describes the Chumash Indians who inhabited the south and central coast of California. The historical overview of the Chumash includes: early contacts between the Chumash and the Spanish; the mission period, during which Chumash religious and social systems deteriorated and the population was devastated by European-introduced diseases; the post-mission period following Mexico's independence from Spain; the effects of the establishment of large ranches by non-Indians; the discovery of gold in the north; and the establishment of the State of California. The remainder of the book is composed of short chapters on various aspects of traditional Chumash life including houses, games, social organization, and legends. The book includes the names and addresses of organizations with information on the Chumash, a Chumash word list, a bibliography, and a list of books for children about the Chumash. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings.

CHUMASH FICTION

Spinka, Penina Keen. White Hare's Horses. New York, NY: Atheneum; 1991. 154 pages. (secondary).

In this improbable tale set in Chumash Country in the 1500s, a group of Aztec refugees fleeing Cortes take up residence in a Chumash village and decide to convert the Chumash to their Aztec religion by sacrificing some of Chumash people. Aided by her memory of her grandfather's dying words and a subsequent vision in which he instructs her, the fifteen-year-old heroine, White Hare, prevents the sacrifices from taking place. fic/s/Chumash/California.

GABRIELINO FICTION

O'Dell, Scott; Lewin, Ted, illus. Island of the Blue Dolphins. Reprint of 1960 ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 181 pages. (upper elementary).

Based on actual events, this is an adventure story of an Indian girl living on the island of San Nicolas off the California coast. With her adaptability and resilience, she survived alone on the island for eighteen years. Some cultural information on island lifeways is included. Illustrated with twelve full-page watercolors.

Preble, Donna. Yamino-Kwiti: A Story of Indian Life in the Los Angeles Area. Reprint of 1940 ed. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books; 1983. 226 pages. (secondary).

This adventure story set in late prehistoric California focuses on a Gabrielino boy named Yamino-Kwiti. The author relies heavily on the notes made by her sister (whose husband was an anthropologist and the director of the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles) to describe traditional Gabrielino culture, and assiduously footnotes her many references to Gabrielino customs. The writing is marred by generalizations such as, "The Indians were always merry and ready to laugh loudly at anything, like happy children," and "When Indians hate they hate long and hard...." The book includes an appendix and extensive notes on language, settlements, and ceremonies. Includes a pronunciation guide to "Indian" words used, and a bibliography.

KAROK (KARUK, English form)

KAROK TRADITIONAL STORIES

London, Jonathan; Pinola, Lanny (Pomo-Miwok); Long, Sylvia, illus. Fire Race: A Karuk Coyote Tale About How Fire Came to the People. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books; 1993. 33 pages. (elementary)*.

This retelling of a traditional Karok legend describes how Coyote and the other animals first captured fire. This lavishly illustrated story was written with the assistance of Lanny Pinola, a Pomo-Miwok storyteller. An afterword by Julian Lang, a Karok tribal scholar, explains the importance and significance of storytelling to the Karok. An author's note gives the origin of the story. Full-color illustrations. Includes a bibliography.

KAROK NON-FICTION

Bell, Maureen. Karuk: The Upriver People. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc.; 1991. 143 pages. (secondary).

This account of the Karok of northwestern California, circa 1850, that includes chapters on geography, everyday life, the arts, cultural organization, and ceremonies. The history section documents the devastating effects of contact on California Indians, with detailed descriptions of the atrocities perpetrated by settlers during the gold rush. A final chapter discusses contemporary Karok, their legal battles for fishing rights, and the revival of aspects of their traditional culture. An appendix includes several Karok myths. Illustrated with archival and contemporary black-and-white photographs. Includes a bibliography.

MAIDU NON-FICTION

Burrill, Richard; Castro, Dalbert S. (Maidu), illus; Fonseau, Henry (Nisenan), photog. Rivers of Sorrows: Life History of the Maidu-Nisenan Indians. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers; 1988. 215 pages. (secondary).

This historical novel of the Nisenan people along the American River is told through the eyes of Tokiwa, a Nisenan medicine doctor. The reader follows Tokiwa from age ten to his death at ninety-four. The first part of the book describes pre-Contact lifeways and beliefs. The author notes that since the Nisenan were unwilling to divulge certain aspects of their medicine and religion, that part of the story remains untold. The second part, presented in the form of day-to-day drama as lived by the Nisenan, describes the arrival of European missionaries and traders, and the effects of the gold rush. Extensive notes for each chapter indicate exhaustive research by the author. His sources are archaeology, ethnographies, Native people, and local historians. Includes black-and-white illustrations by Maidu and Nisenan artists, maps of the ancestral home of the Nisenan and the California Indian language groups, as well as a guide to Nisenan grammar and a calendar.

Potts, Marie (Maidu). The Northern Maidu. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph; 1977. 46 pages. (secondary).

The history and traditional culture of the Northern Maidu are presented in twenty short, simply written chapters. The author, a Maidu elder, reminisces about her childhood at Big Meadow, and her recollections are woven into the text, which covers such topics as food, homes, weapons, baskets, religion, and healing. Written in the past tense, the book contains no information on contemporary Maidu life.

Simpson, Richard. Ooti: A Maidu Legacy. Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts; 1977. 119 pages. (secondary).

This story of the importance of the acorn in Maidu life is mainly told through the words of Lizzie Enos, a Maidu Indian who lived in northern California until her death in 1968. The book's preface states that the book is "a legacy that Lizzie owns absolutely, yet holds in common with all her people who have long ago passed from this earth, and those perhaps unknown survivors hidden at the ends of seldom traveled paths," implying that she may be the last of her people to carry on this tradition. Sepia photographs show Ms. Enos preparing acorns for food.

Smith-Trafzer, Lee Ann; Trafzer, Clifford E.; Coates, Ross illus. Creation of a California Tribe: Grandfather's Maidu Indian Tales. Sacramento, CA: Sierra Oaks Publishing Company; 1988. 45 pages. (lower elementary)*.

Original sources are cited for the Maidu stories retold in this book. The authors effectively place the storytelling in a contemporary setting. Illustrated with drawings.

MIWOK FICTION

Carkeet, David. Quiver River. New York, NY: A Laura Geringer Book; 1991. 236 pages. (intermediate/secondary).

A group of Stanford students and their anthropology professor spend the summer in the Sierras studying the lifeways of the area's former residents, the Miwok. In this humorous, contemporary novel, the students' studies are used as a framework for parallels between coming-of-age in Miwok and American society. There is much information presented on traditional Miwok initiation rites. A mysterious, forever-young Miwok man is freed from his perpetual youth when one of the students drains the lake to uncover the sacred rock the Indian youth needs to complete his puberty ritual. The information on the Miwok (and a mystical subplot) are secondary to the book's message about becoming an adult in today's society.

NISENAN NON-FICTION

Burrill, Richard; Castro, Dalbert S. (Maidu), illus; Fonseau, Henry (Nisenan), photog. Rivers of Sorrows: Life History of the Maidu-Nisenan Indians. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers; 1988. 215 pages. (secondary).

See annotation under Maidu Non-Fiction.

PALM SPRINGS TRADITIONAL STORIES

Patencio, Chief Francisco; Boynton, Margaret, recorder. Stories and Legends of the Palm Springs Indians. Los Angeles, CA: Times-Mirror; 1943. 132 pages. (secondary).

This collection is divided into traditional stories of the Palm Spring Indians and Chief Patencio's personal boyhood memories. Some of the stories focus on aspects of traditional life, for example the Council Fire tradition. Other stories concern the impact of innovations such as the railroad.

POMO TRADITIONAL STORIES

Fikes, Jay Courtney, Nix, Nelleke, illus. Step Inside the Sacred Circle: Aboriginal American Animal Allegories. Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hall Press; 1989. 54 pages. (secondary).

This collection of seven American Indian animal myths demonstrates values that humans can learn from the animals, such as bravery, compassion, and cooperation. Sources are cited, and each story is accompanied by extensive explanatory notes. The introduction states that the collection is intended to strengthen our ties to the natural world and increase our spiritual insight. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

QUECHAN (YUMA)

QUECHAN NON-FICTION

Bee, Robert L. The Yuma. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1989. 111 pages. (Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed. Indians of North America). (upper elementary/secondary).

The author, an anthropologist, introduces the Yuma, who refer to themselves as Quechan, with a description of pre-Contact lifeways---subsistence, kinship, puberty rites, religious beliefs, and warfare. Subsequent chapters deal with resistance to incursions by Spanish missionaries, the fur trade, the gold rush, the creation of the reservations, 20th-century land claims, and current economic ventures, such as hydroponic farming. Illustrated with black-and-white drawings, archival photographs, and color photographs of Quechan crafts. Includes a bibliography, "Yuma-At-A-Glance," glossary, and index.

QUECHAN FICTION

Red Hawk, Richard (Wyandot); Coastes, Ross, illus. Grandmother's Christmas Story: A True Quechan Indian Story. Sacramento, CA: Sierra Oaks Publishing Company; 1987. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

Based on an historical event that occurred on Christmas Day 1851, grandmother recounts how she was saved by two white soldiers when she was lost in the desert at age five. Several years later, she is able to return the favor when she recognizes one of the soldiers in a group about to be attacked by the Quechan. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

SHASTA TRADITIONAL STORIES

Holsinger, Rosemary, compiler; Piemme, P. I., illus. Shasta Indian Tales. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc.; 1982. 48 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This retelling of Shasta stories, including trickster, origin, and coyote tales, provides a brief introduction with a very general overview of Shastan culture. Includes a short bibliography.

SHASTA NON-FICTION

Renfro, Elizabeth; Sheppard, R. J., illus. The Shasta Indians of California and their Neighbors. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers, CA; 1992. 126 pages. (secondary) *.

This well-written, informative guide on the Shasta of California offers information on their origin story, pre-Contact lifeways, and traditional stories. Shasta history from the 1820s to the present includes the first contacts with whites, effects of the gold rush, the 1870s Ghost Dance movement, and government relations. Also included is information on neighboring tribes such as the Takelma, Klamath, Modoc, Achomawi, Wintu, Chimariko, Hupa, and Karuk. An extensive glossary of words and phrases, a selected bibliography, black- and-white illustrations, maps, and historical photographs.

WINTU TRADITIONAL STORIES

Masson, Marcelle ed.; Townedolly Grant (informant); Masson, Charles E., Jr., illus. A Bag of Bones: The Wintu Myths of a Trinity River Indian. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph; 1966. 130 pages. (secondary).

A collection of fifteen Wintu legends from the son of a Wintu headman, Grant Towendolly. Introductory chapters include information on the Towendolly family, Wintu lifeways, and Shasta Valley topography. This conscientious work, which seeks to preserve Wintu traditions, uses simple, straightforward language in retelling the tales, but the long storylines and references to Shasta Valley topography may make this book more interesting for the specialist than for the general reader.

WINTU NON-FICTION

Knudtson, Peter M. The Wintu Indians of California and their Neighbors. Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc.; 1977. 90 pages. (American Indian Map-Book Series; vol. 3). (secondary).

To introduce pre-Contact Wintu culture, this book describes a year within an imaginary northern Wintu village in California. Based on ethnographic studies by Cora DuBois made in the 1930s, these accounts are supplemented with personal conversations the author has had with Wintu living in California today. The writing style is romantic. For example, a description of a Wintu woman making a basket: "Her dark fingers move deftly to an ancient rhythm as she sits in dusty silence beneath the mid-day sun....Her steady hands seem to write in fine strokes of grass and fern, giving exquisite expression to primal and unutterable thoughts." Includes a fold-out map of the Wintu, a glossary, bibliography, and index.

YANA (YAHI)

YANA BIOGRAPHIES

Kroeber, Theodora. Ishi, Last of His Tribe. New York, NY: Bantam; 1973. 208 pages. (secondary).

This fictional story is based on the life of Ishi, a Yana of Northern California. Born in the early 1860s, Ishi was found as the last survivor of his people in 1911; he died in 1916 at the Museum of Anthropology, University of California, where he had lived since the time he was found. The book "tries to look back on Ishi's life, on the old Yahi world, and the world of the white man as seen through Ishi's eyes." Includes a short glossary of Yana words.

Petersen, David. Ishi: The Last of His People. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1991. 31 pages. (elementary).

Written for young readers, this short book recounts the life of Ishi, last survivor of a small band of Yana in California. Based entirely on Theodora Kroeber's biography Ishi In Two Worlds, this book is illustrated with black-and-white archival photographs. Index.

YUKI NON-FICTION

Miller, Virginia. UKOMNO'M: The Yuki Indians of Northern California. Socorro, NM: Baloney Press; 1979. 108 pages. (Lowell, John Bean and Thomas C. Blackburn, eds. Baloney Press Anthropological Papers #14). (secondary).

An account of Yuki ethnohistory deals with prehistory and the early post-Contact period, revealing a "campaign of intense genocide waged against a tribe by a handful of whites who wanted the Indians' mountainous homeland for stockraising." The author documents the decimation of the tribe while interpreting the relationship between the Yuki and the settlers as "two entirely opposing ways of life and value systems...vying for the same territory which each would exploit in a different way." Illustrated with black-and-white archival photographs.

Patterson, Victoria; Barney, DeAnna; Lincoln, Les; Willits, Skip, eds. The Singing Feather: Tribal Remembrances from Round Valley. Ukiah, CA: Mendocino Co. Library; 1990. 103 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

A delightful collection of interviews with members of the Covelo Indian Community as part of the Round Valley Oral History Project. When the Round Valley Library Project was funded to create a library in Round Valley, Mendocino County, California, the community expressed interest in including oral history records in the new library: "...they wanted their children and the larger community to know something true about Indian life on the reservation." These interviews, along with a history of Round Valley and the Round Valley Reservation, are interspersed with historical and contemporary black-and-white photographs of the community and the people. Includes an introduction and brief biographies on the Native Round Valley interviewers.

YUMA (see Quechan)


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