Guide to the Collections of the National Anthropological Archives (#P1)
With the coming of World War II, George P. Murdock focused his Cross Cultural Survey File (later the Human Relations Area File) on the Pacific, especially the Japanese mandated islands there. The resulting file includes abstracts and illustrations from publications on 12.7x20.3-centimeters (5x8-inch) cards and slips. They generally are arranged by geographic area and subjects following Murdock's Outline of Cultural Materials, 1945. The Ethnogeographic Board maintained the set in its offices at the Smithsonian Institution. The U.S. Navy used to plan invasions of Pacific islands.
QUANTITY: ca. 12.2 linear meters (ca. 40 linear feet)
Nothing is known about Pailet except that he took the photographs and collected the postcards. They are of Philippine subjects. Included are views of cities, military scenes, and material of ethnological interest. The items show several Filipino tribesmen, Japanese, and Americans.
DATES: ca. 1909-1914
QUANTITY: ca. 990 items
ARRANGEMENT: By tribe
FINDING AID: List
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 73-7
Palmer was an English-born United States Army physician, naturalist, and collector for the Smithsonian and several other institutions. He specialized in botany and anthropology. The history of the collection is not completely clear. It appears that William E. Safford brought it together while he was working on a biography of Palmer. William A. Archer continued it while was studying the Palmer's specimens. It includes not only Palmer's own material but also some of Safford's and Archer's as well as material collected by Joseph N. Rose, William R. Maxon, and Frederick V. Coville. The collection was in the custody of the United States National Museum Department of Botany before it was transferred to the archives. Other than the biographical material, the subject matter is largely botanical and concerns collecting activities in Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah, Texas, and Idaho.
Correspondents include Joel A. Allen, Eugene Austran, Spencer F. Baird, Edgar Battle, W.G. Binney, G. Borroeta, Katharine Brandegee, Nathaniel L. Britton, C.S. Bundy, Daniel Cleveland, Orator F. Cook, Frederick V. Coville, R.B. Cunningham, Lyster H. Dewey, Alice Eastwood, David G. Fairchild, M.L. Fernald, James M. Flint, Edward L. Greene, J.M. Greenman, Charles H. Gilbert, William R. Maxon, Welwood Murray, A.S. Packard, J.H. Painter, C.C. Parry, James C. Pilling, John Wesley Powell, A.B. Rendle, C.V. Riley, B.L. Robinson, Joseph Nelson Rose, C.S. Sargent, Henry E. Seaton, E. Lewis Sturtevant, W.T. Thiselton Dyer, William Trelease, George Vasey, Sereno Watson, and Alexander Willard.
QUANTITY: 1.1 linear meter (ca. 3.5 linear feet)
ARRANGEMENT: Material largely of Edward Palmer, including (1) correspondence, 1870-1920; (2) journal notes, 1869-1910; (3) field notes, 1890-1907; (4) numerical list of Palmer's specimens, some 1913; material of William Andrew Archer, including (5) card index of plants and their uses; (6) common plant name index; (7) bibliography cards and records of works consulted; (8) Spanish-English dictionary (cards); material of William E. Safford, including (9) manuscript of Edward Palmer: Botanical Explorer; (10) miscellaneous material and drafts relating to the biography; other material, including (11) miscellaneous working material of Safford and Archer; (12) photographs of botanical specimens from several collections "received from the Ball estate"
FINDING AID: None
Most photographs were for Ale Hrdlicka's work to prepare physical anthropological exhibits for the exposition. In part, the exhibit items were plaster busts and face masks made from living subjects. To prepare the busts and masks of American Indians, the exposition engaged sculptor Frank Micka. When in the field to take the casts, he also took front and profile photographs of the subjects. Prints of these make up most of the collection. A few other photographs by Frank Bennett Fiske of Fort Yates, North Dakota, De Lancey W. Gill, and others are included.
Notes prepared under the supervision of Lucile E. St. Hoyme accompany the photographs. These include the tribe, age, sex, name(s), photographer, and number of corresponding bust. Tribes represented include Standing Rock Dakota, Kiowa, Omaha, and Osage.
The photographs are part of USNM accession 61,302. There are data on Micka and the photographs in the United States National Museum registrar's file.
See Ale Hrdlicka Papers for negatives made for the exposition.
DATE: Most 1912
QUANTITY: 135 prints plus note cards
ARRANGEMENT: By tribe
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 9
The group portrait was made in Washington, D.C. (see next entry for a description of material relating to the institute).
QUANTITY: 1 print
QUANTITY: 7 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 66C
In 1928, the Pan American Institute of Geography and History was established by a resolution of the Sixth International Conference of American States in 1928. Its original bylaws declared its purpose was "to develop, coordinate, and disseminate geographic, historical, and related scientific studies and to initiate and execute investigations and activities pertaining thereto which the Member States may request." In fulfilling its mission, the institute promotes cooperation among learned societies of North and South America, provides information concerning international boundaries, sponsors programs of international cooperation, and maintains a library and archives, including a large map collection. The Institute also issues publications, many as special reports and monographs but several as periodicals, including Revista de Historia de America, Boletin de Antropologia Americana, Revista Geografica, Revista Cartografica, Folklore Americano, Revista Geofisica, and Boletin Aereo.
The institute is a specialized interamerican organization of the Organization of American States. Membership is restricted to countries of the Western Hemisphere. Authority is vested in a general assembly of delegates appointed by member nations that convenes every four years. The assembly elects officers including a president, vice presidents, and a secretary-general (originally a director and a subdirector). In its original constitution, authority between assemblies was vested in an executive committee of officers and two members. For its scientific work, the institute was divided into sections according to academic disciplines and subdisciplines.
In 1942, a commission on cartography was established and, in 1946, commissions on geography and history were established. In addition, in 1959, a special commission on geophysical sciences was formed. It was through these commissions, their periodic "consultations" or meetings and their committees, that the Institute carries on its scientific work. Each commission includes one representative from each member state and had its own officers. With major changes in the bylaws in 1946, the Institute also organized national sections each made up of the representatives from a particular nation to the commissions. With the same change in bylaws, the Institute adopted a somewhat complicated organizational structure that included a large governing council of the Institute's officers and representatives from the national sections. The council exercised authority between assemblies. There was also an executive committee made up of the officers and representatives from the commissions. In 1955, the bylaws were again changed and organization was somewhat simplified. The executive committee was eliminated and a directing council took the place of the governing council.
Headquarters for the institute is in Mexico City. There a secretariat headed by the secretary-general carries on the routine administration.
The papers in the National Anthropological Archives include several published reports, minutes, programs, lists of delegates, reports, resolutions, financial records, small amounts of correspondence, photographs, scripts of instructional films, maps, charts, and other documents. Arch C. Gerlach and Robert H. Randall collected them during their long association with the Institute. Randall, a prominent cartographer, was United States member of the commission on cartography from 1942 to 1962 and served as the commission's chairman for many years. Randall was also the Institute's president in 1950-1955 and was honorary president from 1955 until his death in 1966. Gerlach, chief of the Map Division at the Library of Congress from 1950 to 1967 and chief geographer of the United States Geological Survey from 1967 to 1972, served on the directing council from 1958 to 1969 and he was one of the institute's vice presidents from 1965 to 1969. Correspondents include Arch C. Gerlach, Robert H. Randall, Andre Simonpietri, Arthur P. Whitaker, and Silvio Zavala.
QUANTITY: ca. 3.1 linear meters (10.25 linear feet)
ARRANGEMENT: (1) Material concerning general assembly meetings, 1929-1965; (2) material concerning the Commission on Cartography, 1943-1961; (3) material concerning the Commission on Geography meetings, 1949-1961; (4) material concerning the Commission on History meetings, 1946-1961; (5) material relating to the directing council meetings, 1956-1967; (6) material relating to the executive committee meetings, 1946-1955; (7) material relating to advisory committees, U.S. Department of State, 1954-1963; (8) correspondence (Andre and Robert H. Randall), 1942-1943; (9) material relating to films, 1946-196l; (10) material relating to the Organization of American States, 1955-1959; (11) material relating to international organizations; (12) material relating to United States government agencies; (13) miscellany
FINDING AID: Draft register
The copy prints are from photographs of the Maine Department of Indian Affairs.
DATES: No date
QUANTITY: ca. 100 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 74-49
Mrs. Patch's photographs are of a Mohave family and their descendents. Mainly there are portraits of members of the Jenkins, Patch, and Tsosie branches. Mrs. Daily's photographs are of the Phillips (Laguna) and Tsosie (Navaho) families. Family members were resettled on the Colorado River Indian Reservation during the 1940s.
Most subjects are in modern dress with a few in military dress. A few photographs show subjects in Indian dress, and in one the subjects are in modern dance costumes. Included is Robert Jenkins, a Fort Mojave Reservation chairman in the late 1940s-early 1950s.
Michael Tsosie lent the originals for copying. He also prepared notes that accompany the collections.
DATES: ca. 1900-1986
QUANTITY: 53 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 93-12
In 1975, Herman J. Viola, the director of the National Anthropological Archives; Saul H. Riesenberg, the curator for Oceania ethnology in the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology; and Dirk Ballendorf, assistant chief of programs and training for Peace Corps operations in North Africa, the Near East, Asia, and the Pacific, worked out a program for the National Anthropological Archives to collect materials of former Peace Corps volunteers. Besides photographic materials useful for many reasons, the collection was to document the impact on host countries and experiences in working in foreign cultures.
The collection includes contributions from eighty former volunteers and administrators who served in such countries and regions as Afghanistan, Antigua, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Honduras, Central African Republic, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Morocco, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey and Upper Volta. The volunteers were involved in diverse assignments, including education, community development, agriculture, health work, and service through such special skills as art, surveying, mechanics, and photography. Beyond the material of volunteers, there is also a file of the Honduras Peace Corps office. Two additional collections are materials of missionaries offered as the result of the program to collect Peace Corps materials.
Included are diaries, correspondence, writings, printed and processed material, sound recordings, and administrative materials. There is also photographic material that shows such subjects as traditional and modern agriculture, architecture, body scarification, ceremonies, dance, dress, fishing, food preparation and other domestic activities, industry, medicine, and transportation.
QUANTITY: ca. 6.9 linear meters (ca. 22.5 linear feet)
FINDING AID: List
Dorothy Pelzer studied architectural history at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M. Arch., 1950) and, by her own account, at the Bauhaus, where she studied under Laacuteszloacute Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropius. Between 1962 and 1970, she traveled in Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Malaya, Philippines, Sarawak, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam documenting traditional building forms, including houses, granaries, temples, boats, and graves. In 1968 and 1971, she received support for continuing her work from the J.D. Rockefeller III Foundation.
For many buildings, the photographs show facades, structural and decorative details, and, often, interior views. For some structures, the photographs also show surroundings. There are also a few aerial photographs of settlements, photographs of models of Southeast Asian houses, and illustrations from books on houses. A few photographs show the construction of buildings and the use of construction tools.
There are portraits, some of natives and some of friends. There are also views of village scenes, markets, street vendors, processions and ceremonies, carts, food processing and preparation, burden bearing, water wheels, oxen, musicians and musical instruments, and such crafts as bronze casting, spinning, weaving, and the preparation of lacquer.
The Pelzer collection is housed in two locations. The original black-and-white prints are in the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore. The original black-and-white negatives, color slides, and notes form the collection in the National Anthropological Archives.
QUANTITY: ca. 15,000 negatives
ARRANGEMENT: In numerical order.
The colored print shows a San Ildefonso artist dressed as Koshovi at a Corn Dance.
QUANTITY: 1 print
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 79-30
The lot consists of a copy print showing the Creek Indian couple and three children, including their daughter Martha. There is also a four-generation genealogy.
DATE: ca. 1920
QUANTITY: 1 print
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-38
The collection consists of albumen prints mounted on loose leaves from an album. Many photographs are by Charles Kroehle. Tribes are Campa, Cashivo, Cunivo, and Piro. William E. Safford may have collected the photographs.
DATES: No date
QUANTITY: 21 prints
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 129
The collection consists of illustrations for George Grant MacCurdy's "Human Skeletal Remains from the Highlands of Peru," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 6 (1923), pages 217-329.
DATE: No date
QUANTITY: ca. 100 prints
FINDING AID : None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-31
The color prints are of unidentified Indian subjects. Iinformation about Helen Peterson appears below.
DATE: Probably 1970s
QUANTITY: 3 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-12
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