Guide to the Collections of the National Anthropological Archives (#H2)
Harris and Ewing was a prominent studio in Washington, D.C., well known for its portraits of government officials. The career of Jesse Walter Fewkes is briefly described elsewhere.
DATE: No date
QUANTITY: 1 print
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 78-20
By vocation, Robert King Harris was a locomotive engineer who worked for the Texas Pacific Railroad Company. By avocation, he was an archeologist with a long-time scientific interest in the work.
Harris first entered archeology as a boy scout in his native Dallas, Texas. During the 1930s, he became a member of the Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society and began to meet informally with other amateur archeologists in Dallas. In 1940, he was a founder of the Dallas Archaeological Society and was its editor for many years. In 1939-1941, he was a curator at the Hall of State Museum of the Dallas Historical Society. In 1966, after his retirement, he became the curator of collections of the Southern Methodist University Department of Anthropology. Harris often worked closely with his wife, Inus Marie Harris.
Harris carried out many archeological surveys in Texas and nearby Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. In 1941, under the sponsorship of the Dallas Archaeological Society, he was field foreman excavating burial sites below White Rock Spillway in Dallas County and a burial at the Ragland site on the East Fork of the Trinity River. He was field foreman for the excavation of a house site at Butler Hole site in Collin County, Texas, in 1946. In 1948-1949, he assisted with the Smithsonian Institution River Basin Survey's work in Whitney, Lavon, Garza-Little Elm reservoirs. In 1954, he joined Wilson W. Crook in test excavations at the Louis Obschner site near Seagoville and, in 1956, at the Lewisville site in Denton County. He also participated in excavations at the Branch site in Lavon Reservoir in 1959 and directed excavations at the Kyle site and the Pearson site in Iron Bridge Reservoir in 1960. In 1962, he worked at the Gilbert site in Rains County, and, in 1963, surveyed the Forney Reservoir. In 1965, he excavated the Glen Hill site in the same reservoir. In the 1960s and 1970s, Harris studied artifacts relating to French-Caddoan trade. He was also interested in the travels of early explorers in northeastern Texas, including Hernando de Soto and Jean-Baptiste Bénard, Sieur de la Harpe.
The papers relate to a large collection of archeological specimens that Harris began in 1924 and developed into a 100,000-piece amassment. The collection, ranging in time from the paleoamerican to the historic, represents Harris's own field work. but it also incorporates material of other workers. It includes material from Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas. It also includes pieces from Bolivia, Central American, Mexico, and Korea. The collection is now in the National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology.
The papers include data about Inus Harris's family and their early days in Texas.
Correspondents include Robert E. Bell, Jay C. Blaine, Kay Caver, Claire C. Davison, Robert O. Fay, Dan L. Flores, Jon L. Gibson, Vance Haynes, Lawrence H. Head, Robert F. Heizer, Thomas R. Hester, Marsha F. Jackson, Jerome Jacobson, Dan Jank, William K. Jones, Morton B. King, Alex D. Krieger, Truett Latimer, Robert K. Kiu, John Ludwickson, William S. Marmaduke, Roger McVay, K.R. Morgan, Dan F. Morse, Hermes Nye, Dorris L. Olds, Gregory Perino, Stephen Schmidt, Dan Scurlock, S. Alan Skinner, Len Slesick, Robert L. Stephenson, Byron Sudbury, Helen H. Tanner, Lonn W. Taylor, Ted Thygesen, Marvin E. Tong, Jr., Clarence H. Webb, Mildred M. Wedel, Frank A. Weir, Fred Wendorf, James H. Word, and Don G. Wyckoff.
DATES: Mostly 1940s-1970s (some earlier maps)
QUANTITY: ca. 3.7 linear meters (ca. 12 linear feet)
ARRANGEMENT: (1) Biographical material, papers about the Harris collection, and personal material; (2) correspondence, ca. 1964-1979; (3) alphabetical subject file; (4) manuscripts (by Harris and other authors); (5) Texas archeological survey sheets in notebooks; (6) loose survey sheets; (7) miscellaneous notes; (8) sound recordings; (9) printed and processed material; (10) Clem family papers (concerning its early days in Texas); (11) railroad material; (12) cartographic material (archeological, historical, and modern maps of Texas, maps of Texas counties [many annotated to show archeological sites], Texas geological maps, miscellaneous maps outside Texas, United States Geological Survey maps, United States Geological Survey and United States Army Corps of Engineer maps annotated to show archeological sites, maps of dams and reservoirs, and aerial photographs of a section of Red River); (13) photographs and illustrations
FINDING AID: Draft container list
One image is of Cadete, a Mescalero Apache; another is of his daughters. A third is a stereograph including Colonel Frank W. Haskall and his wife in a group of unidentified whites and Indians. The remaining photograph is an unidentified Indian woman. Included are photographs taken by N. Brown and Son and by H.T. Heister.
DATE: No date
QUANTITY: 4 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81M
In 1896-1899, John Bell Hatcher, a Princeton University paleontologist and geologist, made three expeditions to Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The Bureau of American Ethnology commissioned him to collect artifacts and make photographs of the Tehuelche and Yahgan Indians.
DATE: ca. 1896-1899
QUANTITY: 23 prints
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 124
Most negatives and prints resulted from a trip in Zuni in 1923-1924. They show views of the Pueblo, street scenes, ceremonies, a shrine, irrigation, a flood, and several portraits. The other photographs relate to Neil M. Judd's expedition to Pueblo Bonito in 1923 and show the problem of transportation because of rains. Related material and other photographs by Haven are in Judd's papers.
QUANTITY: 68 prints and negatives
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 83-16
The Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Research project began in August 1941 under a contract between the Department of the Interior and the University of Chicago. The program grew from discussions between John Collier, who was the United States commissioner of Indian affairs; Willard W. Beatty, Collier's director of education; and Havighurst and William Lloyd Warner, both of the university's committee on human development. Since he had become commissioner, Collier had shown
strong interest in using anthropological knowledge for modifying the administration of Indian affairs. The Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Research offered a large-scale opportunity to study the effects of policies begun in 1929 and intensified during the New Deal. The policies attempted to promote the modern development of Indian societies from an Indian base. Collier believed the studies would allow policies to help Indian societies cope with the modern world.
The project was created under provisions of a law of June 4, 1936 (49 Stat. 1458) authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to make contracts for research to promote Indian welfare of Indians. Under the contract, the Committee on Human Development was to plan and direct research through the Committee on Indian Education. Its membership was Havighurst, Warner, and Ralph Tyler. Carrying out the plans was the responsibility of a coordinator working through field researchers. Chosen for the post was Laura Thompson, an anthropologist who had worked for the Navy in its administration of Guam. Appointments, approval of plans, finance, and other means of carrying out the research were in Collier's hands of Collier. The records suggest an active role by the commissioner, including the choice of the tribes studied. Collier himself worked through a committee of Bureau of Indian Affairs employees composed of himself, Beatty, René d'Harnoncourt, and Joseph McCaskill. Joint meetings of the commissioner's committee and the committee at the University of Chicago worked on problems of common concern.
There were two phases of the project. The first, called both Indian Personality Research and Indian Education Research, involved field work, analysis, interpretation, preparing tribal monographs, and other publications. Doing the work were teams of professional researchers, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, and anthropologists. They adapted and administered a battery of psychological tests and trained and supervised personnel, including teachers and Bureau of Indian Affairs employees, who were also involved in giving tests. To support and supplement test findings, professional members of the project and BIA employees interviewed and observed in the home, school, and community. There were also medical examinations.
A pilot project took place among the Papago Indians with Laura Thompson in charge and Ruth Underhill, of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, as a major field workers. Two important decisions came out of this study. First, although cradle-to-grave coverage was considered, for practical purposes it was decided to concentrate on school-age children. Second, a Freudian approach had also been considered, but it gave way to broadly based research that included historical depth.
Eventually, the study included the Dakota of Pine Ridge, Zuni, Sia, Hopi, and Navaho. The Sia project ended at the request of the community, and the Zuni research was incomplete at the project's termination. Approximately one thousand children served as test subjects, and over one hundred fifty persons were involved as researchers.
Field workers trained at a seminar in Santa Fe during May and June 1942. Most field investigations took place in 1942 and early 1943. Personnel at the University of Chicago analyzed and interpreted the data in 1943 and 1944. Throughout, publications were planned.
The second phase of the project, called Indian Administration Research, concerned the application of previous discoveries to the administration of Indian affairs. Before the second phase, the University of Chicago withdrew because its personnel questioned whether an academic institution should become involved directly in government problems. The Department of Interior then made a contract with the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) to take the university's place. A joint committee of BIA personnel and SfAA representatives was formed to direct the new work under the cochairmanship of Collier and SfAA president John Provinse. Provinse, who later became a BIA employee, was replaced by Conrad Arensberg. Laura Thompson continued as coordinator but moved her office from Chicago to Washington.
The Indian Administration Research was also concerned with the preparation of publications left incomplete during the personality phase. Research was required as follow up to the findings of first phase, but only the work among the Hopi progressed very far.
In 1945, the project suffered Collier's departure when he resigned as commissioner of Indian affairs. Collier's superior and supporter, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, resigned the following year. After these losses and with growing criticism from government officials and project anthropologists, the project was officially terminated in 1947. However, publications by the professional staff continued over the next several years. This included the issuance of Thompson's final report in 1951.
Havighurst, a trained chemist who became an educational psychologist, was a professor of education and human development at the University of Chicago. At the time Collier conceived the Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Research, Havighurst was secretary of the university's permanent Committee on Human Development. He was de facto leader of the subcommittee on education that directed the initial phase of the research. Besides general guidance, Havighurst was actively engaged as a project researcher. He adapted the Piaget guided interview techniques, participated in the Santa Fe training session, and guided the processing and analyses of the Arthur Point Performance Scale, Goodenough Draw-a-Man, Piaget Immanent Justice, Bavelas Moral Ideology, and Stewart Emotional Response tests.
Havighurst has described the material as being that left by the committee. Nevertheless, the test materials are those in which Havighurst had a special interest, and the correspondence is his. Several researchers have noted that the original protocols for the tests are missing.
The papers include small amounts of correspondence of Grace Arthur, Ruth F. Benedict, Clara Gonzales, Lester Janke, Dorothea C. Leighton, and Laura Thompson.
QUANTITY: ca. 4 linear meters (ca. 13 linear feet)
ARRANGEMENT: (1) Case files, 1942-1943; (2) Arthur Point Performance Test records, 1943-1944; (3) Stewart's Emotional Response Test analysis, ca. 1943; (4) "Drawing test administered 1947 by Borchardt," 1947; (5) free drawings, 1942-1943; (6) administrative material, 1941-1943; (7) printed and processed material, 1939-1954
FINDING AID: Register; selected artwork (free drawings) is included in a computer-produced finding aid.
RESTRICTIONS: Consult the archives for restrictions.
The history of the collection is not known. Some images are by J.J. Williams; others are by J.A. Gonsalves. Included are women in muumuus and leis, the preparation of poi, the disbanding the royal household guard, a military band, and a feast beside grass house.
DATES: Probably 1880s-1890s
QUANTITY: 6 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 76-24
The collection consists of thirty-five-millimeter negatives. Included are photographs used in Hegemann's Navaho Trading Days, 1963. A list of captions is present, and it indicates that the collection also includes tourist-type images. Hegemann made most among the Navaho and Hopi, though some are of Havasupai subjects. There are many scenic views, especially of the Grand Canyon. Some images are portraits. Others present views of villages, agriculture, crafts, and trading posts. Yet others present ceremonials, including a Navaho Squaw Dance and Hopi Niman Kachina ceremonies. Charles F. Lummis, Earl H. Morris, and John Wetherill are among the non-Indian subjects.
The Huntington Library, San Marino, California, received the original negatives.
DATE: ca. 1924-1934
QUANTITY: 440 negatives
FINDING AIDS: List of captions prepared by E.C. Hegemann
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 81A
The print is an informal full-length portrait.
QUANTITY: 1 print
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 77-59
Robert F. Heizer was an anthropologist best known for his archeological work in California and Nevada and ethnographic work in California. A University of California Ph.D. (1941), he was on the Berkeley staff from 1946 to 1976, when he gained emeritus status. For many years he headed the Archeological Survey in California.
In 1955, Heizer extended his work into Mexican archeology with an expedition to La Venta with Philip Drucker, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Robert J. Squiers. The National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian, and the University of California sponsored the expedition. Its purpose was to follow up with large-scale excavations the preliminary work of Matthew W. Stirling of 1941 and Stirling and Waldo R. Wedel's work of 1943. Controversies concerning chronology took Heizer back to La Venta between 1967 and 1969. His interest in Middle American archeology continued until his death.
In 1957, Heizer began work at a site just west of the great pyramid at Cuicuilco. Involved was an investigation of a group of mounds threatened by lava quarrying. The site proved to be one of long occupation, back to around 2000 B.C. With James A. Bennyhoff, Heizer worked at the site in 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1962.
Virtually the entire collection of Heizer's papers in the National Anthropological Archives concerns the work at La Venta, the material relating to Cuicuilco representing a small miscellany. There are a few additional materials that concern Heizer's other activities, particularly in Middle America. Included are documents of an administrative nature concerning arrangements, management, and publications. There are also materials that came directly from the field work and studies of museum specimens. Also present are materials that concern controversies over Olmec chronology.
Heizer also collected notes, notebooks, photographs, cartographic material, and manuscripts from some of his colleagues and assistants on the La Venta expeditions. Included among these are materials of C. William Clewlow, Eduardo Contreras, Philip Drucker, and P.F. Healy. There are manuscripts of writings and reprints of publications from some of these and from students of Heizer. The photographic collections, considerable amounts of which are unidentified, include field negatives and prints of LaVenta, many other Olmec sites, and other archeological sites in Mexico and Middle America. There are also photographs collected from other archeologists, including Stirling.
Papers relating to other aspects of Heizer's career are at the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondents include James A. Bennyhoff, Ignacio Bernal, Geoffrey Bushnell, Leonard Carmichael, Michael D. Coe, William R. Coe, Carmen C. de Leonard, Philip Drucker, Clifford Evans, George Kubler, Melvin M. Payne, Froelich G. Rainey, Anna O. Shepard, Robert J. Squier, Matthew W. Stirling, Robert Stuckenrath, Howel Williams, and Robert Wuchopi.
DATES: ca. 1943-1978 (most 1955-1970)
QUANTITY: ca. 5.7 linear meters (ca. 18.75 linear feet)
ARRANGEMENT: Material mainly concerning work at La Venta, including (1) correspondence, 1954-1973; (2) notebooks, 1955-1968; (3) subject file, ca. 1954-1970; (4) writings, 1956-1974; (5) printed and processed material, ca. 1950s-1970s; (6) miscellany, 1955-1978; (7) maps and other cartographic material, 1955-1968; (8) drawings, n.d.; (9) photograph albums with negatives, n.d.; (10) photographs arranged by site, 1955-1969; (11) photographs of expeditions, 1955, 1967-1969; (12) miscellaneous photographs, n.d.; (13) slides, 1943-1971; (14) illustrations for Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 170, ca. 1957; material concerning work at Cuicuilco, including (15) miscellany (correspondence, notes, printed material, and photographs), 1957-1965
FINDING AID: Draft inventory
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