Guide to the Collections of the National Anthropological Archives (#B3)
The collection includes original wet- and dry-plate negatives and some copy negatives. All are numbered and cataloged. Most relate to American Indians. Many are studio portraits.
The beginning of the collection is obscure, but it primarily involved three men. Ferdinand V. Hayden, of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, may have priority in the idea of collecting Indian images to make them available to scholars. William Blackmore, an English financier, philanthropist, and founder of the Blackmore Museum in Salisbury, came to share Hayden's interest. He did this either independently or through associations formed on American business trips during the Civil War. In either case, Blackmore became a supporter and furnished much of the money to start the collection. He himself was interested in photographic prints for publication and to add to his museum. In a minor role, A. Zeno Shindler, an artist who briefly owned a Washington photographic studio, was associated with Blackmore and initially held the collection. Shindler apparently acquired earlier studio photographs of Indians who visited Washington, and Blackmore allowed him to copy prints that he had collected from around the United States. Shindler made some negatives that became part of this collection, and Blackmore arranged for making many other negatives, especially of Indians visiting Washington and New York.
In the early 1870s, the collection passed into the custody of the Hayden Survey. With some justification, the early collection has been called the Blackmore Collection. Regarding it, Hayden deferred to Blackmore at first, perhaps because of Blackmore's interest in producing a publication from the negatives. Nevertheless, in time, the collection came to include Indian photographs by William Henry Jackson, Hayden's field photographer on geological expeditions. Hayden also arranged for photographs of Indians in studios in Washington. When the Hayden Survey ended in 1879, the collection passed to John Wesley Powell's Bureau of Ethnology (later Bureau of American Ethnology), a Smithsonian unit that continued the geological surveys' anthropological work. The BAE and United States Geological Survey cooperated closely during their early years so that, for a time, the USGS photography branch handled the Indian photographic collection. By 1900, however, the BAE appears to have taken possession.
The Bureau of American Ethnology, sometimes aided by other Smithsonian photographers, continued the work of taking photographs of Indians who came to Washington. In addition, its staff, collaborators, and contributors made many anthropological field photographs. Many were added to the series. In addition, the BAE acquired photographic negatives from various sources, including, for example, those made at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha, photographs of artwork in repositories outside Washington, and copies of photographic prints.
Tribes represented are the Acoma, Ahtena, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboin, Bannock, Bellacoola, Blackfoot, Caddo, Cahuilla, Carrizo, Catawba, Cathlemet, Cayuga, Cayuse, Chemehuevi, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickahominy, Chickasaw, Chinook, Chippewa, Choctaw, Cochiti, Cocopa, Colville, Comanche, Cree, Creek, Croatan, Crow, Dakota, Delaware, Eskimo, Flathead, Fox, Gros Ventre, Haida, Hano, Hidatsa, Hopi, Hupa, Huron, Iowa, Iroquois, Isleta, Jemez, Kalispel, Kansa, Karok, Kichai, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, Klamath, Kwakiutl, Laguna, Lamut, Luiseño, Maidu, Mandan, Maricopa, Mattapony, Menominee, Miami, Micmac, Mission, Missouri, Modoc, Mohave, Mohawk, Mohegan, Nambe, Nansemond, Narragansett, Natchez, Nauset, Navaho, Nez Perce, Omaha, Oneida, Onondaga, Osage, Oto, Ottawa, Paiute, Paloos, Pamunkey, Papago, Passamaquoddy, Pawnee, Peoria, Picuris, Pima, Pojoaque, Pomo, Ponca, Poosepatuck, Potawatomi, Powatan, Quapaw, Quinaielt, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, San Juan Capistrano (Juaneño), Sandia, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Sauk, Seminole, Seneca, Seri, Shawnee, Shoshoni, Sia, Sinkiuse, Skitswish, Solkulk, Spokan, Squaxon, Stockbridge, Taos, Tesuque, Timucua, Tlingit, Tonkawa, Tule, Tunica, Tuscarora, Umatilla, Umpqua, Ute, Waco, Wallawalla, Warm Springs, Wasco, Wenatchi, Wichita, Winnebago, Wishram, Yakima, Yana, Yavapai, Yokuts, Yuchi, Yuma, and Zuni.
Photographers whose images are present--many as copy negatives only--are Baker and Johnson, David F. Barry, Charles M. Bell, Bell and Brother, Jesse H. Bratley, David Ives Bushnell, Jr., C.W. Carter, H.T. Cory, Jeremiah Curtin, Frances Densmore, William Dinwiddie, James O. Dorsey, Thomas M. Easterly, J. Walter Fewkes, Alice C. Fletcher, Alexander Gardner, E. Jane Gay, Robert C. Gebhardt, De Lancey W. Gill, Grabill, Jeremiah Gurney, Francis Harper, John P. Harrington, Henry W. Henshaw, John K. Hillers, William Henry Holmes, Ale Hrdlicka, Hudson's Gallery, Hutchins and Lanney, Walter J. Lubken, William Henry Jackson, Albert E. Jenks, Lane Brothers, William Libbey, Sumner W. Matteson, Washington Matthews, A.J. McDonald, O.E. Meddaugh, H.C. Meredith, Cosmos and Victor Mindeleff, James Mooney, Lee Moorhouse, E.C. Neilson, Albert P. Niblack, Jesse L. Nusbaum, A.J. Olmstead, A. Frank Randall, J.J. Reilly, Frank A. Rinehart, Wells M. Sawyer, A. Zeno Shindler, Thomas W. Smillie, Frank G. Speck, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, John R. Swanton, Albert E. Sweeney (Gill's assistant), Richard Throssel, Lucien M. Turner, Henry and/or Julius Ulke, Julian Vannerson (with Samuel A. Cohner), A. Clark Vroman, Orloff R. Westmann, R.N. Wilson, Joel E. Whitney, and Ben Wittick.
DATES: Most 1850s-1930s
QUANTITY: ca. 7,000 negatives
FINDING AIDS: A card catalog and a file of reference prints include the entire collection; descriptions in SIRIS. See also the early catalogs by Antonio Zeno Shindler, Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1869, and William Henry Jackson, Descriptive Catalogue of the Photographs of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories for the Years 1869 to 1873, United States Geological Survey of the Territories, Miscellaneous Publications, No. 5, Washington, D.C., 1874, and Jackson, Descriptive Catalogue of the Photographs of the North American Indian, United States Geological Survey of the Territories, Miscellaneous Publications, No. 9, Washington, D.C., 1877. For albums of prints made from selected items, see appendix G, number 4420. Negative numbers for images used in Bureau of American Ethnology publications have generally been noted in the archives' set.
RESTRICTION: Researchers with special needs may make arrangements to examine the negatives.
The material consists of ink, pencil, and watercolor drawings; photographs; and proofs. It is a miscellany of original art work for Bureau of American Ethnology publications. Included are illustrations for James Mooney's "The Ghost-dance Religion, and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890," Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1891, that show the aftermath of the Battle of Wounded Knee. There is related material in the BAE-USNM Illustrations collection and in the main collection of Bureau of American Ethnology-Smithsonian Institution Illustrations.
DATE: No date
QUANTITY: 135 items
ARRANGEMENT: By publication
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 78-51
The prints were made from the Glass Negative Collection.
DATES: Probably 1895-1930
QUANTITY: ca. 2600 prints
ARRANGEMENT: Partially arranged by negative number
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 85
The albums include photographic prints, mostly platinum, prepared in the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) from its collection of negatives. These are probably selected photographs maintained for reference purposes. Included are negative numbers formerly used by the BAE, but the National Anthropological Archives has annotated them with current negative numbers.
Many were made in a studio setting at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition in Omaha in 1898. Other photographs are of Indian visitors to Washington, D.C. There are also other studio photographs, photographs made during Victor Mindeleff's work in Chaco Canyon, and photographs made on WJ McGee's 1900 expedition to Sonora.
Tribes include Apache, Arapaho, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cocopa, Dakota, Flathead, Fox, Iowa, Kalispel, Kiowa Apache, Nez Perce, Omaha, Osage, Ponca, Santa Clara, Sauk, Shoshoni, Spokan, Tonkawa, Wichita, and Winnebago.
Photographers include Charles M. Bell, William Dinwiddie, Alexander Gardner, De Lancey W. Gill, John K. Hillers, William Henry Jackson, Frank A. Rinehart, Wells M. Sawyer, A. Zeno Shindler, and Julian Vannerson with Samuel A. Cohner.
DATES: 1858-1905 (dates of original photographs)
QUANTITY: ca. 926 prints
ARRANGEMENT: Album titles are: (1) Omaha and Winnebago; (2) miscellaneous; (3) Sauk and Fox; (4) miscellaneous; (5) Arapaho and Cheyenne; (6) Chiricahua, San Carlos, and Apache; (7) Sauk and Fox; (8) Osage, Shoshoni and Nez Perce, Siouan, Oto; (9) Santa Clara and Flathead; (10) Ponca; (11) Sauk and Tonkawa; (12) Wichita and Kiowa Apache; (13) Cocopa; and (14) Assiniboin and Blackfoot
FINDING AID: Draft list (Some attributions to photographers are in error.)
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 60
The collection is made up of original art work prepared for new printings of James Mooney's Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians and John Reed Swanton's Indians of the Southeastern United States in Classics of Smithsonian Anthropology series.
DATES: No date
QUANTITY: ca. 50 items
ARRANGEMENT: By publication
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-6
The collection consists mostly of glass negatives, but there are some film negatives and a few prints. Apparently the Bureau of American Ethnology formed the collection to control certain photographs not considered suitable for individual cataloging. It includes many photographs of anthropological specimens and archeological subjects taken in the field by Bureau of American Ethnology staff. Many appeared in publications; some are copies from publications. In addition, some donated photographs were added to this collection.
Some photographers or collectors are J.R. Allsopp, René Bache, Edwin Baer, David Ives Bushnell, Jr., Orator F. Cook, J.K. Corson, Frank H. Cushing, William Dinwiddie, William B. Douglass, George T. Emmons, J. Walter Fewkes, Alice C. Fletcher, Gerard Fowke, Thomas Gann, De Lancey W. Gill, John P. Harrington, John Bell Hatcher, Mrs. H.H. Henderson, Henry W. Henshaw, Edgar L. Hewett, J.N.B. Hewitt, John K. Hillers, William Henry Holmes, Walter Hough, William Henry Jackson, Jean A. Jeançon, George Kuntz, Otis T. Mason, Alfred P. Maudslay, WJ McGee, Edgar A. Mearns, Cosmos and Victor Mindeleff, J.W. Mitchell, James Mooney, Clarence B. Moore, Sylvanus G. Morley, Earl H. Morris, Jesse L. Nusbaum, Henri F. Pittier, E.H. Pound, Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., Walter E. Roth, Frank Russell, Wells M. Sawyer, Matthew W. Stirling, William Duncan Strong, John R. Swanton, Montague Tallant, V.W. Taylor, Cyrus Thomas, H.G. Trotter, Max Uhle, H.S. Vaughn, J. Verrill, A. Clark Vroman, S.T. Walker, and Henry C. Yarrow.
DATES: ca. 1870s-1930s
QUANTITY: ca. 10,000 items
ARRANGEMENT: By geographic area or and thereunder by subject (see appendix F for the classification scheme)
FINDING AID: List. Certain items are also described in the catalog to negatives; for some, reference prints are available.
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 14
The collection includes many original drawings, paintings, charts, maps, and photographs prepared for Bureau of American Ethnology publications. Some materials were prepared for use in other Smithsonian anthropological publications. There are also proofs of illustrations.
Included are art work, preliminary sketches or finished illustrations, by Richard Norris Brooke, May S. Clark, Mary Wright Gill, William Henry Holmes, Clay MacCauley, Harold MacDonald, Victor Mindeleff, H. Hobart Nichols, Jr., Wells M. Sawyer, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and Alice E. Willoughby. There are also photographs by or used by Frances Densmore (Pueblo), Philip Drucker (Nootkan and Mexican archeology), William N. Fenton (Seneca), Thomas Gann (Corozal District of British Honduras), John P. Gillin (Quichua), Robert F. Heizer (Indian poisons), Sister M. Inez Hilger (Arapaho), Ale Hrdlicka, Karen D. Petersen (Chippewa), Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr. (Whitewater District of Arizona), Demitri B. Shimkin (Shoshoni), Robert F. Spencer (Eskimo), Morris Steggerda (Yucatan), Matthew W. Stirling, William S. Webb (Norris Basin), and Clarence W. Weiant (Tres Zapotes).
There is also illustrative art work in the Division of Ethnology manuscript and pamphlet file, the series of Numbered Manuscripts, the records of the River Basin Surveys, Photo Lot 12A, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 30, Photo Lot 66E, Photo Lots 82 and 83, Photo Lot 97, Photo Lot 133, and Photo Lot 78-51. There are also illustrations in the papers and photographic collections of several individuals.
DATES: ca. 1880s-1960s
QUANTITY: 2898 items
ARRANGEMENT: By publication
FINDING AIDS: Descriptions of drawings in SIRIS.
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-6.
The material includes artwork for several research projects and publications: John G. Bourke, "The Medicine Men of the Apache," Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1892; Stewart Culin, "Games of North American Indians," Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1902-1903, and "Mancala: The National Game of Africa," United States National Museum Bulletin 139, 1926; J. Walter Fewkes, "The Tusayan Flute and Snake Ceremonies," Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1896, and "Two Summers' Work in Pueblo Ruins," Twenty-second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1904; W.J. Hoffman, "The Menominee Indians," Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1896; Walter Hough's research on heating, lighting, fire, and pit dwellings; Otis T. Mason, "Aboriginal American Basketry," Annual Report of the United States National Museum, 1902, and his research on transportation, cradles, skin dressing, and weapons; WJ McGee, "The Seri Indians," Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1898; James Mooney, "The Ghost Dance Religion," Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part 2, 1896; Edward W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Straits," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1899; Thomas Wilson's study of prehistoric architecture. Unidentified are illustrations of Near Eastern costumes and Moslem prayer positions and sketches of Mexican funerary vessels (perhaps by Walter Hough).
The material includes artwork by Mary Beth Chapman, Mary Wright Gill, Mary M. Hildebrant, Spencer Baird Nichols, and A. Zeno Shindler. There is also a drawing, signed J.T.G., of a memorial to the daughter of Chief Spotted Tail.
Similar material is in the Division of Ethnology manuscript and pamphlet file, the numbered manuscripts, Bureau of American Ethnology Smithsonian Institution Illustrations, Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Photographs of Indians, and several series of individuals' papers and photographs.
QUANTITY: ca. 2000 items
ARRANGEMENT: The identified material is arranged by publication; the unidentified material is arranged by subject
FINDING AID: List
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 133
The collection, also called the "Source Print Collection," consists mostly of original and copy prints. There are also negatives, art work, photographs of art work, and printed materials. Many different types of prints and formats are included. However, most cased photographs have been transferred to the National Museum of American History Division of Photographic History.
Included is a large miscellany of ethnological, historical, and some archeological subjects collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology from a variety of subjects. To these have been added photographs and other illustrative material acquired and sometimes accessioned by the Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum/National Museum of Natural History. There are also prints of photographs from the Bureau of American Ethnology Collection of Glass Negatives of Indians and the Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File. Although the material relates mostly to North America, some images relate to historical events and to areas outside North America.
The relationship between this collection and the Numbered Manuscripts, Records and Papers is close, for the catalog to the numbered manuscripts include descriptions of many older photographic accessions. In this guide, however, the photographs are treated as a separate set of materials because of the interfiling of much uncataloged material.
QUANTITY: ca. 21,634 items
ARRANGEMENT: The arrangement is complicated: (1) America north of Mexico, divided by geographic region and tribe based on George P. Murdock and Timothy J. O'Leary's scheme in Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, 1975. The material is further subdivided by organization (Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, National Anthropological Archives), and thereunder into catalog unit or comparable categories generally based on provenance; (2) miscellany, historical, and unidentified; (3) archeology, arranged by geographic area; (4) Latin America; (5) material identified by National Anthropological Archives catalog numbers but not lending itself to classification by tribe or subject. Please refer to the outline classification scheme of the collection.
FINDING AID: Item descriptions in SIRIS. In addition, much material is described in the main body or special parts of the National Anthropological Archives card catalog to photographs. Collection-level descriptions of the Bureau of American Ethnology photographs are in the card catalog to manuscripts. The last named provide the only source of descriptions and provenance of the many small collections in this photographic lot. Many of those small collections, however, remain undescribed. There are reference prints of some photographs.
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 24
Amos Burg made the photographs for the National Geographic Society (NGS) in 1934. During World Ward II, the Ethnogeographic Board, a World War II agency housed at the Smithsonian, contacted Burg about the pictures, and he got the NGS to release negatives and prints to the Board. In turn, the board furnished copies to the United States Army and Navy. The Office of Naval Intelligence made the prints and photographs in this collection--the large prints with ONI negative number and caption from Burg's prints and the small ones from Burg's negatives. The whereabouts of the negatives has not been determined. The lot was found among Henry B. Collins' papers.
The photographs are mainly coastal scenes made between Buenas Aires, Argentina, and Chiloe Island, Chile. Most show scenes around the Straits of Magellan. They include views of ships, shipping facilities, ocean shores, industries, and towns and cities (Castro, Puerto Montt, Puerta Harriss, Ushuaia, Puerto Navarin, Punta Arenas, Port Luz). There are also a few views that include Yahgan, their canoes, and their dwellings.
QUANTITY: 269 prints
ARRANGEMENT: Divided into large and small prints and thereunder in numerical order
FINDING AID: List for the small prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 88-36
Lieutenant Colonel W. Innes was corps commander. The photographer was P. Kilien, of Rangoon.
QUANTITY: 1 print
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 131
The prints show a marionette troupe in performance and Shan market scenes.
DATE: No date
QUANTITY: 18 prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 82-63
Burnett was a Rosebud Sioux. The album appears mainly to relate to three periods. A few photographs dated around 1910-1912 and show members of Burnette's family, some in western scenes. Other photographs show Burnette and friends while he was in high school and then in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II. Many later photographs seem to date between 1961 and 1964, when Burnette was Executive Secretary of the National Congress of American Indians. Some photographs show Burnette and other Indians with John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, George McGovern, and Stewart L. Udall.
DATES: ca. 1910s-1960s
QUANTITY: ca. 149 copy photographs
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 92-45
The lot consists of mosaics that show two specimens from the Museo Nazionale d'Antropologia ed Etnologia del R. Instituto di Studi Superiori of Florence, Italy, and a specimen from the Kircheriano Museum in Rome. The objects were described by Bushnell in the American Anthropologist, volume 8 (1906), pages 218-221. Extracts from the articles, mostly concerning measurements, are on the reverse of the mounts. The photographs are United States National Museum accession 55,031, catalog 276,357-276,359.
QUANTITY: 3 mosaics from several prints
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 80-35
In 1901-1904, Bushnell was an assistant in archeology at the Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. In 1907-1922, he became a Bureau of American Ethnology collaborator and editor. Primarily an Americanist, he carried out ethnological and archeological research in the United States and was a student and collector of art by or about American Indians. This lot, however, relates to a trip he made to Europe in 1904-1907. There he carried out research in museums and, to an extent, became involved in European archeology. The prints came from visits to the Etruscan sites of Sovana and Castellina del Chianti. They include artifacts, a columbarium, and a temple ruin. There are also views of Sovana, its individual structures, and the surrounding countryside.
The photographs entered the archives as part of a larger collection. Most concerned Bushnell's work as an Americanist and included copies of Bushnell's art collection. Bushnell donated the original art work to the Peabody Museum at Harvard. With copy negatives, the BAE cataloged them with numbers beginning 1860-zz-18. This lot appears to have remained uncataloged.
DATE: Some March-May 1905
QUANTITY: 25 prints
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 141B
As a boy, Byam lived on his parents' Chiapas rubber plantation. Later, he managed the Chacamax Land Company, which had large holdings in Chiapas. The property was lost during the Mexican socialist revolution, and Byam became a critic of revolutionary Mexico, especially berating its anticlerical motives.
Most material concerns efforts to cultivate rubber in Chiapas. Included are promotional pamphlets from several rubber companies and photographs of rubber company employees and facilities. The photographs also include portraits of Mexicans, country views, ruins, a photograph of Lacandons, religious schools, and portraits of Francisco Orozco y Jiménez, Bishop of Chiapas and Archbishop of Guadalajara.
DATES: 1890s, early 1900s
QUANTITY: ca. 88 items
FINDING AID: None
CALL NUMBER: Photo Lot 85-10
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