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MANIOC PROCESSING - Click on photos to enlarge.

Manioc is a staple food throughout the region where the Canela live. The Canela plant manioc in farm plots,
Manioc Plants
Manioc plants in a field.
and then harvest it sometimes as long as three years later.

Women with Manioc
Three generations of women with manioc in baskets. 
Photo by Jean Crocker, 1991
In order to eat bitter manioc it must first be prepared, which begins with peeling.
Peeling Manioc
Photo by Carl Hansen, 1993
Peeled Manioc
Peeled manioc.
It must then be grated, either by hand, or in a grating machine driven by a gasoline generator.
Hand Grating
Peeling and grating manioc on a home-made grater made by punching holes in a piece of metal.

Man with Wheel Generator
Wheel & gear-driven manioc grate
r. 
Photo by Myles Crocker, 1993

New Generator
New gasoline generator.
It is then strained, Straining Manioc
Center man pushing grated manioc through woven strainer into a trough in 1975.
Woman and Strainer
Woman using a larger strainer in 1999.
and then pressed to remove the hydrocyanic acid, commonly known as prussic acid. Traditional Pressing
Pressing out the acid the traditional way with a woven tipiti.
Pressed Manioc
Pressed manioc from the tipiti.
Woman with Modern Press
Woman using the more modern press.
Then it is toasted, which results in a fine, faintly yellowish flour, called farinha. Manioc Roasting
Toasting the manioc flour.
Roasting Manioc
Toasting in 1993. 
Photo by Carl Hansen
Farinha
Farinha.
 
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