Book      Literature
The Eastern Timbira by Curt Nimuendajú
Title Page and Preface
Chapter

Page

Chapter

Page

I. Geographical and Historical Introduction     1 IV. Ceremonialism 163
  Habitat     1   Opening and close of ceremonial season

163

  Conquest and white settlement     2   Opening and close of meipimra'k season 168
  Classification of Timbira tribes:       The initiation festivals 170
       Timbira and Gę-Cran     6        Introduction 170
  Tribal names in Timbira speech   12        Ketúaye 171
  Historical survey of the several           Pepyé 179
       Timbira tribes   13   The Mummers' festival 201
         1. The Timbira of Araparytíua   13   Pepkaha'k 212
     2–3. The Kreyé of Bacabal;      Tepyarkwá 225
                  the Kukóekamekra   14 V. Religion and Magic 231
        4. The Kreyé of Cajuapára   15   Earlier sources 231
        5. The Krikatí   16   Celestial bodies 231
        6. The Pukóbye   18   Animism 234
        7. The Western Gaviőes   19   Magic 235
        8. The Kre'pu'mkateye   22   Snake shamans 238
        9. The Krahő'   22   Sorcery 239
      10. The Pőrekamekra   27   Missions 240
  11-13. The Canella   28 VI. Myths and Tales 243
      14. The Ca'kamekra   33   Fire 243
      15. Extinct tribes   35   Sun and Moon 243
II. Ecology   37   Kacetikwe'i and Tukti 245
  Settlements and houses   37   Auke' 245
  Dress and adornment   45   Yawe' 246
  Hygiene   56   Haha'k and the King Vulture 247
  Farming   57   The Underworld 247
  Hunting   64   Tecware (Sharpened-leg) 248
  Fishing   71   Kupetíayapré 248
  Gathering   72   Lagőa Formosa 249
  Domestic animals   75      
III. Social Life   77   Bibliography  
  Social units   77   Glossary  
  Names   77   Plates  
  Exogamous moeties   79   Figures  
  The individual and      Maps  
       the extended family   83   Index  
  Rainy season moieties   84      
  Plaza groups and moieties   87   Note: HTML cannot furnish:
  Age classes and age moieties   90     1. reverse cedillas under vowels,
  The men's societies   95     2. tildes over the "e" or "i",
  The hamrén   97     3. the macron (lengthening line over a vowel),
  Formalized friendship bonds 100     4. hacek (caron) over a "c".
    1. The hapín-pincwe'i bond 100    
    2. Kwu'nô 104    
  Kinship terms 104    
  The life cycle 105    
       Pregnancy 105      
       Delivery 106      
       The newborn infant 106      
       End of seclusion 107      
       Infancy 108      
       Names 109      
       Orphans; treatment of children 111      
       Play 111      
       The boys' class 112      
       Growing girls 113      
       Social relations of the sexes 113      
       Daily Dances 114      
       Engagement 118      
       Jealousy 119      
       Sex ideal 119      
       Prerequisites to marriage 119      
       Defloration and menstruation 120      
       Weddings 122      
       Prohibited unions 124      
       Sororate and levirate 124      
       Matrilocal residence; in-laws 125      
       Mourning 126      
       Division of labor 128      
       Divorce 128      
       Chastity 129      
       Wantons 130      
       Desire for children 131      
       Old age 132      
       Burial 133      
  Amusements 136      
  War and peace 149      
  Law 156      

Plates

  1. Kraho' village; Ponto dwelling; race track
  2. Sink; bathing scene
  3. Girl in cord girdle and leaf apron; and in loincloth; man ceremonially decorated
  4. Men with earplugs
  5. Manioc plantation; woman carrying maize and manioc; fire drilling
  6. Manufacture of decoration with aid of cipó loop; and within a frame
  7. Round hut; girl mourner; same with falcon-down dress
  8. Burity mats and clubs
  9. Forehead bands
  10. Forehead bands; cord girdle
  11. Sashes; wristlets
  12. Fire fans and basketry
  13. Earplugs; wristlets
  14. Painting outfit
  15. Bows; bowstave
  16. Arrows and feathering
  17. Snare for dwarf parrots; scoop net
  18. Spindles and yarn; trough baskets
  19. Coiled basketry
  20. Rod combs and pigment bowl; head ornament; strainer
  21. Otshukayana dance scene
  22. Children in arms
  23. Wax figures and toys
  24. Toys
  25. Precentor and dancing girls
  26. Cemetery; grave
  27. Trumpets
  28. Man with decoration; girl as virgin and, later, childless wife
  29. Painting hamkrán logs; log race at point of turning into boulevard
  30. Parare race of ketúaye
  31. Ceremonial lances
  32. Girl associate; precentor with dance rattle
  33. First commandant; deputy commandant; western and eastern class leaders
  34. Huts of seclusion of pepyé
  35. Occipital ornament; scratching sticks; ceremonial club; miniature parare logs; bull-roarers; stamp for dots; tally stick
  36. Carved club handles of pepyé
  37. Measuring costume owner; painting of masks; girl associates of Mummers' society
  38. Mummers' shed; Mummers' dance around associates
  39. Gesture language of Tokaivéu masquerader
  40. Mothers-in-law leading sons-in-law; clowns, masked at pepkaha'k
  41. Tepyarkwá messenger of Fish societies; tepyarkwá girl associates of Clowns; rear view of costumes
  42. Tepyarkwá festive hut of Fish Otter

Figures Page
  1. Plan of Canella village   38
  2. Fire drill   43
  3. Lobe perforator: wooden pin   50
  4. Sling   60
  5. Digging stick   61
  6. Cord for stringing fish   72
  7. Position of plaza groups and plaza group assembly houses   87
  8. Decorative painted designs of plaza groups   89
  9. Age classes   91
10. Opening of ceremonial period, teams with hamkrán logs 165
11. House of seclusion of ketúaye 173
12. Position of ketúaye for singing in plaza 174
13. Pepyé internment 184
14. Mothers-in-law leading sons-in-law 200
15. Decoration of masquerade costumes 205
16. Mummers' festival; chart showing fire of Agouti society, Jaguars, Mummers 206
 
Maps  
  1. Eastern Timbira facing 2
  2. Distribution of sewed feathering 68
  3. Distribution of log races facing 144

 

About Canela | Daily Life | Rituals | Literature | Artifacts | Smithsonian Research | Festivals | Environment | Photography | Video | Home

Copyright © 2002 Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History